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HARVARD UNIVERSITY. 




LIBKARY 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 






JVa^oaaä)- ^ ^ ^0| 0^ _ л ^)уЬллА<1Л 1^ \^o^ 



SEK X. 1Э09 



leddelelser om Grrønland. 



(rX 



Carlsbergfondets Expedition 



til 



Ost-Grønland, 

udført i Aarene 1898 — 1900 



under Ledelse af 



G. Am drup. 



Anden Del. 



Indhold. 

~ Side 

I. Notes on some specimens of rocks collected by С Kruse on the 
East coast of Greenland between lat. G5° 35' and 67° 22' N. By 
Dr. Otto Nordenskjold 1 

II. Samples of the sea-floor along the coast of East Greenland 74^2— 
70N. L. By 0. B. Begglld. (Hertil Tavle I— IX) 17 

III. The minerals from the Basalt of East-Greenland. By 0. B. Begglld 97 

IV. Contributions to the Anthropology and Nosology of the East-Green- 
landers. By Snud Poulsen 131 

V. On the Geology and Physical Geography of East-Greenland. By 

Otto Nordenskjold. (Hertil Tavle X— XIV og et Kort) 151 

VI. The former Eskimo settlements on the East coast of Greenland 

between Scoresby Sund and the Angmagsalik District. By G. Amdrup 285 
VII. Ethnological description of the Amdrup collection from East- 
Greenland comprising objects found in Eskimo house-ruins and 
graves north of Angmagsalik between 68° and 75° lat. N. By 
W. Thalbltzer. (Hertil Tavle XV-XVl) 329 






Meddelelser om Grønland, 



udgivne af 

Commissioner! for Ledelsen af de geologiske og geographisl^e 
Undersøgelser i Grenland. 



Otte og tyvende Hefte. 

Iste Afdeline-. 



Med 9 Tavler. 



Kjøbenhavn. 



I Commission hos C.A.Reitzel. 

lilnnno t,unos Bntjtrykkcil. 

1904. 



Pris: 2'Kr. 60 Øre. 



LiK 



i^'jï 



I. 

Notes 



on 



some specimens of rocks 

collected by С Kruuse on the East coast of Grreenland 
between lat. 65° 35' and 67° 22' N. 

By 

Dr. Otto Nordeuskjöld. 



Owing to his having started for the South Polar regions, the author 
has had no opportunity of re-reading this translation in its final form, nor 
has he been able to correct any of the proof sheets. 



Our knowledge of the petrographical conditions of the East 
coast of Greenland has hitherto been very scanty. H.Knutsen, 
a member of the Holm Expedition of 1883 — 85, certainly gives 
us some information as to the kinds of rocks which occur at 
and south of Angmagsalik M, but no petrographical investigation 
appears to have been made. 

A. E. Torn eb ohm-), who described some of the material 
collected at Tasiusak (King Oscar's Harbour) during the 
INordenskiöld Expedition of 1883 must therefore be regarded as a 
pioneer in these investigations, and the material he describes is 
of great interest for several reasons. The specimens in question 
include garnet-gneiss, pyroxene-gneiss, hypersthene- 
gabbro, and bronzite-diabase in blocks, besides some — in 
this connection less interesting — proterobase-aphanite 
and flint. According to his short notes, the pyroxene-gneiss 
consists of plagioclase, orthoclase, quartz, biotite, 
hypersthene, «omphacite», and exceptionally of horn- 
blende and garnet. The gabbro consists chiefly of plagio- 
clase, besides pyroxene and biotite and some dial lage and 
quartz. The bulk of the broncite- diabase is composed of 
plagioclase and broncite besides magnetite and some 
bio tile and apatite. 



^^ Meddelelser om Grønland IX, p. 237 and following pp. 
*i Geolog. Foren, i Stockholms F«)rh. VIII (1886), p. 43î>. 

I* 



The above-mentioned kinds of rocks are of great interest 
on account of the rhombic pyroxene found in them, as the 
presence of this mineral often indicates the probability of the 
occurrence of rocks containing still more rarely associated 
ingredients. The moment was thus eagerly awaited when a 
more considerable material could be procured from this locality, 
in order to ascertain how widely distributed these peculiar kinds 
of rocks were in the district in question. 

Only once since has a specimen of rock from the above- 
mentioned district been examined, viz. a brown gneiss from 
Angmagsalik brought by E. Bay in 1892 and very briefly 
described by him M as consisting of felspar, quartz, broncite 
and biotite. Here again there is the same peculiarity, but 
thai is easily explained by the fact that the specimen is from 
the very same locality as those collected during Norden- 
ski ö Id's visit. 

Under these circumstances I was very much interested in 
getting the material collected by Mr. Kruuse for examination. 
It is not considerable, but it contains specimens from a great 
many localities about Angmagsalik, and also numerous small 
specimens from different stations along the coast between Ang- 
magsalik and lat. 67° 22' N. 

The main result of the examination was, however, negative, 
as none of the specimens which I have had for examination 
exhibited any unusual mineralogicai combination, nor more 
particularly, did I find rhombic pyroxene in any of the speci- 
mens '). The rock in question, consequently, does not seem 
to be widely distributed even in the district of Angmagsalik, 
or at any rate it does not appear to be so common on this 
coast as might be expected, judging from its frequent occur- 
rence in the specimens previously examined. 

') Meddelelser om Grønland, H. 19, p. 176. 

^) With the possible exception of the below-mentioned amphibolite-pikiite 
from «the gravel -pil". 



6 

Another question of great interest is the nature of the 
numerous dykes of basic rocks which traverse the main species 
of rocks of this district. All earlier explorers have mentioned 
them under the name of diabase, and Bay particularly em- 
phasizes the fact that no basaltic dykes have been met with ^). 
Kruuse, on the other hand, in his preliminary account of the 
expedition -) mentions both basalt and diabase in a manner which 
seems to indicate that he is uncertain which of the names is 
the more correct. From what follows it will, however, be seen 
that this is not surprising, as petrology cannot always solve 
this problem, some of the rocks seeming to approximate in 
their characteristics to both the above-mentioned groups. 

1 shall now briefly describe some of the most important 
localities in which these rocks occur. 



The district of Âugmagsalik. 

The greater number of the specimens which I have had 
for examination come from this district. The most complete 
series is from a place called »the grav el- pit» (Grusgraven)^) 
situated at about lat. 66° 5' N. and long. 35° 35' W., some 55 
miles NE. of the trading-station. According to Kruuse it is 
a valley surrounded by lofty gneiss mountains and partly barred 
by a greenstone dyke. Among the specimens collected at this 
place, of which some are loose fragments, which, however, can 
hardly have been brought there from any great distance, the 
following are noteworthy: — a hght-coloured medium-grained 



M Geogiaphisk Tidsskrift Bd. 15, p. 64. 

') I. c. p. 177. Лог did i come across any greenstone dykes in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood of the colony itself, the nearest 1 observed being 
about 16 miles oil". С Kruuse. 

') Properly speaking, this lie.« outside the di.strict of Anginatjsalik, which 
only extends to .Sermiligak, but it is mentioned here in this connection 
as being the northernmosi point whence I was able to brine a fairly rich 
collection. (.;. Kruuse. 



bi otite-gneiss with numerous stripes of red orthoclase ; a 
dark-green amphibolite ; a micaceous gneiss with large «eyes» 
of an impure garnet; a white pegmatitic rock rich in biotite; and 
a garnet-gnei ss where dark and Ught layers alternate; the 
former containing much hornblende, and the latter consisting 
exclusively of garnet and quartz. There also occurs another 
peculiar rock consisting largely of garnet, which is, however, 
completely decayed and coloured by oxide of iron and therefore 
indeterminable as is also the case with several other specimens 
from this locaUty. On the whole it may be said that the rock 
consists of biotite-gneisses very rich in hornblende and garnet, 
the latter sometimes supplanting the other mineral ingredients. 
These rocks when examined microscopically do not exhibit 
any specially peculiar characters. The first-mentioned variety 
consists chiefly of orthoclase besides microcline , quartz and 
biotite. The quartz shows «myrmekitic intergrow^hs» ^) in ortho- 
clase, mostly in the smaller grains, but also here and there at 
the edges of the larger individuals. The rock has distinctly been 
subject to strong pressure, but the quartz hardly shows any 
undulating extinction and its present structure is undoubtedly 
due to re-crystalhzation. 

' The amphiboHtic variety consists chiefly of a compact, 
somewhat bluish-green hornblende , besides some plagioclase 
and garnet. The latter is, as in all the other varieties, isotropic, 
and though it usually contains numerous interpositions of quartz, 
the specimen in question is singularly pure. There occurs, 
moreover, some iron-ore in skeleton-like crystals grown together 
with felspar. 

Another specimen contains besides the above-mentioned 
minerals н great abundance of quartz interposed in garnet, and 
also a very strongly refractive mineral in numerous greyish- 



') Term introduced b> J. J. Seder h ol m , Bull, de la (Uimm. Géologique 
de Im KliilMiide Nr. 6, Helsingfors 189». 



brown elliptic grains, which is probably titanile. Other varieties 
contain biotite as well as hornblende. Apatite and zircon occur 
more particularly as interpositions in biotite. On the other hand, 
compact grains of ore are rarely found in these forms and a 
distinct succession of crystallization between the minerals can 
nowhere be traced. 

Finally, a rather peculiar variety may be mentioned which 
occurs in a single piece and looks as if it had been found 
detached, though it evidently had not been carried very far. It 
consists of idiomorphic crystals of pale, yellowish-green horn- 
blende with a perfect cleavage, lying in a mass that consists 
chiefly of irregular grains of a still paler, green mineral, some- 
times showing imperfect cleavages, sometimes much laminated, 
and in the latter case showing a maximum extinction of about 
18'^ towards the cleavages. The variety in question is doubtless 
an actinolitic amphibole. There occur further irregular grains 
both of colourless, fresh olivine and of a dark-green variety of 
spinel, besides a small quantity of a peculiar pink pyroxene 
which appears to have an oblique extinction, but otherwise 
bears a strong resemblance to the rhombic pyroxene in the 
rock from Angmagsalik. The rock, which may most properly 
be called amphibolite-pikrite, perhaps forms an ultra -basic 
link in the series described by Törnebohm and mentioned 
above, and it also reminds one strongly of the rock met witli 
by N. Hartz at Kobberpynt in the interior of Scoresby Sound, 
and described by Bay and Us sin g M. 

From the district of Angmagsalik — i. e. from a 
more southerly part of it than the above-mentioned (lat. OS'* 
53' N. and long. 36° 5' W.) — there are two specimens, viz. 
from the graphite rocks at the entrance of Ikerasak. The 



•) Meddf^lelsei oni Grenland. H. XIX, p. 1.57. On the rock at »the gravel- 
pit- a malachite-like covering also occurred, but so high up on the 
extremely precipitous face that its characters could not be ascertained 
with an\ rertaint\. С Kruuse. 



.8 

one is a coarse graphite schist^) which when examined 
microscopically was found to contain besides graphite a 
quantity of biotite, quartz, and plagioclase. Approaching 
close to this rock is an eruptive rock (probably a dyke) which 
when examined microscopically proves to belong to the same 
class of eruptive dykes as those reported below from some 
places around Cape Dan. It consists of a basic plagioclase 
in thin, elongated prismatic columns, particularly fresh and un- 
broken and showing a zonal structure; a greyish brown augite 
in the shape of somewhat irregular grains; crystals of magne- 
tite; and a fine, fibrous mass of laminae of a green mineral, 
doubtless chloritic , with a rather strong double refraction. 
Olivine also occurs along the cracks turned into a substance 
resembling or identical with the above-mentioned. 

While, on the one hand, it is obvious that certain true 
diabases, viz. in Sweden, forms of the so-called Ås by type, 
are as well-preserved as the specimens in question, yet, on the 
other hand, it must be acknowledged that they are almost iden- 
tical with the basalts occurring in numerous beds and dykes 
in the interior of Scoresby Sound, among which may be men- 
tioned the intrusive beds of basaU in the Jura sandstone in 
the South-Eastern part of Jameson Land; and on comparing 
these rocks one cannot but conclude that the dykes in the 
district of Angmagsalik are undoubtedly nearly contemporary 
with the immense massive basalts on the more northerly coast. 

A similar rock occurs in the collection from the island 
of Kumarmiut situated more to the south near Ingmikertok 
(lat. 66° 45' N. and long. 36° 56' W.). The plagioclase, augite 
and ore resemble those described above; and here as there 

') The graphite schist lies about NE. — SW. and dips 70° due NW. ; the 
thickness is about 11 cm. The rocks are connected with the south side 
of Ikerasak and consist alternately of crystalline schists and of a light- 
coloured pegmatite gneiss (striped granite). The sides t)f the sound 
show lofty sections of rock.s consisting of the same succes.^ions of layers. 

C. Kruuse. 



the rock has always been poor in ohvine of which only a few 
fresh grains are left, while the rest has been altered into a 
yellowish-brown serpentine substance. No chloritic scales have 
been met with. I have also had an opportunity of examining 
some specimens from Erkiligartek (INE. of Cape Dan). The chief 
species is a very light-coloured biotite gneiss rich in garnet. 
Microscopical examination shows it to consists mainly of ortho- 
clase and quartz, sometimes forming «myrmekitic intergrowths» ; 
the quartz occurs in the form common in gneisses, with un- 
dulating, irregular and idented outlines. The species in question 
does not contain much plagioclase ; the biotite has no inter- 
positions, and the garnet shows nothing remarkable. In this 
rock there is a dyke similar in character to the above-mentioned 
basalts. It is somewhat coarser, the magnetite is not conspi- 
cuous, and I have not come across fresh olivine, but the ser- 
pentic and chloritic elements occur more abundantly. Not- 
withstanding this the rock has retained a comparatively fresh 
appearance, and I may add that several of the true basalts of 
this type from Scoresby Sound are more strongly metamorphosed 
than is the case with this rock. 

I have further had an opportunity of examining some in- 
teresting specimens from the same district, from An a va, one 
of the Cape Dan islands ilat. 65° 38' N. and long. 37° 7' W.). 
To judge from the label there should be in the neighbourhood 
a granitic rock, but of this there are no specimens. Instead 
of this I found a moderately coarse, green amphibolite consisting 
of green hornblende with a centre or centres of a light-coloured 
mineral undoubtedly a pyroxene, both forming regular inter- 
growths with felspar; there are also specimens of quartz and 
garnet, which latter is always found surrounded by the lighter 
coloured minerals. Large individuals of titanic iron also occur. 

This rock contains a vein of a pegmatitic rock, which 
consists of peculiar, and as it seems regular micro-pegmatitic 
intergrowths of singly-refracting garnet and quartz. In the 



10 



same vein are also parts containing crystals of muscovite, an 
inch in length. Both these rocks are worthy of closer investi- 
gation. 

The district nortli of lat. 66^ N. 

The specimens from this district have been collected from 
a few localities only, viz. Cape Wandel; Cape Jørgensen; 
and Ikersuak (Steenstrup's glacier) situated some 18 miles 
further south; the promontory opposite Langø (Ikerasar- 
miut) ; Lilleø, lying in the vicinity of the latter; and furthest 
|o the north, Nualik, lat. 67° 15' N. 

The rocks collected from Cape Wandel consist of a mode- 
rately coarse, grey or reddish, granitic rock, and a greenstone 
which has doubtless traversed the former and which when 
examined microscopically proves to be a basalt of a type exactly 
similar to those described above from Cape Dan. 

Among the specimens collected to the north of this locality, 
not a single typical granite or gneiss occurred, and of rocks 
which are known for certain to be Archæan, only the under- 
mentioned peculiar granulites from Nualik were found. Kruuse, 
however, particularly emphasizes the fact that these species of 
rocks constitute the chief part of the base of the rocks, and 
Lieut. Amdrup also mentions them from the districts lying 
further northward up to 69° latitude. How far this may be 
owing to a confusion with any of the under-mentioned species 
of rocks, or whether their non-appearance is quite accidental 
I cannot say for certain M- 



M I have not met with true massive granites north of Cape Wandel, where 
I found variously coloured (red, white, grey) "granites, traversed by 3 
greenstone dykes. Grxstalline schists occurred as the chief kind of rock 
as far as 1 penetrated, but they were traversed by eruptive dykes so 
numerous and of such great size as to constitute more than one-third 
of the mass of the rock walls. As the expedition had also other objects 
iti view 1 was prevented from bringing any larger collections, and I 



11 



All tlie specimens from Ikersuak M are of greenstone, viz. 
both a collection labelled «Talus», and a light-grey, rather solid, 
eruptive rock, probably a dyke. The latter has a strongly dia- 
base-Hke appearance, and the bands of plagioclase are more 
completely altered than is the case with the basalts of this 
district; this also applies to the augite. Chlorite and epidote, 
on the other hand, occur abundantly-); olivine I have not 
observed, in the former collection there is another eruptive 
rock which seems to be the margin of a dyke similar in type 
to the one just described. It is an augite-porphyrite with por- 
phyritic crystals of a somewhat prismatical plagioclase, and 
augite in a mass so dense that its constituents cannot be dis- 
tinctly separated from each other. Besides these rocks there 
are others of a different appearance, one of them a diabase of 
basalt-like type, but much altered, the augite being converted 
to uralite, and the titanic iron changed to leucoxene, while the 
presence of olivine cannot be identified with any certainty. Of 
more interest is a true amphibolite consisting of dark-green 



consequently chose to gather everywhere small specimens of such rocks 
as appeared to me to be uncommon, and beyond this only to collect 
minerals from the numerous greenstone and pegmatite dykes. In a 
single case only I regret not having been able to collect specimens of 
a remarkable rock, viz. a peculiar conglomerate which occurs along the 
shore from Langø to Cape Christiansen and which formed the base of 
(he islets (SmaaholmeneJ and of several promontories It consisted of 
a black, grained base, with light coloured grains, Ь 30 cm. in diameter, 
disseminated through it. С Kruuse. 

') The locality consists of a mighty wall of rock about 2000 feet in height 
and parallel with the coast; the rock is on the north side of the pro- 
montory between the two southerly glaciers and is traversed by erup- 
tive dykes parallel to the wall, while at its foot in the shelter of a small 
promontory -^ a block standing in the back-ground some 50 feet in 
height ~ has been accumulated an immense talus of large sharp-angled 
blocks which have tumbled down from the rock wall. The work of 
demolition has been very violent, and many of the blocks have been 
broken off recently. C. Kruuse. 

') Ihe wall of rock is. as it were, powdered over with liglit-greeii dusl. 

C. Kruuse. 



12 



compact hornblende, plagioclase, orthoclasè, quartz, some garnet, 
and ore, and titanite. The structure is that of the crystalline 
schists, without any distinct chronological succession between 
the minerals. 

Some few specimens from Cape Jörgensen seem to be 
variations of the above-mentioned rock, viz. an unusually coarse 
crystalline diabase of the Ashy type, consisting of diallagic 
pyroxene, plagioclase, comparatively fresh olivine, brown horn- 
blende and large grains of ore without leucoxene, but surrounded 
by brown mica. 

The rock from Ikerasarmiut^) belongs to the basaltic type, 
but has undergone considerable alteration. I could not as- 
certain for certain whether it contained olivine. 

A specimen of rock from the coast of Storø ^) belongs to 
quite a different type, as it shows contact between a white 
pegmatitic granite, containing elements of quartz and felspar, 
which when occurring on large flats of druses are crystallo- 
graphically well developed, and a dark-green porphyrite, which 
may most properly be regarded as the main rock. The latter 
consists of elongated prismatic crystals of plagioclase lying in 
a mass of irregular-shaped individuals of hornblende and biotite, 
which partly merge into the edges of the crystals of plagioclase ; 
it also contains evenly disseminated grains of iron-ore. Mica 
and hornblende, on the other hand, often occur crowded together 
in compact masses, looking on the exterior of the rock Uke 
homogenous crystals of some kind of basic mineral. The boun- 
dary line between this rock and the granite is not very definite. 



') The promontory opposite Storø lat. 67° 4' N. and long. 33° 20' W. 

=*) Lat. 66° 55' N. and long. 33° 34' W. The northern coast of this island 
consists of porphyrite in the form of a very large dyke, bnt very much 
brolcen down, and well-preserved only where it is covered by pegmatite 
which forms a small promontory. The main part of the island consisted 
of crystalline schists. As far as 1 could judge from a distance, the 
pegmatite occurred in situ on the mainland about 5 miles westward, 
bnt only tor a short distance (dyke), С Kruuse. 



13 



The hitler is composed cliiefly of orthoclase and quartz besides 
some plagiociase. The quartz is mostly micro -pegmatitically 
inlergrown with felspar. 

The last and rather large and interesting collection of rock 
comes from Nualik. Among the specimens collected in this 
locality one approaches very near to those just described. It 
is labelled «vein in the gneiss» and consists of a white pegma- 
tite granite exactly similar in character to those just described, 
only that the micro-pegmatitic structure is still more obvious. 
This rock is traversed by a band of solid greenstone, 2 inches 
wide. The latter is interesting : plagioclase appears to be its 
chief constituent, but otherwise it consists of a decidedly homo- 
genous mass of even-sized grains of felspar, and of almost 
colourless pyroxene, besides some iron-ore and mica. As is 
the case with the specimen from Lilleø, the biotite when ap- 
proaching near to the pegmatite boundary increases both in 
quantity and in the size of the individuals, and a fairly large 
quantity of green hornblende occurs simultaneously. 

Among the specimens collected are several pegmatites of 
the same nature as the one described. One specimen shows 
a large druse with quartz crystals up to an inch in length, 
besides felspar and some calcite. Besides these there occur 
numerous peculiar types of rocks, among which may be men- 
tioned a yellowish limestone, a drusy silica breccia, and two 
stratified specimens of rock of the type of the crystalline schists. 
One of these is a considerably weather-worn light-coloured rock, 
the other resembles a dark schist and, examined microscopically, 
is found to contain a very dense, granulitic mass of felspar 
(orthoclasei, besides distinctly marked plagioclase, small evenly 
distributed grains of ore, and an abundance of a colourless 
monosymmetrical mineral in irregular grains, undoubtedly alight- 
coloured pyroxene. This mass occurs alternately with thin 
lavers consisting of light-irrev rather fibrous hornblende through 



14 



which are dispersed grains of iron- ore, together with some 
biotite. 

That these two last-mentioned detached Ч pieces of rock 
belong to the Archœan rock is very probable, though here too, 
as in a previous instance, the absence of true, coarsely-crystalline 
gneisses and granites is remarkable. 

The other specimens consist of dark, diabase-like rocks. 
One of them comes very near to the basalts described above, 
though it is a good deal altered, and the presence of olivine 
cannot be identified with any certainty. Another belongs to a 
more particular type, as it contains porphyritic crystals of fresh 
pyroxene, upwards of one centimetre in length, of which the 
outermost sides only have partly changed to uralite. They 
occur in a ground-mass, somewhat changed by weathering, rich 
in ore, and also containing a great abundance of calcite, and 
the most remarkable constituent of which is a brown, pleo- 
chroictic hornblende in the shape of long needles (û light-yellow, 
b dark-brown, с dark-brown ; с = b > a). 

The remaining specimens from this district are not of any 
great interest. 



') The two specimens in question were certainly found detached, but 
occurred in the immediate neighbourhood of and belong beyond doubt 
to a series of very precipitous strata of strongly disintegrated schist. 
The ravine formed by the disintegration of the above-mentioned preci- 
pitous strata divided the peninsula of Nualik nearly parallel with the 
large pegmatite dyke. Several such ravines divided the eastern part of 
the tongue of land from the mainland, and at last broke it up into 
several islets and rocks. The limestone and quartz occurred in several 
places, but the specimens of druse and silica were collected from a 
plavground for children in «the dead house». Its late inmates no doubt 
picked them up in the neigiibourhood and brought them home as play- 
things, as is customary among the Ksquimaux. A schist containing 
light-colonred mica and quartz was found in situ on the small islands 
of Apntitik just olf Nualik and the late inmates utilized them as paving- 
stones for Uie lloor in several tents as well as in the deserted house, 
and they also served as roollng material lor the entrance to the house. 

С Kruuse. 



15 



Résumé. 

As a summary of the petrographical conditions of the paris 
of East Greenland with which we have been dealing, the fol- 
lowing points may be noticed: — 

The rocks between Angmagsalik and about lat. 66° 30' N. 
are chiefly composed of gneisses, generally rich in garnet. 
Besides this there are several specimens of pegmatites, and it 
is probable that true granites also occur, but this cannot be 
proved from the material collected. The latter contains, on the 
other hand, some greenstones (collected from dykes) of a nearly 
related type, which from a petrographical point of view resemble 
so closely some basalt dykes in the neighbourhood of Scoresby. 
Sound that they ought doubtless to be classed with them. These 
dykes, however, do not seem to be common here. 

Of the rocks containing bronzite, of which several varieties 
seem to constitute the bulk of the rocks around the trading 
station of Angmagsalik there are no specimens in this collec- 
tion and they are therefore probably not widely distributed. 

One of the specimens, however, found some 55 miles JNW. 
of Angmagsalik approximates to them; it is an amphibolite- 
[»ikrite containing pyroxene and spinel, and is related to the 
rock from the interior of Scoresby Sound described by Bay 
and 11 s sing. 

In the northernmost part of the district between lat. 66° 33' 
and 67° 1 5' IN", the rocks seem to change their character. Of 
granites, only pegmatites and micropegmatitic veins occur. True 
gneisses are wanting in the collection, and from one locality 
only there are a few specimens of a rather peculiar grannlitic 
schist. Basic rocks, on the other hand, are of much more 
frequent occurrence, most of them being diabases which ap- 
proach more or less to Ihe basalt type, and may very well 
belong to the same late- or post-mezozoic period of formation 



16 

as the dykes in Scoresby Sound. Others are still more altered, 
and porphyrites of rather different appearance also occur. 

Lastly, amphibolites are also met with among the specimens, 
but no opinion can be formed of their geological appearance 
from the material in hand. 

From the district between lat. 69° 25' and 65° N. traversed 
by Lieut. Amdrup in the summer of 1900 there are no spe- 
cimens, but from the short preliminary report M it occurs, that 
the southern part of this district, up to lat. 68° N., consists 
of the same rocks that are found in the neighbourhood of 
Nuahk, viz. Archœan rocks with greenstone-dykes, the latter in 
so great number that they almost surpass the former in mass. 
To the north and east of the great fjord Kangerdlugsuak 
basalts begin, which afterwards form a continuous mass all the 
way up to Scoresby Sound. 



1) Geogr. Tidsskr. 1901—02, p. 34. 



IL 



Samples of the sea-floor 

along the coast of East Grreenland 74V2 — 70 N. L. 



By 



0. B. Bøggild. 



I. Introduction. 



ihe samples of the sea-floor collected by the Danish 
expedition to East Greenland, are in many respects of 
very great interest. The physical conditions which generally 
determine the nature of sea-floor deposits are here most char- 
acteristic and peculiar, in comparison with those of all other 
localities hitherto examined. The coast is rocky with great 
deep bays into which large glaciers flow; outside this coast the 
sea is generally covered by immense masses of ice, consisting 
of an irregular mixture of sea-ice, coast-ice, and glacier-ice, 
drifted on by a constant current along the shore; these peculiar 
conditions combine to produce in the samples an appearance 
widely different from that of all deposits hitherto known. 

The most important characteristics of such deposits, and 
those which together determine their nature are essentially of 
three different kinds, viz. 1) The variation in size of the grains 
found in the samples, 2) The mineralogicai constitution of the 
inorganic material, and 3) The number and nature of organisms 
found in the samples. A few other characters may be named 
which are not absolutely dependent on any of the above men- 
tioned ones, but which are, nevertheless, of the greatest im- 
portance in determining the general nature of the deposit, viz. 
the colour and the greater or less degree of coherence in the 

2* 



i 



20 



clay. These characters are generally very difficult to account 
for by the conditions of the locality where the deposits have 
been formed, even though important conclusions on that point 
may often be drawn, as will be seen below. 

With regard to the size of the various grains, it is of 
course to be expected that the samples now under discussion 
will belong to the more coarse-grained of those which have 
been collected from the sea-floor. Both the coast erosion and 
the ice-transport may supply a large quantity of clastic material, 
whereto may still be added some derived from moraines or from 
the solid rock at the bottom itself. A closer examination also 
proves that the samples for the most part contain a very great 
number of pebbly ingredients, such as will be found in greater 
numbers scarcely anywhere, except in very shallow-water depo- 
sits. In this connection, it is natural to draw a comparison 
between these samples, and those from the Westcoast of Green- 
land, which in many ways bear a great resemblance to them. 
The transport-work of ice is however much less there, and 
consequently the West Greenland deposits are a great deal finer 
than those from East Greenland. The difference will be still 
greater, if we compare the latter samples with those obtained 
by the F ram from off the Northcoast of Siberia. Here there is 
no glacier-ice, and the coast consists for the most part of rocks 
such as sand and clay, which contain very few pebbles, con- 
sequently these samples are very poor in that respect. 

There is however amongst the individual samples a much 
greater variation in the quantity of fragmental matter than 
might be expected. Even if the proportion of this is, on the 
average, very large, we find here and there a few samples where 
it is quite insignificant, or where no pebbles whatever are found. 
Such fine-grained deposits are sometimes found so situated in 
relation to the others, that it is impossible to tell the reason 
for this difference, but sometimes the variations may very well 
1)C due to the situation. 



21 



If we examine a geological map of East Greenland as given 
by Nat horst M it will be seen that a number of different 
formations are found all along the coast explored by this expe- 
dition. This fact is of the utmost importance as regards the 
mineralogicai constitution of the deposits ; for the greater the 
difference found between the rocks of the various localities, 
whence the deposits have derived their material, the greater 
will be the possibility of determining the laws by which the 
individual ingredients are distributed. A closer examination 
now proves that, whereever a large tract of archœan rocks or 
of basalt extends to the coast, the samples VN^hich have been 
taken in the immediate neighbourhood of these, consist either 
exclusively or for the most part of these rocks. Somewhat 
farther away from the coast, however, they will be mixed up 
with a larger proportion of rocks derived from regions farther 
north. Beside these two chief ingredients, there are also vari- 
ous sedimentary .rocks such as sandstones and slates, which 
are very plentiful in this part of Greenland. They however have 
not the same significance in the samples as the above men- 
tioned rocks, as they are nowhere found in great tracts just 
near the coast, and on that account will always be largely 
mixed with other ingredients before reaching the sea. More- 
over we are only able to determine sandstones and slates 
among the coarsest ingredients of the samples, and on this 
account a closer determination will always be somewhat un- 
satisfactory. 



') A. G. Nathorst : Bidrag til nordôstra Grönlands Geologi. Geol. Foren. 
Forh. Stockholm Vol. 23, 1001, p. 27.3. Here and several other places 
reference is made to: 

Die zweite deutsche Nordpolarfahrt in den Jahren 1869 und 1870 unter 
Führung des Kapitän Karl KoldeweyVol.il, Leipzig 1871, III, Geo- 
logi p. 471. 

Den østgrønlandske E.xpedition udfort i Aarene 1891—92 under Ledelse 
af C.Ryder. Part III, :,. E.Bay: Geologi. Medd. om Grønl. XIX, I89Ü, 
p. Wh. 



22 

As has been proved, all the conditions are present which 
would allow of the samples being as varied as possible, both as 
to the size of the grains, and their mineralogicai nature. With 
regard to the third important feature which serves to charac- 
terize the samples, the conditions for the preservation of orga- 
nisms are very unfavourable. The amount of organic material 
contained in the samples is therefore exceedingly small. As 
the variation in appearance produced by the presence of large 
numbers of organic ingredients in the samples is usually of 
the most conspicuous nature — the samples being for the most 
part classified according to their organic contents — it will be 
seen that these particular ones must in any case have a rather 
uniform appearance. The small number of organisms in these 
samples is in the first place due to the great amount of inorganic 
material which is deposited all along this tract, and which 
perhaps nowhere else in the world is laid down to such a 
great extent. Moreover the number of small organisms, which 
live in this sea, is probably very slight. There is a possibiUty, 
however, that the organisms, as well as the inorganic ingre- 
dients may be derived in somewhat large numbers from the 
floating ice, being deposited at the bottom of the sea by the 
melting of this ice. A closer examination of the samples, 
liowever, proves clearly enough that the quantity of organisms 
derived in this way is also proportionately insignificant. 



II. Mecbanical constitution of tbe samples. 



Ihirty-eight samples have served as material for examina- 
liun, and these were almost all obtained at long intervals along 
the East coast of Greenland, from about lat. 74V2° to about lat. 
70'. The distance from the shore varied somewhat as will be 
seen from the subjoined chart; as a rule it did not exceed a 
few kilometers. 

In the following table XI will be given a general account 
of the situation of the deposits, the depth of the sea and the 
colour and general properties of the clay. Beside the localities 
of the above mentioned 38 samples, some have been mentioned 
in the table from which no samples have been taken, but where 
the nature of the sea-bottom is mentioned. 

All the samples must, according to their nature, be classed 
with the grey deep-sea clay, though it might perhaps be 
correct to class some of them among shallow-water depo- 
sits. The limit between these two varieties is not determined 
by their pelrographical nature, but is drawn as a rule at the 
depth of a hundred Danish fathoms (c. 200 meter). This is also 
approximately the depth at which the deposits begin to assume 
a more purely clayey consistency, while those formed in more 
shallow water often consist wholly or partly of gravel or sand. 
If, however, we lake a single area, such as the above men- 



24 



tioned by itself, it is not possible to distinguish sharply be- 
tween the two designations, since the nature of the samples is 



o^ 






с _ «3 








J3 03 


Lat. N. 


Long W. 


<u Q ce 


Nature 


Degree of cohe- 


Colour 


a '° 




of Grw. 




rence when dry 




Й^ 






o"=" 








1 


74° 18' 


15° 25' 


162 


sandy and stony clay 


rather coherent 


pale brownish grey 


2 


74° 16'-5 


15° 58' 


152 








brownish grey 


3|!74°15' 


16° 29' 


124 


stone 






4 ij 74° 15' 


16= 50' 


116 


coarse sandy and stony clay 


slightly coherent 


brownish grey 


5 i! M° 15' 


17° 10' 


109 


sandy clay 


rather coherent 


grey 


6 ,; 74° 15' 


17° 28' 


108 


— 


— 


pale brownish grey 


7 


74° 15' 


18° 05' 


79 


stone 






8 


74° 22' 


18° 20' 


84 


sandy clay 


rather coherent 


grey 


9 


74° 27' 


18° 40' 


74 


very sandy clay 


slightly coherent 


pale brownish grey 


10 


74° 03' 


19° 11' 


114 


— stony — 


very coherent 


— 


11 


73° 55' 


19° 11' 


78 


_ _ _ 


— 


grey 


12 1! 73° 44'-5 


19° 15' 


87 


_ _ _ 


— 


pale brownish grey 


13 


73° 27 


19° 32' 


90 


_ _ _ 


exceedingly coherent 


— 


14 


73° 18' 


19° 40' 


146 


clay' 


very — 


grey 


15 


73° 13' 


19° 55' 


215 


fine clay 


exceedingly coherent 


— 


16 


73° 06'-5 


20° 07'-5 


106 


clay 


— — 


— 


17 


72° 58' 


20° 20' -5 


124 


— 


— — 


— 


18 


72° 51' 


20° 32'-5 


124 


sandy clay 


very coherent 


— 


19 


72° 45' 


20° 42' 


159 


clay 


exceedingly — 


— 


20 


72° 39'-5 


20° 50' 


175 


— 






21 


72° 29'-5 


21° 05' 


139 


— 






22 


72° 18'-5 


21° 22' 


106 


— 


exceedingly coherent 


grey 


23 


72° 10'-5 


21° 25' 


155 


stone 






24 


72° 02'-5 


21° 27' 


294 


clay 


exceedingly coherent 


grey 


25 


71° 54' 


21° 27' 


226 


fine clay 


— — 


— 


26 


71° 46' 


21° 21'-5 


161 


stony and sandy clay 


rather — 


pale reddish grey 


27 


71° 38'-5 


21° 21' -5 


136 


— 


— — 


pale reddish browb 


28 


71° ЗГ 


21° 22' 


114 


stone 






29 


71° 22' 


21° 21' 


160 


sandy clay 


rather coherent 


grey 


30 


71° 17' 


21° 21' 


128 


— 


exceedingly — 


— 


31 


71° 09' 


21° 16' 


128 


very sandy and stony clay 


slightly coherent 


— 


32j|71°01'-5 


21° 13' 


241 


fine clay 


exceedingly — 


— 


33 70° 53' 


21° 11' 


112 


sandy clay 


very coherent 


— 


34||70°44'-5 


21° 10' 


159 


— 


— — 


— 


35 jl 70° 35' 


21° 15' 


94 


stone 






36 70° 29' 


21° 21' -5 


88 


very stony clay 


slightly collèrent 


grey 


37 ; 70° 21' 


21° 28' 


195 


stony and sandy clay 


rather coherent 


— 


38 ; 70° 17''5 


21° 31' 


228 


clay 


exceedingly coherent 


— 


39 70= 13'-5 


21° 35' 


247 


sandy clay 


rather — 


— 


40 ! 70° 04'-5 


21° 41' 


223 


stony clay 


exceedingly — 


pale brownish grey 


41 1 69° 52' 


22° 38' -5 


90 


stony and sandy clay 


slightly collèrent 


— 


42 [ 70° 00' 


22° 11' 


136 


— 


- 


brownisli grey 


43 


' South off Кар 
Hooker 


135 


sandy clay 


rather coherent 


- 


44 


71° 50' 22° 30'-5 


142 


fine clay 


very — 


greyish brown 


45 


] 71° 35'-7 22^ 05' 


202 


- 


- 


— 


.a\ The month of 


70 




exceedingly coherent 


reddish brown 




1 Hiirry 


liiipt 











largely dependent on other circumstances, which are not directly 
connected with the depth. A brief survey of the above table 
will show us, that there is no very direct connection between 
the nature of the deposit and the depth of its formation. As 
a rule it may be said that all the samples which contain the 
largest amount of clay were obtained from a greater depth than 
a hundred Danish fathoms, and thus may deserve the designa- 
tion of grey deep-sea clay, but that the greater part of the 
samples which contain a large proportion of sand and clay are 
from very varying depths. 

The character of the samples depends not only on the depth 
from which they are procured, for the greater or lesser distance 
from the shore at which they have been formed also exercises an 
influence on their composition. Generally these two influences 
go pretty much together, so that it is not easy to make sure 
whether one or the other plays the more prominent part, but 
in many cases it is possible to see the direct effect of one of 
these influences. It is thus fairly evident that the greater 
number of samples from 14 — 22 are almost pure clays owing 
to their having been obtained so much farther from the shore 
than the other samples. The influence of the depth is seen 
still more distinctly in some individual cases. Thus sample 
No. 30, which was taken from the immediate neighbourhood of 
the shore, is very fine-grained in comparison with its neighbours 
and is consequently from a much greater depth. 

That the depth and the distance from shore combined are 
not always sufficient to determine the general nature of the 
deposits is proved in a very striking manner by samples 
No. 1 — 7, which were taken in a continuous line at right angles 
to the coast-direction. Here both the depth and the distance 
from shore decrease from Nr. 1 to 7, and in spite of this, the 
samples are rather finer at the beginning of the series. From 
this we may certainly conclude, that the greater number of the 
coarser ingredients in the samples cannot have been transported 



к 



26 



directly by the sea-water, for if this were the case, a gradual 
sorting of the material must take place, as is seen in so many 
other places. What other causes can have produced this 
strange result I shall not here enquire; we can only imagine 
two other ways in which the coarser ingredients can have got 
into the samples, viz. either from the ice or from pre-existing 
solid or loose rocks at the bottom of the sea; but which of 
the two causes is the more likely can only be determined by a 
closer examination of the mineralogicai constituents of the 
samples. 

The consistency of the samples varies very much, as will 
be seen by the table, and the same is the case with their 
degree of coherence when dry. This last property is nearly 
proportional to the amount of clay in the samples, as we have 
been already led to expect. There are however a few rather 
characteristic deviations from this rule, and even if the degree 
of coherence cannot be directly measured, but is only founded 
upon a rough estimate, these deviations are so conspicuous 
that they may be considered as definitely proved. Thus sample 
No. 28 which is designated «exceedingly coherent» contains a 
large amount of sand, and shows, as will be seen from the 
following table only 47.7 per ct. of its ingredients to be below 
0.01"™. Neither does Nr. 22, which is about the most coherent 
of all the samples, contain much clay; but it contains 49.1 per ct. 
of finer ingredients. Let us on the other hand consider Nos. 26 
and 27 which are only designated «rather coherent», and yet 
they contain as many of the finer ingredients as the preceeding 
ones viz. 42.4 and 47.5 per ct. respectively. Moreover No. 43 
is designated very coherent, although it is about the finest 
of all the samples with 76.6 per ct. clay. As all the samples 
were collected and kept in exactly in the same manner, the 
variations of the degree of coherence cannot be due to these 
circumstances, and must therefore be founded on the differences 
in the nature of the clay itself. It is impossible to say for 



27 



certain wherein these variations consist, as they are probably 
dependent on the physical nature of the finest clay-particles. 
It is rather characteristic that two of the last-named samples 
No. 26 and 43, which have a slighter degree of coherence than 
would be expected from their constitution , are of a distinctly 
browner colour than the majority of the samples. This seems 
to show that the degree of coherence of the samples has a 
certain connection with the colour, though we are not yet able 
to judge on what this first quality is really founded. Further 
observations may possibly enhghten us on this point. 

With regard to these samples the colours are unusually 
homogeneous. For the most part they are either grey or have 
a slight brownish or reddish tinge. Only 14 of the samples 
are designated brownish-grey, and 3 greyish-brown, one with a 
reddish tinge, and only one sample differs from the others in 
having a very strongly pronounced reddish-brown colour. 
Otherwise not a single sample comes nearer to brown than 
exactly half-way between grey and brown, and yet, in all 
samples examined from other localities distinctly brown-coloured 
ones have not unfrequently been found among the others. It 
is generally difficult to tell the reason for the differences in 
colour. They have no direct connection with the mineralogical 
or mechanical properties of the samples, but depend partly on 
the chemical nature of the clay ; generally the samples of the 
most pronounced brown colour contain most sesquioxide of iron. 
There is every reason to suppose that the clay was of a grey 
colour when originally deposited, but that gradually by oxida- 
tion at the bottom of the sea, it becomes browner and browner. 
If this oxidation takes place in all the deposits, the colour 
must be in close connection with the rapidity with which they 
are laid down, so that the ones which are deposited most 
slowly will have the longest lime in which to be subjected to 
the oxidation, and will thus obtain the strongest brown colour. 
The slowly-formed deposits will probably always be the finest, 



к 



28 



as they must be formed in places where the ice cannot be sub- 
jected to melting to any great degree, and where the coast ero- 
sion and the currents have had no opportunity of conveying 
coarser material. We must always expect to find that the 
samples of the most pronounced brown colour also contain 
most clayey ingredients. In other places this fact has been 
very conspicuous, here however it is less pronounced. None 
of the samples which are designated brownish-grey viz. No. 2, 
3, 41 and 42 are finer than the average, nor is No. 26 of the 
greyish-brown ones. It is not possible in the case of all these 
samples to state anything which may explain their varying 
colours. Then of the ones which have been designated greyish- 
brown only the two samples No. 43 and 45 are left, and with 
them the dark brown coloured sample No. 46; these three are 
extremely fine compared with the others, they may therefore be 
supposed to have been formed much more slowly. By looking 
at the chart it will however be seen that these deposits have 
a position which rather differs from that of the rest, viz. in 
the bays Fleming Inlet, Carlsberg Fjord, and Hurry 
Inlet, so there is here another possible way of explaining 
the colours. The water here may have a different chemical 
composition from that of the open sea^ this difference being 
due either to its containing a larger amount of oxygen or, 
what is more probable , to its being less salt. It is a well 
known fact that clay-particles are deposited much more 
slowly in fresh than in salt water, there is then the possibility 
that the greater part of the clay which is washed into the 
water by the rivers may be transported farther out, and not be 
deposited till it arrives outside the mouths of the bays. In 
order to be able to understand the fact of the samples being so 
exceedingly fine, we rhust suppose that not only has the greater 
part of it not been deposited in the said place, but also that the 
amount of coarser material conveyed thither must be exceedingly 
slight. 



29 



Washing analyses. 

In order to get an exact idea of the mechanical constitu- 
tion of the samples, they were all subjected to a washing pro- 
cess by the aid of Schöenes's washing apparatus and were 
sifted from the coarser ingredients. 

First the ingredients larger than O.s'"™ were separated off 
by means of a sieve ; these were then again sorted by the aid 
of coarser sieves, the meshes of which measured 1, 2, 4, 8°^"" 
and so on. As these particular samples are for the most part 
very rich in coarser ingredients, the sorting of these is of the 
greatest importance in the examination of the mechanical con- 
stitution. It is especially on this, that conclusions with regard 
to ice transport and a great many other circumstances are based. 

It is important to notice that the accuracy of the percen- 
tages, which can be estimated by sifting, decreases, as the size 
of the grains increases. 

The percentages for the grains of more than 8^^ can 
only be stated approximately, as only a very limited number of 
these grains will be found in a sample of about a hundred 
grammes, which is the amount that has usually been at our 
disposal for this purpose. But a slight accident during the 
hauling up of the material may cause a greater or lesser 
number of stones to get into the sounding tube and affect the 
result very considerably, so that the graphical representations 
will also everywhere show great irregularities on the outermost 
right side of the curve. If an exact determination of the 
amount of these ingredients is to be made one would require 
to have a very great quantity of each sample, and then still 
larger ingredients, the determination of which would also be 
very inexact, would enter into the samples. On the other hand 
the percentages for the ingredients from 05 to H^'^ are exceed- 
ingly accurate. 



30 



The parts of the samples which are below 0'5"^™ in size 
were separated by washing into three parts 1) containing the 
ingredients below 0-01°i°i, 9) those from O'Ol— 0-05^™ and 
3) those from 0*05 — 0*5°i'". The exactness which may be 
attained by the washing is perfectly satisfactory between the 
size-limits of the two last named ingredients, but not between 
the size-limits of the two first sizes of grains. However re- 
cently deposited the clay may be, it is always very difficult to 
get it finely divided by boiling, and the various samples are 
very unequal in this respect. By long and repeated boiling, one 
may perhaps in most cases succeed in getting the clay sub- 
stance broken up , but the results thus attained will certainly 
not correspond exactly with the natural conditions under which 
the deposits were laid down. 

As mentioned above clay is deposited much quicker in salt 
than in fresh water. The reason of this, as shown by experi- 
ment, is, that the single particles of clay, by coming into salt 
water, clot together into somewhat large, coherent masses, 
which as a rule, however, do not attain the size of 1^^. This 
clotting only takes place to a very slight degree or not at all, 
if the clay is very finely divided, as will generally be the case 
if the clay originates from coast erosion or from coast rivers. 
Glacier-rivers, however, will often convey the clay in great quan- 
tities, and when it is washed into the sea by them the greater 
part of it will be deposited very quickly. 

If we now take the samples singly, the clay in them will 
originally have been deposited in somewhat different ways. 
One part of it will have been deposited very slowly, and must 
thus be classified amongst the very finest ingredients of the sample. 
Another part has sunk to the bottom comparatively quickly, and 
must therefore be classified among the somewhat coarser ingre- 
dients, between 0-02 and О'Об"^'". It is very doubtful whether 
it is possible by washing, to separate even approximately the 
various parts of the clay from each other. It is most probable 



31 



Table of the proportions of the mechanical constitnents in the samples. 



^1 


|i 


о 

ti 


ö . 

1 а 


Та 


а 
а 


a 

a 


ä 

а 


ä 
а 


li 


" о 


'S — 


-, s 


о с 


gs 


Î4 


-* 


00 




л _ 


»5 


Д о 


о 


о = 


1 


1 


1 


7 


Cd CD 


H-s 


ö. 


ö 


Ö 






сч 


«* 


00 






per Ct. 


per Ct. 


per Ct. 


per Ct. 


per Ct. 


per Ct. 


per ct. 


per ct. 


per Ct. 


1 


44-6 


22-8 


180 


4-6 


2-7 


2-7 


21 


2-5 




2 


342 


30-6 


210 


41 


31 


2-5 


4-5 






3 


36-2 


141 


36-2 


5-3 


2-9 


2-5 


2-1 


2-8 




i 


29-5 


52-6 


12-9 


11 


10 


21 


0-8 






5 


401 


351 


16-7 


1-9 


11 


1-9 


2-2 


10 




6 


49-8 


10-6 


33-8 


2-9 


1-1 


1-6 


0-2 






7 


21Ô 


34-9 


39-7 


0-6 


0-4 


0-8 


0-7 


1-3 




9 


13-7 


230 


7-8 


10 


11 


1-6 


5-4 


33-7 


12-7 


10 


52-4 


7-9 


16-8 


2-4 


Г7 


2-4 


4-5 


11-7 




11 


15-9 


29-8 


221 


6-5 


6-3 


100 


7-5 


1-9 




13 


42-8 


5-7 


10-5 


3-6 


2-6 


3-8 


8-7 


6-6 


15-7 


14 


54-0 


360 


7-6 


10 


07 


0-6 


Ol 






15 , 


73-9 


19-9 


6-2 


00 


00 










16 


59-6 


10-3 


221 


1-8 


1-0 


1-3 


21 


1-8 




17 1 


36-3 


61-3 


2-2 


Ol 


0-1 










18 


32-3 


39-0 


23-6 


0-7 


0-4 


0-3 


0-3 


0-9 


2-5 


19 


390 


59-7 


1-2 


00 


0-0 


0-1 








22 , 


491 


311 


10-3 


1-3 


2.5 


3-5 


21 






23 


504 


441 


5-4 


Ol 


0-0 


0-0 








24 , 


74-3 


25-4 


0-3 


00 












25 1 


37-3 


160 


31-7 


1-5 


0-6 


0-5 


0-2 


2-0 


10-2 


26 , 


42-4 


23-3 


161 


51 


4-7 


4-2 


2-5 


1-6 




27 ' 


475 


333 


17-3 


0-6 


0-4 


0-9 








28 


44-7 


23-7 


220 


5-2 


1-9 


0-9 


1-6 






29 1 


250 


13-8 


37-0 


4-7 


70 


20 


3-2 


7-3 




30 


591 


39-3 


1-4 


Ol 


Ol 


0-0 








31 


241 


20-5 


470 


0-9 


0-9 


11 


1-4 


41 




32 


49-5 


12-2 


351 


0-4 


0-5 


0-9 


1-4 






33 


15-7 


21-2 


15-2 


11 


10 


50 


60 


27-5 


7-3 


34 


23-3 


20-7 


25-6 


8-1 


3-7 


3-2 


20 


41 


9-3 


35 


741 


6-7 


13-9 


0-7 


0-9 


11 


1-9 


0-7 




36 


57-2 


131 


14-6 


4-9 


31 


2-4 


2-0 


3-7 




37 


44-8 


29-9 


6-8 


1-9 


2-4 


3-2 


2-2 


8-8 




40 


200 


361 


271 


3-2 


3-5 


4-3 


2-8 


30 




41 


24-9 


18-5 


19-5 


4-2 


30 


4-2 


8-2 


7-3 


10-3 


42 


54-2 


27-5 


10-3 


1-9 


1-9 


30 


1-2 






43 


76-6 


22-7 


0-6 


0-1 


0-0 










45 


48-0 


48-9 


21 


0-4 


0-2 


0-4 








46 


901 


8-2 


0-9 


0-3 


0-4 


Ol 









thai the clay, by lying a long time at the bottom of the sea, 
assumes in eacli place a uniform consistency, which, however, 
varies very much in the different samples. Even if by repeated 
boilings one could succeed in getting all the clay finely divided. 



I 



32 



no great result would be thereby attained. On this account 
these samples have only been subjected to a single boiling of 
about one hour's duration. The quantity of the clayey substance 
itself in proportion to the other ingredients will be shown by 
the graphical representations. 

As is clearly shown by the table all the samples are 
exceedingly rich in coarser ingredients over 0*05™™. The 
average quantity of these is in all the samples 13*2 per Ct., 
while in the corresponding samples from the I ngo If- Expe- 
dit i on along the coasts of Iceland and West Greenland, 
it does not reach 5 per Ct., and in the samples obtained, by 
the F ram-Expedition along the North coast of Siberia it is 
far below 1 per Ct. With regard to the last place, the reason 
of the fineness of the samples is probably for the most part 
due to the fact that the coast is quite low, and formed of loose 
rocks such as sand and clay. 'On the other hand, the differ- 
ence between the samples now described, and those from the 
Ingolf-Expedition can only be ascribed to the much greater 
quantity of floating ice found near East Greenland, as, in 
all other essentials, the localities are alike. 

If the average quantities of all the individual sizes of 
grains are calculated, the following numbers are obtained: 



below 
001 mm. 


0-01- 005 
mm. 


005-0-5 
mm. 


0-5-1 
mm. 


1—2 
mm. 


2—4 
mm. 


4—8 
mm. 


8-16 
mm. 


above 
16 mm. 


426 


26-9 


17-3 


2-2 


1-7 


1-9 


2-1 


3-5 


1-8 



Herein is shown that the clayey and sandy ingredients, 
as was to be expected, are in decided majority in comparision 
with the coarser ones in the samples. It is rather strange 
that smaller quantities are found between 1 and 4"^"^ of the 
ingredients than of the somewhat coarser ones. This is mainly 
owing to the circumstance that moraines at the bottom of the 
sea probably supply large quantities of coarser ingredients, 



33 



whereas the sand and clay for tlie most part must have been 
derived from the land. 

It is rather interesting to compare the mechanical consti- 
tution of these samples with that of till. The average com- 
position of 9 samples from Funen is M 



below 
0.01 mm. 



001-005 005— 0-5 1 0-5—1 1—2 above 

mm. 2 mm. 



mm. 1 mm. \ mm. 



31-7 I 13-9 I 462 1-6 2-7 ■ 39 

On the whole there is a rather strong likeness between 
the samples and the till. The most conspicuous difference 
between the two is that the till is very rich in ingredients 
between 005 and 0"5°^°i, and has a correspondingly smaller 
proportion of the finer ingredients. With regard to the coarser 
parts, the samples contain much more than the till, yet Ave 
must here notice that this larger proportion of coarse material 
is almost confined to a few samples which are very rich in 
pebbles, the remaining samples containing much less. The 
9 samples of till on the other hand are unvaryingly homo- 
geneous. This homogenous character alone is sufficient to 
enable us to distinguish, with tolerable certainty, between till 
and sea-floor deposits. If the latter were found to have a com- 
position resembling that of till, they must have been deposited 
in an icefilled sea, and we cannot but think that currents, and 
many other circumstances would, in that case cause them to 
vary very much in the individual localities. Besides the till itself 
if deposited on rugged ground would probably show a somewhat 
varying constitution. 



'; Beskrivelse til geol. Kort over Danmarit, Koitbiadet Hindsholm by 
N. V. Г s sin g and Victor Madsen. Danm. geol. Undersøgelse. 
1. Hæk ke, Nr. 2, p. 77. 

XXVIII. 3 



34 

Graphic representation of the mechanical constitution 
of the samples. 

In order to give a better general idea of the constitution 
of the samples, a graphic representation of part of them has 
been prepared. The different sizes of grains are taken as 
abscissae , while the percentages are taken as ordinates. In 
determining the units on the abscissa-axis the question of em- 
ploying an algebraic or a geometrical progression might arise. 
The former is inadequate for giving an exact representation of 
the differences between the samples. As these contain ingre- 
dients up to about bO^^^ we might for example mark off on 
the abscissa-axis 50 units of 1™™ each, but it will easily be 
seen that, as by far the greater number of the ingredients are 
smaller than l^^, the curve would rise to an inconveniently 
great height at the extreme left; and if we further consider 
that the majority of the ingredients is smaller than 0"06"^°^ it 
will be seen, that the curve for the first twentieth part of a mm. 
must reach such a height, that it cannot be plotted on the same 
sheet as will at the same time indicate the small quantities of 
the larger ingredients present. 

By employing a geometrical progression to illustrale the 
series of the grains, we get a representation which gives a far 
more distinct idea of the constitution of the samples. The 
most simple way is with 1™™ as a basis to mark off equidistant 
divisions toward both sides , those to the right being desig- 
nated 2, 4, 8™"i etc., while those on the left stand for 
V2, V4, Vs™™ etc. Such a curve system is unlimited in either 
direction, and may easily be employed for all sorts of mechan- 
ical rocks, even the coarsest grained. 

The plotting of the curve for the ingredients greater than 
().5mm is easily accomplished by marking off as ordinates the 
percentages of each size of grain. In washing, limits have been 
employed, in the case of the finer ingredients, for the sizes of 
grain which do not lit in with the numbers on the abscissa- 



35 

axis viz. 0'05°^^^ ami ОчИ"™. Their positions however are easily 
calculated to be 4-32 and IV64 respectively, to the left of the 
starting point. Thus , as the percentages of the ingredients 
between 005 and 0*5 extend from 4'32 to 1, it is necessary, 
in marking them off, to divide by 3*32 and employ the value 
found as ordinate. The ingredients between O'Ol and 0"05°^°i 
extend from 6"64 to 4*32, and the percentages for this size of 
grain must therefore be divided by 2'32. The greatest difficulty 
is met with in the representation of the finest ingredients below 
O'Ol™™. If, we are to be able to mark off any definite height, 
we must have a lower limit for this size of grain, and as we 
cannot arrive at such a one in any empirical way, the choice 
must be a somewhat arbitrary one. This circumstance however 
will not influence us against the use of the curve, as our 
attention must be specially directed to that part of the curve 
which represents the finest particles; and if the lower hmit 
is the same for all the samples any differences will be 
very conspicuous. Here b'ioooo°™ is everywhere fixed as the 
lower limit, so that, as this value lies 13'33 units to the left 
of the starting point, the sizes of the grains below 0"01™™ will 
extend over 6*69 units, and the percentages found, must be 
divided by this number to determine the height the part of 
the curve in question will attain. 

Where the heights determined for the curves are marked 
off as horizontal lines, the curves will have a very jagged 
appearance. As this representation of the case would be mis- 
leading the curve has been smoothed throughout its length. If, 
for instance, the size of a grain comes between two others, 
one of which is present in very large, the other only in very 
small quantities , the curve must slope evenly down from the 
former to the latter. If a considerable number of one size of 
grain is found , and smaller numbers of the two sizes repre- 
.sented next to it, the curve must be highest at the middle, 
and decrease gradually towards both ends. By actual examina- 

3* 



36 



tion of the ingredients it will be found in all cases that the 
real proportions are in accordance with the calculated ones. 
The left side of the curve has everywhere been drawn evenly 
downwards. It may be taken for granted that w'herever the 
lower limit for the size of the grains be placed, the quantity 
must gradually decrease towards this limit. 

The left part of the curves has been divided into two areas 
of which the upper indicates the quantity of clayey substance, 
while the lower which is connected with the main part of the 
curve, indicates the finer sandv ingredients. The ratio between 
the two parts has been found by direct microscopic examination. 
The ratio of the ingredients between 0"01 and 0-05°i°i can be 
determined fairly correctly by counting the grains ; that of the 
finest ingredients can only be conjectured, as we cannot disting- 
uish clearly between grains of clay and grains of quartz in the 
case of such very fine particles. 

The curves for the samples which are of special interest 
will further be given below. 

The deposits No. 1 — 7 he, as will be seen from the chart, 
in a series along the shore outside the Sabine and Кар 
Bor läse Warren; we notice in these samples the very 
pecuhar fact that the outermost ones, as shown by the curves 
for No. 1 and 3, are far coarser than the innermost ones 
represented by No. 4 and 7, to which also No. 5 and 6 bear a 
very great resemblance. It has been mentioned above that 
this fact is in contrast with the general rules by which the 
fineness of the samples increases with the increasing distance 
from shore and with the depth , and both distance and depth 
are greater in the case of the first three samples. The di- 
stance from shore is, however, too great for their coarser 
ingredients to have been transported directly thence, so they 
must have been derived either from icebergs or from the 
bottom of the sea. 

That the dilîerence in the deposits should be due to ice- 



37 



bergs is not very probable; all the deposits have originated 
from the so called North bay in the floating ice, which during 
summer forms a free passage from the open sea towards 
the East -coast of Greenland. Generally speaking we may 
suppose, that, in places where there is little ice during 
the summer, less material will be deposited by the ice 
at the bottom of the sea, than where there is closely 
packed ice. Consequently throughout the region herein des- 
cribed, the ice will be of no great importance as determining 
the constitution of the samples. It might be imagined however 
that the melting of the ice would be sufficient to explain the 
great number of coarser ingredients found in these samples, 
if the amount of finer material conveyed from the land is less 
in proportion. We cannot so easily understand the reason 
why the outermost samples are considerably coarser than the 
innermost ones, for, as far as we can gather from all accounts, 
there is no very great difference in the number of icebergs in 
the outer and inner part of the tract. 

Assuming then that the coarser ingredients of the three 
first samples originated from the rocks at the bottom of the 
sea, here we have again two possibilities, namely that they 
have been derived either from solid, or from loose rocks. The 
first supposition is not very probable; in the first place we 
cannot thereby explain the circumstance that the samples be- 
come finer nearer land. If the bottom of the sea has ever 
been above sea-level, this must have been the case with the 
whole tract, and many submarine rocks must then have been 
found also nearer land , and would hardly have been entirely 
covered by later deposits. Moreover we always notice that, 
where the material of the samples originates from solid rocks of 
the sea- floor, it will always be of a rather homogeneous nature 
in each individual sample, and will often vary very much from 
one sample to another, but this is not the case here as will 
be proved later. 



38 



Then we have the possibility left that the richness of 
coarser ingredients in the samples now under discussion is 
due to the presence of loose rocks of earlier formation at the 
bottom of the sea, these being most likely of the nature of till. 
The theory of the presence of such a moraine has already been 
propounded by Bay (Medd. om Grønland. XIX, p. 185) and is 
founded partly on the belief that no deposit due to icebergs 
is found north of Scoresby Sund, partly on the nature of 
the rocks which have been brought to light by trawling. The 
first evidence is not very convincing, as the occurrence of 
icebergs must of necessity be very irregular, and very varying 
from one year to the next, and even if the ice only deposited 
small quantities of material, this would in the course of many 
years , form very extensive deposits. The evidence which is 
founded on the nature of the rocks is of far greater import- 
ance, and will be given more fully later in the following. It 
suffices here to mention that an examination of the rocks of 
the samples in question almost always shows a remarkable 
affinity to the solid rocks of the country nearest to them, so 
it is quite natural to suppose that they must originate partly 
from moraines at the bottom of the sea. 

As the samples No. 1 — 7 are the only ones which have 
been taken in a connected series at right angles to the coast 
direction, we might expect more particularly from these samples 
to find a proof of the presence of a moraine. With regard 
to the depth, we have already seen that it decreases gradually 
as we approach the shore. The conclusions arrived at will 
however be different if we take into consideration locality 1) 
(p. 186) mentioned by Bay. This is situated very near station I 
of this expedition, being only about 2^/2 kilom. farther east, 
and the depth is stated to be 127 Danish fathoms while that 
of station No. 1 is 162 D. fathoms. We have then here the 
only really certain case in which the presence of a submarine 
moraine is clearly proved by the relief of the sea-flor. We may 



39 



then conclude that the ice during the ice-age had its outermost 
limit at Bay's locality 1), then during its retreat, it remained 
for a longer period over the tract occupied by the deposits 
represented by the samples 1 — 3 of this expedition, and finally 
retreated very quickly across the inner tract. This is the only 
probable explanation of the strange phenomenon that samples 
I — 3 are much coarser than those obtained from the inner 
tract. This evidence is however only based on the inference 
that drifting ice only deposits a very small amount of material 
in such localities as these, for the moraine formations would 
otherwise very easily have been hidden. Morainic matter cannot, 
like submarine rocks, continue for long periods to project from 
the bottom of the sea, and maintain its influence on the 
deposits. 

Samples No. 1 — 7 are otherwise of no special interest. 
From the rather irregular shape of the curves for No. 1 and 3 
can be directly seen, that their existence must be due to several 
different causes. As, however, they consist in great part of the 
morainic matter from the bottom of the sea which is itself of 
a very irregular constitution, it is impossible to determine the 
influence which other factors may have had upon them. The 
curve of No. 4 is on the other hand of a much more regular 
appearance, the whole giving the impression that it consists 
of rather well-sorted material, most of the grains being between 
V32 and ^64°™. The amount of the clayey ingredients is small 
in proportion to that of the others. The extension of the curve 
to the right, shows an influx of coarse material which is quite 
independent of the chief bulk of the sample. Here the material 
from the moraines at the bottom of the sea must be out of 
the question, as these must have been covered by later depo- 
sits. We must then suppose that these coarser ingredients 
have been conveyed by icebergs, and we get thus directly from 
the curve a good idea of the ratio between the two different 
influences, that of the ice, and that of the land. The ice must 



40 



also have contributed a large quantity of the finer material, 
but this will certainly be of less importance than that derived 
from the land. 

The sample No. 7 shows a very great resemblance to the 
last-named; also here is plainly seen the influence of the ice 
in the extension of the curve to the right. Moreover the curve 
shows very distinctly, that this sample has been obtained from 
nearer the shore, as the greater number of the grains attain 
a size of about V2o'^™, viz. about double the size of those in 
No. 4, besides the main part of the curve has a rather regular 
shape, and thus suggests a like cause of deposition. 

The samples No. 9 — 13, obtained in a continuous series 
from the coast between Кар Borlase Warren and Rap 
Broer Ruys, are characteristic as being some of coarsest of 
all the samples. The curves are all very irregular, but have 
two rather distinct maxima of which the one is situated far to 
the right among the coarsest ingredients. The depth of depo- 
sition is not very great in any of the samples , as it varies 
from 78 to 114 Danish fathoms. The distance from shore is 
however so great that the coarser ingredients can hardly have 
emanated directly from there. Were this so the ingredients 
must consist entirely of basalt which is far from being the 
case, seeing that they have a very mixed constitution. For 
the same reason we cannot well imagine that they have origi- 
nated from rocks at the bottom of the sea. Then there only 
remains, as in the samples 1 — 3, the choice between the 
floating-ice and moraine-formations, and here the mineralogicai 
constitution cannot decide the question, as we must expect a 
mixture of granitic, basaltic, and sedimentary material, such as 
is found in these samples both from the icebergs of the far 
north, and from the land-ice. 

It is not at all probable that icebergs have conveyed the 
enormous amount of coarse material in these samples, as 
there is nothing to account for their having such great influence 



41 



here, iu comparison with that wiiicli they exercise on most of 
tlie other samples. As far as we l^now, this particular tract is 
rather free from ice in summer, so that proportionately few 
icebergs would melt here. We are then obliged to suppose, 
that the above-mentioned moraine bends inwards along this 
tract, which may perhaps be explained by the high coast lying 
inside it. It is strange that deposits from the land or from 
the ice have not completely covered this moraine since the ice- 
age, but no other explanation is probable. 

The complicated shape of the curves with respect to the 
-i samples is thus connected with the fact that one part of the 
sample originates from the original moraine — or stratified 
material from the ice-age, the other and finer part, on the 
other hand, from material conveyed hither at a later period. 

No. 9 is the most regular of all the samples. We cannot 
imagine a better illustration of a sample consisting of two quite 
different parts. The remarkable height of the curve between 
8 and 16"*™, and the great slope towards both sides, indicates 
that originally a gravel with grains of an unusually uniform 
size was deposited in this locality. After the ice-age finer 
material was deposited here, partly by transport from land, partly 
by icebergs , this being also of a rather regular constitution, 
with maximum between V32 and ^/б4^^. This material must 
have been laid down among the coarser ingredients, or has at 
any rate become mixed with them during the hauling up. 

The three following samples Nr. 10 — 11 and 13, are far 
more difficult to account for. It seems as if the originally- 
deposited rock , in these cases was in itself of a rather 
irregular constitution. If we draw up curves for morainic 
rocks we always get a rather irregular figure with more maxima, 
and this is especially the case with such rocks in mountainous 
parts. It will be impossible to determine with regard to these 
samples how great a part emanates from later deposits. Prob- 
ably however at least half of the finer ingredients was thus 



42 



derived all the curves show a somewhat pronounced rise with 
respect to these parts. 

The curves for No. 10 and 13 are open to the right, and 
seem to indicate that these samples contain a great deal of 
still coarser ingredients, which the sounding tube has not been 
able to take up. As mentioned above too many conclusions 
must not be based on the shape of the curves for the coarsest 
grains, as it depends on mere chance if more or less pebbles 
are got at the same time, and even a single one may produce 
a great difference in the appearance of the curve. It must 
thus certainly be mere accident that No. 10 has no ingredients 
over 16°i™, as the shape of the curve seems to indicate a rather 
considerable number of these ingredients. 

With regard to the finer ingredients, there is a very 
great resemblance between No. 10 and 13, as both these 
samples contain a comparatively large quantity of clay-substance. 
No. 11 on the contrary bears a greater resemblance to No. 9, 
as the greater part of its finest ingredients are between V32 
and ^ki^^. It will hardly be possible to find the cause 
of this. 

Samples No. 14 — 19, the deposits of which form a con- 
nected series outside the bay between Кар Hold with Hope 
and Кар Parry, are of quite a different type from the preceding 
ones. As will be seen by the curves they are all comparatively 
fine, as only a few percentages of the ingredients or sometimes 
none at all are found to be over V2™™. The change is very 
sudden, as the distance between No- 13 and 14 is not much 
more than about 13 kilom., and the difference between the 
constitution of these samples is, as will be seen by the curves, 
very marked. 

It is impossible to imagine that the greater distance from 
shore can be of any importance in this matter, as the differ- 
ence between the samples is not very great in this respect; 
neither can the difference in the number of icebergs aft'ecting 



43 

them be very marked. After passing the projecting Кар Hold 
with Hope, the ice-bergs have more room for spreading out, 
and certainly obtain thereby more freedom of motion; this is 
the reason for their not remaining any length of time above 
each individual place and they cannot therefore deposit so much 
material. Yet even this factor does not seem suffîcient to 
explain the great difference in the constitution. Here we must 
then again remember the above mentioned moraine, which, in 
this locality, must be supposed to form a projection into the 
sea, caused partly by the greater depth, partly by the greater 
transport of ice which has taken place from Franz Joseph's 
Fjord. 

There are moreover variations in the individual samples, as 
will be seen by the curves. 

The contiguous samples No. 14 and 15 have a rather 
similar constitution, and are both rather regular and fine. 
No. 14 contains a number of ingredients over ^/2™™, which are 
absent in No. 15, and for this no other reason can be ima- 
gined than that the former deposit is situated nearest the moraine, 
from which it may have received a few ingredients. Moreover 
the curve shows that the chief mass of the sample itself is 
somewhat finer in No. 15 than in No. 14, and that a consider- 
ably larger amount of clayey substance is found in the former. 
This is due to the fact that No. 15 was obtained from a con- 
siderably greater depth so that the finest parts had better 
opportunities for being deposited. These finest parts must in 
the case of both the samples have been derived directly 
from land. 

Sample No. 16 is somewhat coarser than the preceding 
ones probably because it was formed right outside the Bontekoe 
0. However it is hardly possible that a direct transport of 
material from this island can have contributed in any great 
degree to the formation of the deposit, as the distance is rather 
great, i. e. about 35 kilom. It is more probable that the island 



к 



44 



checked the movement of the ice somewhat during the ice-age, 
so that the moraine approached slightly nearer the island; yet 
the number of coarser ingredients in the sample is not so 
great but that it might be explained in other ways, for example, 
by icebergs. 

With respect to the finer particles, the curve very charac- 
teristically shows two maxima, viz. a smaller one at about 
Vs^i™, and a larger one in the ingredients under Vioo"^"^. It is 
not easy to account for this circumstance. The mineralogical 
constitution of the sandy ingredients plainly shows, as men- 
tioned below, that they cannot have been derived in any quantity 
from the Bontekoe 0, their presence may then possibly also 
be connected with the proximity of the moraine; the original 
rock thus consisted of pebbly sand, in which case all the finest 
ingredients have been introduced later by the sea. There may 
also have been a morainic rock here originally which had 
an almost similar constitution to the now existing sample. If 
this were the case only a very small amount of clayey ingre- 
dients can have been conveyed hither since the ice-age, which 
is hardly probable. 

The samples No. 17 — 19 are very regular, as will be seen 
by the curves. This is especially the case with No. 17 and 19, 
the composition of which is very much ahke. Hardly any ingre- 
dients over 1/2"^™ are found, and very small quantities over 
^/20™"^, so that these two samples belong to the very finest 
of those procured by the expedition. The curves are very regular 
with the maximum at about ^ki^^. As the distance from shore is 
comparatively great, the deposition cannot have taken place very 
quickly. The lack of coarser ingredients plainly shows that 
the ice must have had an exceedingly slight effect, and that 
the moraine did not exercise the least influence here. The 
curves also give us a good idea as to how sorted material 
appears in graphic representation. The currents must in these 
parts be very regular and permanent, so that just the size of 



45 



grain Nvliicli is found in the greatest numbers in these samples 
has time to be deposited, while the coarser ingredients sink to 
the bottom nearer land, and the finer ones are transported 
still farther away. If the currents change in direction and 
force, it will be seen that several ditferenl sizes of grains 
will appear in the samples , and thereby the curve will 
become broader and lower. Something like this is the case 
witii sample No. 18, but as it is situated between two others 
the difference between them is quite inexplicable, and likewise 
the circumstance that in No. 18 is found a number of the coars- 
est ingredients. This phenomenon can hardly be explained 
otherwise than as a mere accident. 

Sample No. 22 shows , as is seen by the curve , the same 
phenomenon as so many of the former samples , viz. that 
it consists of two rather well-separated parts , viz. a smaller 
one with the maximum between 2 and i^"^ and a larger one 
with maximum at about Vioo^^"^. As it is not {згоЬаЫе that 
the above-mentioned moraine comes so close to the shore, we 
may suppose that the comparatively great amount of coarser 
ingredients is due to icebergs, or possibly the two causes may 
be acting in concert. The nature of these coarser ingredients 
is rather mixed, and cannot explain anything for certain either 
one way or the other. 

Sample No. 24, situated outside the mouth of Davys Sund, 
is of a very fine-grained nature. The curve has a very regular 
and symmetrical form with maximum between Vrjs and Voae™™, 
and there is a comparatively large amount of clay-substance. 
The most characteristic feature in the sample is, however, the very 
small amount of larger ingredients, as it only contains 0*3 per Ct. 
over ООо""™, which is less than in any of the other samples, 
much less even than in any of the samples from the Ingolf- 
Expedition, which are on the whole considerably finer than 
the ones described here, and a great number of which were 
obtained in deep water at a great distance from land. The 



46 



depth is not especially great, viz. 226 Danish fathoms; the 
sample No. 23, which was obtained near if, was at a depth of 
294 Danish fathoms, and forms on the whole a transition 
between No. 22 and 24, for which reason it has not been men- 
tioned further. In order to bring about this remarkable con- 
stitution all the different physical circumstances of the place 
must have acted in concert to prevent the deposition of coarser 
ingredients; but as most of these circumstances are not very 
well known, it is impossible to account for the phenomenon 
definitely. We can only say that the melting of icebergs must 
have been almost out of the question here ; in summer they 
must therefore always pass outside this place. Moreover, all 
the directions of the currents must constantly be such that they 
cannot convey hither material from the rather near-lying tracts 
of land. Van Dyk Rock and Canning Land. If just now 
and again a somewhat powerful current came from one of these 
places, much of the material formed by the coast erosion may 
have been conveyed to the deposit, and it would thereby con- 
tain a larger amount of sand. However it is hardly possible 
that these causes alone would be able to produce a constitu- 
tion like that of the sample, a very great amount of clay must 
also have been conveyed into the sea at this place. The 
colour of the sample, which is pure grey, indicates that it 
cannot have been deposited very slowly. It is impossible to 
say for certain if a very great amount of clay can be conveyed 
out of Davys Sund, as most of the natural conditions of this 
territory are very little known. In this connection it will be 
of great importance whether the salinity of the water in the 
bay is perceptibly less than in the sea; this may in itself be 
the cause of the deposition of an especially large amount of 
clay outside a large bay like this one. 

By proceeding from No. 24 to No. 25, one of these sudden, 
rather inexplicable changes in the constitution of the samples 
again occurs, to which we have already drawn the attention 



47 



above. This sample was obtained at a somewhat less depth 
than the former (relatively 161, and 226 Danish fathoms), and 
the distance from shore is not much less , and yet the differ- 
ence with regard to the constitution is very conspicuous as will 
be seen by the curves. The great amount in the sample of ingre- 
dients over 16°™ is very striking, but may be due to chance cir- 
cumstances, as a quite small number of pebbles of this size is 
sufficient to bring about such a result. More characteristic is the 
rather large amount of sandy ingredients viz. 81'7 per Ct., an 
amount which is perhaps not very great in comparison with the 
majority of the other samples, but which is very conspicuous when 
compared with the 0'3 per Ct. in No. 24. Here we can scarcely 
imagine any other reason than this , that a rather powerful 
current runs direct from Canning Land above sample No. 26 
without coming in contact with No. 24. It might also be ima- 
gined that the difference of depth which distinguishes the two 
samples, might cause the current to be so powerful above 
No. 25, that the clayey particles cannot easily be deposited 
there. Possibly the two causes act in concert. 

Sample No. 26 which was obtained outside the mouth of 
Carlsberg Fjord, differs from the last-named mainly by a 
more even distribution of the larger ingredients, as from 0*05™™ 
and upwards there are found equal amounts which do not 
decrease in quantity until from 4 to IQ^^. The coarser 
ingredients may be supposed to have the same origin as in 
the last-named sample, having been conveyed hither by the 
current direct from land. It is not easy to explain why we 
have here such a great quantity of the ingredients between 0*5 
and 4"™ in comparison with those of the last-named sample. 
Possibly the somewhat closer proximity to the shore, together 
with rather less depth, may have enabled the same current 
which only conveyed ingredients between 0*05 and O'S"^"^ to the 
above-mentioned to convey ingredients up to i^^ or more. 

The next samples No. 27 — 3-3, have been taken along the 



Liverpool Kyst, rather near land. As their situation is 
much alike with regard to the coast, they might be expected 
to be of similar consistency and yet they are so different, as to 
have scarcely any feature in common ; they will therefore be 
treated below separately. 

No. 27 is rather fine as compared with the rest of these 
samples, and the curve shows a very smooth, and symmetrical 
shape with the exception of a smaller independent part with 
maximum between 2 and A^^ which was probably derived from 
icebergs. The rest must have been derived directly from land, 
and cannot have been conveyed very far, presumably it came 
from the land near Murray 0. 

No. 29 has quite a different appearance from the last named. 
The curve is of a specially irregular shape, and the great number 
of sandy and pebbly ingredients is most conspicuous, while very 
few clayey ones are found. The circumstance that the sam- 
ples are situated at a comparatively slight depth, 128 Danish 
fathoms, is presumably a suffifcient explanation of the finer 
ingredients being so few in number; probably the current is 
so strong that deposition cannot take place. If, however, we 
want to account for the existence of so large a proportion 
of coarser ingredients the case will be different; they are too 
large to have been conveyed direct from land, and must there- 
fore have had their origin in one of the three factors: icebergs, 
morainic formations at the bottom of the sea, or solid rocks 
from this same place. 

To determine which of the three factors has been the 
most important is rather difficult. It is not likely that the ice 
has had any great influence. There is no special reason for 
supposing that ice can have conveyed such enormous quantities 
of material to this locality, and to others which will be men- 
tioned below, seeing that its influence otherwise seems to be 
somewhat sh'ght Moreover the adjacent samples No. 27 and 
30, have either no coarser particles, or only a very insigni- 



49 

ficaot quautity of them, and they could probably not have failed 
to contain such , if a great number of icebergs had melted in 
these parts. 

That the presence of the coarser ingredients in the sam- 
ples may be due to morainic material is more probable. During 
the ice-age a number of glaciers may have flowed out from the 
Liverpool Ryst in various directions, and large ice-streams 
from Davys Sund and Scores by Sund may have spread 
over the whole territory herein described. By this means, great 
variations in the constitution of the loose rooks of the ice-age 
may very well have been produced, even in adjacent places. It 
is, however, scarcely probable that these, being so near land 
could escape being covered over by later deposits. On an open 
coast like the Liverpool Kyst, a rather considerable amount 
of erosion must take place, and a corresponding transport of 
material into the sea, so that it is not at all probable that we 
should be able to obtain in the samples any material directly 
connected with the ice-age. 

We must then suppose that at any rale a great proportion 
of the coarse material has been derived from the rocks of the 
sea-floor. Even if deposition of the finer ingredients takes place 
on a comparatively large scale, these rocks will only be covered 
during very long geological periods, and will always be able 
by their weathering to provide for a deposition of material in 
their neighbourhood. This material can have all sizes of grains 
from the finest clay to the largest pebbles, the size depend- 
ing on the proximity of the solid rock. It will thus be 
understood that even adjacent samples may be rather different 
in their mechanical constitution, where an essential part of 
their material has this origin. There is however another cir- 
cumstance which must also be taken into consideration here, 
viz. the petrographical nature of the coarser ingredients of the 
sample. If they originate from the solid rocks of the sea-floor 
each individual sample will have a comparatively homogeneous 
XXVIII. -4 



50 



constitution, as several different kinds of rock will not generally 
be found assembled in one small area. This is also partly the 
case with this sample No. 29, as will be seen later, for, out of 
29 rock-fragments over 4™™, this has 23 consisting of granite 
or gneiss, the remaining ones being sedimentary. We then 
arrive at the result that the greater part of the granitic material 
has its origin in the sea-floor, while the rest together with 
the sediments originates from icebergs or moraine-formations. 
Even supposing this last-named material be covered over by 
later deposits, wherever it is situated in a somewhat flat place, 
yet, wherever it was originally deposited in a somewhat more 
undulating tract, it may still project in some places and con- 
tribute its share to the constitution of the samples. 

Sample No. 30 deviates in its constitution greatly from 
the surrounding ones, as it is almost devoid of coarser ingre- 
dients over 0-5и1°1, and has very few ingredients between 0'05 
and 0'5™™. This peculiarity is directly connected with its 
occurrence at a greater depth viz. 241 Danish fathoms. Owing 
to this unusually large quantities of finer material are depo- 
sited, the conditions for such deposition being less good in 
places at a higher level, where the deep-seated currents some- 
times may be very strong. Hence what may origiuaUy have 
existed of morainic deposits is covered, while those derived 
from icebergs are so slight compared with the amount of finer 
material that they cannot be noticed in the sample. For the 
sample to be so fine as is the case here, it is also necessary 
that no solid rocks should exist in the neighbourhood, as the 
presence of such will always bring about the deposition of 
coarse ingredients in large quantities. The very regular curve 
shows that the deposit or at any rate the greater part of it, 
must have originated from one single source; the greater part 
of it was evidently derived directly from land. 

The samples No. 31 and 32 are of a quite different appear- 
ance. Compared with the last-named sample they are of much 



51 



coarser consistency, the maximum size of the ingredients being 
between 0"05 and O'ô"™. This is most easily explained by the 
fact that the lesser depth of deposition viz. 112 and 150 Danish 
fathoms respectively* may produce a current which is strong 
intermittently, and which will prevent the finer ingredients from 
being deposited, whereas at other times other circumstances 
may prevail. Though most of the material in the samples is 
of a somewhat variable nature, we must yet suppose that it 
originates for the most part directly from land. The coarsest 
ingredients on the other hand seem to form a strongly marked 
separate maximum to the right of the curve. These ingredients 
are of a very different nature in the two samples. No. 31 con- 
taining a mixture of granitic material and sediments , while 
No. 32 contains only the former. This might indicate that the 
material for the most part has its origin in rocks at the bottom 
of the sea, at any rate it is unlikely that icebergs would be 
able to deposit material of such a different nature in adjacent 
places. At the same time part at least of the coarser material 
may originate from moraines at the bottom of the sea. The 
influence of this factor is, however, very difficult to account 
for here, as also in several of the other samples. 

Sample No. 33 was obtained from very near the shore out- 
side Кар Hodgson, and at a very small depth viz. 88 D. fa- 
thoms. We should therefore expect the sample to be of a very 
coarse consistency as is clearly shown by the curve to be the 
case. This curve breaks up very conspicuously into two parts, 
the left part somewhat flattened with maximum at about Vso"'^, 
and a very steep part on the right with maximum between 8 and 
16mm Possibly this last maximum ought to be placed even 
farther to the right, as ingredients of over 16™"^ very rarely 
enter into the samples. 

The finer part of the sample originates for the most 
[»art directly from land. The small quantity of the ingredients 
under О-О!'""' is partly due to the proximity of the shore, which 



52 



causes sandy particles to be washed into the sea in propor- 
tionately large numbers, and partly to the slight depth at which 
deposition took place. This in conjunction with the current 
prevents the clay which has been washed into the water from 
having any chance of being deposited. The pebbles in the 
sample have been derived almost exclusively from the rocks at 
the bottom of the sea, as is also seen by their very uniform 
petrologicai nature, 70 out of 74 consisting of granite or 
gneiss. This circumstance entirely excludes the possibility of 
transport by icebergs, and also makes it very improbable that 
moraines at the bottom of the sea can have had any great in- 
fluence. It is not likely that moraines formed in this locality 
so near the mouth of Scoresby Sund would contain so 
homogeneous a collection of rock-fragments. 

The samples No. 34 — 36 were obtained outside the mouth 
of Scoresby Sund in rather deep water. It might therefore 
be expected that their constitution would somewhat resemble that 
of No. 24, found at the same depth outside the mouth of Davys 
Sund. There is however a very great difference, for No. 24, 
as has been shown, was the finest of all the samples, while 
those mentioned here are rather coarse, and contain great quan- 
tities both of sandy and of pebbly ingredients. The former 
ingredients are probably due to the closer proximity of land, 
and especially to the circumstance that the three deposits are 
so situated at the southern end of the Liverpool Kyst, 
that a strong southward current would transport material from 
the land directly to the three localities. The material thus 
transported will be sorted according to size, and the curves also 
show that No. 34 contains far less of the finer ingredients than 
the other two. Of these No. 36 contains somewhat less fine 
material than No. 35, probably owing to the fact that the first- 
named of these samples was obtained somewhat nearer land on 
the southern side of Scoresby Sund. 

With regard to the coarser ingredients of these three 



53 

samples, No. 34 and 36 contain a considerably greater amount 
than No. 36. The two first-named, which consist of rather 
homogeneous material, mainly sediments and basalt, were prob- 
ably derived for the most part from rocks at the bottom of the 
sea. The small proportion of stones found in No. 35, as also 
the still smaller quantities in the two other samples, have been 
derived from icebergs. Whether these icebergs came from 
Score shy Sund itself, or from the ice-floes further north, is 
not easy to determine. The circumstance that samples No. 42 
and 46 which were obtained in Scoresby Sund itself, con- 
tain so exceedingly few rock-fragments makes it appear that the 
ice from this bay cannot convey great quantities of these ingre- 
dients. Bay also says (Medd. om Grønl. 19^ p. 182), that the 
icebergs and the ice in Scoresby Sund can hardly be con- 
sidered important as a means of transport along the outer 
coast, as but little ice seems to pass out of the mouth of 
the bay. 

Sample No. 37, was obtained from the south-east of Кар 
Brewster in rather deep water (223 Danish fathoms), and as 
would be expected from this greater depth of deposition , the 
main part of the sample is also rather fine, with maximum at 
about ^ 64™™. Yet some coarser material is also found in it, 
namely, a small amount of sandy material, which we may 
presume emanates directly from the not far distant shore, and 
also a larger proportion of rock-fragments, which, on account 
of their homogeneous basaltic nature, must be supposed to 
have originated from rocks at the bottom of the sea. 

Sample No. 40, obtained very near land, southwest of the 
preceding station, was found at a depth of 90 Danish fathoms. 
The main mass of the sample, viz. the part originating from land, 
is not, however, of a particularly coarse nature, though percep- 
tibly larger-grained than the last sample. No very great amount 
of rock-fragments is found; these may have been derived either 
from rocks at the bottom of the sea or from some small rocks 



in the immediate neighbourhood of the deposit. They consist 
exclusively of basaltic material. 

Sample No. 41 was obtained even nearer the main-land than 
the last, and belongs therefore to the very coarsest of the sam- 
ples. The shape of the curve is rather characteristic, as there 
is an almost equal amount of the different sizes of grains, yet 
with an indistinctly marked maximum between 0"05 andO'Ol"^™, 
and an indication of a pronounced rising on the extreme right. 
On account of the evenness of the curve throughout its length, 
it is impossible to distinguish its various ingredients ; their 
origin is essentially similar to that of the last-named sample. 

The four last samples are of special interest as they were 
obtained in the bays themselves , where the conditions for 
deposition are very different from those of the open sea. The 
coast-erosion especially, which generally produces most of 
the material in the samples, is considerably less here than in 
the open sea. For the rest, there is naturally a very great 
difference between the ^individual samples according to their 
different situations. 

Sam.ple No. 42 was obtained in Scoresby Sund, south 
of Кар Hooker, at a depth of 135 Danish fathoms; further 
details with regard to its position are not known. The main 
part of the sample consists of rather fine material with maxi- 
mum of the curve at about O'Ol'^"^; to this is added a pro- 
portionately large amount of coarser ingredients right up to 
ymm^ which must have a different origin from the rest, and for 
this we can scarcely imagine any other cause than that of drift- 
ice. According to Bay (Medd. om Grønl. 19, p. 182), the flat 
icebergs inside Scoresby Sund are sometimes quite covered 
with stones, and since they very seldom seem to come out into 
the open sea, they may become the cause of a plentiful depo- 
sition of this material. He does not mention whether the ice- 
bergs in the bays convey any great amount of clay, but this 
is hardly likely, as, everywhere along the coast, rocks are 



55 

found, which cannot cause any great deposition of clay on the 
coast-ice, and something Ihe same will probably be the case 
with the glacier-ice. Consequently we may suppose that only 
the especially-developed right part of the curve has its origin 
in ice-transport, and that by far the greater part of the 
material originates from the coast erosion. This curve, as also 
many of the others, must only be considered as a somewhat 
imperfect representation of the sea-floor, as all the larger stony 
ingredients are entirely absent, and these must necessarily have 
occurred here in great quantities, as so many of them have 
been observed on the icebergs. With regard to this sample, 
we are thus better able than in any of the others to determine, 
by direct observation, that the coarser ingredients must have 
been deposited in very great quantities from a geological point 
of view ; moreover as an examination of the sample shows that 
a comparatively considerable amount of finer ingredients is 
deposited, we may conclude that the coast erosion, and the 
thereby-ensuing transport of material, must also take place with 
great force inside the bay. As the deposition takes place 
comparatively quickly, it can scarcely be supposed that any 
material of the sea-floor can have originated from the forma- 
tions of the ice-age. 

The three last samples No. 43, 45 and 46, have a quite 
different appearance, but they were obtained from smaller, 
shut-in bays, where no icebergs, or hardly any, ever came 
and where the current must have been rather slight. All three 
samples are of the very finest description, as they contain only 
very little sandy or stony material. The absence of the last- 
named material must be due to several concurrent causes. In 
the first place no ice-masses, or hardly any, come into the bays 
from without, otherwise greater quantities of stony material 
would have been conveyed hither, especially in the case of those 
currents coming from Score shy Sund. Moreover special cir- 
cumstances must be called into play with regard to the ice 



56 

which is formed in the bays themselves. It is clearly impossible 
that stones and gravel should come down on the ice from the 
shores, which are often steep. Either the ice thus formed in 
the immediate neighbourhood of the shore cannot be loosened, 
by the surf, and so will melt in the same place, or, if the ice 
really comes out into the bay, it will only stay there a com- 
paratively short time before it is conveyed farther out; if this 
were not so the sea bottom would be much richer in stones 
than is really the case. Finally, no projecting stones and rocks 
can be found at the bottom of the sea, at any rate not in 
the immediate neighbourhood of the samples in question. 
Whatever the explanation of this absence of stones may be, it 
will at any rate prove one of the most striking phenomena in 
the samples from these parts. One would never have expected 
beforehand that the samples nearest land, and in the places 
which do not seem to be very well protected against the surf, 
would be considerably finer than the great majority of samples 
from the open sea. 

It is not only the slight amount of stony material which 
characterises these samples, but also, to an even higher degree, 
the almost entire absence of sandy ingredients, so that No. 43 
and 46, in this respect, are only exceeded by the above men- 
tioned No. 24 obtained outside the mouth of Davys Sund. 
This is a case which probably only occurs elsewhere in shut-in 
and quiet bays, while No. 43 and 46, obtained from the mouths 
of Fleming Inlet and Carlsberg Fjord respectively, are 
rather exposed to the influence of the open sea. 

There is also a probable explanation of the slight quantity 
of larger ingredients in the samples if we suppose that the 
clayey ingredients would be deposited in especially large quan- 
tities in these bays. Even if the coast-erosion in such places 
were less important than it would be right out in the open sea, 
the rivers would nevertheless be able to convey clay into the 
sea, and, the amount would be approximately alike for a tract of 



57 

coast of equal leniïlli, wliether this tract is situated in the bays 
or out in tlie sea. It will thus easily be seen that the water 
in the bays must contain comparatively very large quantities 
of clay. Even if now a fair proportion only of this clay is 
deposited in the bay itself, it is evident that the deposition 
here will take place much more quickly than in the sea. This 
explanation however gives rise to the great difficulty, that it is 
impossible to find any reason why the sandy particles should 
not be deposited in corresponding quantities. As the above- 
mentioned localities are situated very near land , even fairly 
coarse sand-particles would easily be washed out together with 
the clay. Moreover the colour of the samples is against the 
supposition that they are formed especially quickly. The brown 
colour is, as mentioned above, generally a sign of slow deposi- 
tion, even if it may be due to other circumstances, and of all the 
samples herein described. No. 46, is particularly distinguished 
by a very pronounced brown colour. We shall hardly be able 
to decide these questions without a closer acquaintance with 
the natural conditions of these localities. Moreover, as shown 
by the curves, there is some difference between these samples 
as regards details. No. 43, which came from near the mouth of 
Fleming Inlet, is the finest as it has no ingredients at all 
over l°i™, and only 0-7 per Ct. between V20 and l™°i. The 
curve forms a quite regular arch with maximum between Vise 
and ^'266™"^. Very characteristic is the large amount of clay- 
substance found in the sample, larger indeed than is found in 
any of the other samples. This seems to indicate that the 
transport of material to the locality in question must be very 
slight. 

No. 45 was found at the mouth of Carlsberg Fj ord. It 
differs from the last-named by having a very small quantity of 
sandy and stony ingredients, but as the sample came from very 
near land , as is seen by the chart , it is very remarkable that 



L 



58 



these ingredients are not present in far larger quantities. The 
main mass of the sample is also somewhat coarser than the 
last-named with maximum at about Veé^^^. This is in agree- 
ment with the fact that the sample was found in closer proxi- 
mity to land, but also nearer the open sea. 

No. 46, which came from the mouth of Hurry Inlet, 
without any closer indication of the locality, resembles the last- 
named sample in the small amount of its ingredients between 
V20 and 4™™. This sample contains the largest amount of 
the ingredients under 0"01°i°i viz. 90*1 per Gt. The curve is an 
exceedingly regular and symmetrical figure, with the exception 
of the small quantity of material over 0'05°i°^ which was 
derived probably from the ice. The regular shape indicates a 
uniform and regular conveyance of the ingredients. The colour 
of the sample is very characteristic compared with that of the 
others, as it is of a very pronounced reddish-brown colour. 
This is probably in some way connected with its fineness as 
the two last-named samples were also of a brownish colour; 
but no real explanation of the difference in colour has been 
given as yet. 

The preceding pages will have shown that the various 
samples differ greatly in their mechanical constitution. These 
variations- are often very conspicuous , especially when they 
occur in the case of two adjacent samples which we should 
have imagined would be alike in everything. There can scar- 
cely be many parts of the world where such great contrasts 
are seen between adjacent deposits at the bottom of the sea. 
In most cases therefore it will be very difficult to account 
for the natural conditions which have determined the deposi- 
tion of each deposit, moreover the various factors which must 
be taken into consideration are only somewhat imperfectly 
known. It is possible from the constitution of the samples to 



59 

draw various conclusions with resfard to several of these con- 
ditions , and in a hiter chapter the most important results 
will be given. As, however, the mineralogical constitution of 
the samples may also tend to account for the manner in 
which the deposits obtained their material, it will be neces- 
sary first to make this the subject of a closer examintion. 



III. ТЬе mineralogicai constitution of the samples. 



As the samples of this expedition contain comparatively 
large quantities of coarse ingredients, it has been possible to 
determine the nature of the rocks that enter into the samples 
with much greater accuracy than is generally the case. The 
examination of the minerals contained in the sand, which is 
generally of the greatest importance, is here of only secondary 
moment. It is evident, that much more can be discovered by 
an examination of the rocks, than by examining the sandy material. 
Many rocks such as slate and limestone, are very rarely found 
in the grains of sand, as they are very easily dissolved and 
shattered when reduced mechanically to a very small size. The 
same is the case with basalt, though in a much slighter degree. 
With regard to this rock, an examination of the sand will al- 
ways give good results , when only a comparison between the 
different samples is wanted. Sandstone and quartzite, which in 
these samples play a rather prominent part, will in the sand 
become grains of quartz which cannot be distinguished from that 
which originates from the granite. It is therefore only possible 
to distinguish the sand formed by these rocks by the granitic 
sand containing a small, but rather varied amount of other 
minerals such as felspar, garnet, hornblende etc., which mine- 
rals are found either not at all or only in quite insignificant 



61 

quantities in sand originating from sandstone. All these mine- 
rals have less power of resistance against mechanical and che- 
mical influences than the quartz, and disappear in the course 
of time, partly during the hardening of the sandstone, partly 
during its later erosion. As the ratio between these minerals 
and the quartz is somewhat variable (generally between 5 and 
20 per Ct. in primary sand, i. e. sand formed directly from 
granite or gneiss), it is difficult to distinguish the primary from 
the secondary sand (formed from sandstone), even if they are 
found unmixed, but if they are mixed up it is impossible, even 
approximately, to determine the percentages of each. 

Even if an examination of the sand does not give any 
particularly good idea of the ratios between the individual rocks 
which have contributed to the formation of the deposit, we may 
yet obtain from it certain results, which would not be reached 
by an examination of the rock- fragments in the sample. In the 
first place these are abtogether absent in some of the samples, 
or they are present in such small amounts that we cannot draw 
any conclusions from them as to the ratio between the different 
ingredients. Secondly it often happens that the sand has been 
deposited in a quite different way from the stones, so that we 
can draw no conjoint conclusion with regard to these. The 
stones must have originated either from moraines or rocks at 
the bottom of the sea, the sand must have been derived from 
these same factors, or directly from land. The following statistics 
will show that there is on the whole a close connection between 
the different ingredients of the sample. The most essential differ- 
ence is that the sandy ingredients are almost always particularly 
rich in quartz, which circumstance is especially striking in the 
samples in which the coarser ingredients consist totally of ba- 
saltic material. In the samples from the south of Iceland 
something of the same occurs , for quartz is hardly ever 
quite absent in sand, even if it seems almost impossible for it 
to be conveyed to the locality in question. The only explana- 



62 



tion is, that the ingredients of the basalt have a very great 
difficulty in appearing in the form of sand, so that even a very 
small conveyance of quartziferous material will be observable in 
the sand. Hence arises the characteristic phenomenon, that in 
the localities where the coarser ingredients would be expected 
to be far richer in quartz than the finer ones, the opposite is 
almost always the case. 

Only two different sizes of ingredients in the samples 
have been examined, viz. the stones over A^^, and the sand 
between 0*05, and 0*5°i™. The ingredients lying between 
0*5, and i^^ are not very well adapted for examination, as they 
are too small for the rock to be determined by them, and too 
large for a direct microscopic examination. Nor have the in- 
gredients under 0*05™"! been taken into consideration, partly 
because they are rather small for an exact determination, and 
partly also because they have a constitution which is closely 
related to that of the sand, the only difference being that the 
amount of quartz is even larger for the reasons that have been 
stated above. 



The stony ingredients of the samples. 

(Over 4mm ) 

No. 1. 

Granite-Gneiss, 4. 

Sediments 4. Consisting of: quartzite 1 , finely grained 
grey sandstone 1 , loose sandstone-slate with mica 1 , grey 
slate 1. 

No. 2. 
Basalt 2. 
Granite-Gneiss 5. 

Sediments 2. Consisting of: quartzite 1 , sandstone-slate 
with mica 1. 



I 



63 

No. 3. 
Granite-Gneiss 5. 

Sediments 4: hard sandstone 1, loose sandstone 1, grey- 
slate 2. 

No. 4. 
Sediments 3: hard, white sandstone 1, compact, fme- 
granied red sandstone I, grey-slate 1. 

No. 0. 
Sediments 10: loose, greyish sandstone 1, grey slate 1; 
and eight pieces of clay somewhat hardened with numerous 
grains of sand up to 2™°i, consisting almost exclusively of 
quarlz. 

No. 6. 
Granite-Gneiss 1. 

No. 7. 
Sediments 1 (grey slate). 
Basalt 2. 

No. 9. 
Granite-Gneiss 4. 

Sediments 7: quartzite 3, compact grey sandstone 1, in- 
coherent grey sandstone, grey slale 2. 
Basalt 8. 

No. 10. 
Granite- Gneiss 6. 

Sediments 9: quartzite 2, hard sandstone 2, loose sand- 
stone 2, grey slate 3. 
Basalt 5. 

No. 11. 
Granite-Gneiss 12. 

Sediments IS: quartzite 4, hard sandstone 4, loose sand- 
stone 1, grey slate 2, red slate 2. 
Basalt в. 



64 

No. 13. 
Granite-Gneiss 7. 

Sediments 5: compact sandstone 1, loose sandstone 1, 
sandstone-slate with mica 1, grey slale 2. 
Basalt 10. 

No. 14. 
Granite-Gneiss 1. 

No. 16. 
Granite-Gneiss 2. 

Sediments 4: quartzite 1, compact sandstone 1, loose sand- 
stone 1, grey slate 1. 
Basalt 1. 

No. 18. 
Granite-Gneiss 1. 

Sediments 2 (grey argillaceous sandstone with mica). 
Organic 1 (bivalve). 

No. 22. 
Granite Gtieiss 3. 
Sediments 4 (hard sandstone). 
Basalt 3. 

No. 25. 
Granite-Gneiss 1. 

Sediments 1 (red, fine-grained argillaceous sandstone). 
Basalt 1 (red, disintegrated). 

No. 26. 

Granite-Gneiss 7. 

Sediments 13: white quartzite 2, grey quartzite 2, fine- 
grained red sandstone 1, grey sandstone 3, white sandstone I, 
grey slate 1, black slate 1, reddish slate 2. 

Basalt 2 (reddish). 



66 

No. 28. 
Granite-Gneiss 4. 

Sediments 5 (hard, grey sandstone 1, loose, reddish sand- 
stone 1, loose, greyish sandstone 3). 

No. 29. 
Granite-Gneiss 23. 

Sediments 6 (reddish quartzite 1, hard, grey sandstone 3, 
loose whitish sandstone 1, slightly hardened, reddish clay 1). 

Nr. 31. 

Granite-Gneiss 4. 

Sediments 6 (quartzite 1, hard, reddish sandstone 1, hard 
greyish sandstone 1, loose, white sandstone 1, reddish sand- 
stone-slate 1, reddish slate 1). 

Basalt 1. 

No. 32. 
Granite-Gneiss 7. 

No. 33. 
Granite-Gneiss 70. 

Sediments 4 (hard, red sandstone 1, loose, grey sandstone 1, 
greyish sandstone-slate 1, reddish slate 1). 

No. 34. 
Sediments 5 (reddish quartzite 1, hard grey sandstone 1, 
loose, grey sandstone 3). 
Basalt 1. 

No. 35. 
Granite-Gneiss 2. 
Basalt 12 (1 with a bluish radiated zeolite). 

No. 36. 
Sediments 1 (hardened clay). 
Basalt 12 (black). 



66 



No. 37. 
Sediments 1 (loose, grey sandstone) 
Basalt 13 (black or greyish, sometimes altered). 

No. 40. 
Basalt 17 (for the most part of a porous, or somewhat 
loose consistency, greyish or brownish). 

No. 41. 

Granite-Gneiss 2. 

Sediments 18 (8 black, or greyish-black, hard, and 10 loose, 
greyish, much altered). 

No. 42. 

Granite-Gneiss 1. 

Sediments 3 (grey sandstone slate 1, grey slate 1, grey 
phyilite). 

Basalt 5 (black, often rather loose). 

The rocks found in the samples correspond on the whole 
rather closely with the sohd ones of the land near the sea, 
and we may suppose that only a very small part of them at 
most can have been derived from more distant parts, though 
it cannot be proved that such rocks are quite excluded. The 
geological conditions of this part of East-Greenland are very 
various, and not a single fragment is found in the sample, 
which may not have originated from known formations. 

If we consider the nature of the fragments, the ratio 
between the individual rocks of the samples will generally be 
somewhat remarkable. The archæan rocks are generally 
present in comparatively small quantities, except in the samples 
which were obtained in the immediate neighbourhood of the 
Liverpool Ryst, these occupying, however, the largest areas 
within the younger formations. This fact shows plainly enough 
that the glacier-ice cannot play a very great part in the transport 
of the fragments, for by far the greater part of the glaciers 



67 

in this part of the country are found within the territory of 
the archæan formation. But, as has been mentioned before, 
the glaciers from the large bays, probably, seldom reach out 
into the sea, and the archæan rock fragments which are found 
at the bottom of the sea must therefore have another origin, 
being derived either from moraines or rocks at the bottom of the 
sea itself, or from the drift-ice which comes from the north. 

The moraines of the bottom of the sea will be especially 
likely to contain a great quantity of rocks from the archæan 
formation. During the ice-age the glaciers must everywhere 
have reached the mouths of the bays, and perhaps even a 
good way out into the sea, and the bottom — and surface — 
moraines conveyed thither by them will therefore necessarily 
contain an equal mixture of rocks from all the parts where 
the ice passed through, as is seen in the moraines of Scan- 
dinavia. And not only will much material from the archæan 
formation have become deposited in the terminal moraine from 
the ice-age, but the ice-bergs which were formed at that time 
will probably have conveyed the same rocks farther out to sea. 
The result will therefore be, that most of the rock-fragments 
belonging to the archæan formation will occur either in or 
outside the moraine which runs parallel with the coast. As 
will be seen, a comparatively large amount of material from 
the archæan formation was also found in the three first samples, 
obtained rather far from the coast, as in No. 1, 4 fragments out 
of 10 belong to this class, in INo. 2, 5 out of 7, and in No. 3, 
b out of 9, whereas, in almost all the other samples found 
nearer land, these are subordinate in quantity as compared 
with the other ingredients. The rocks of the archæan formation 
which were found in the samples obtained from within the moraine 
were derived from solid rocks at the bottom of the sea, or 
from drift-ice whcih has came from more distant pajts where 
the archæan formation extends nearer to the coast. Of these 
two factors now one, now the other predominates, and this point 



68 

must be examined separately in each individual sample. As 
the rocks of the greater part of the coast which comes nearest 
the sea, consist of basalt, probably those at the bottom of the 
sea near the coast will also consist of this material. 

With regard to the individual ingredients of the archæan 
rocks , it is scarcely possible to distinguish different kinds , in 
fragments of the size in question (4 — 32°i™): they have there- 
fore been treated collectively. 

In the case of the sedimentary rocks, the sandstone 
and the quartzite play the most prominent part, as would be 
expected seeing that they form by far the greater part of the 
solid rocks on land. It is remarkable that a comparatively 
large amount of slate is found in the samples, as very little 
of this rock is found on land. The Silurian formation is found 
in the inner parts of Keiser Frans Joseph Fjord and 
Kong Oscar Fjord, may contain a mixture of all the various 
sedimentary rocks, but it is not very likely that any of this 
formation would be able to get into the open sea, for reasons 
which have been mentioned above. Moreover what came out 
during the ice-age is found outside the territory from which the 
samples of this expedition were taken. We have a proof that 
this formation does not occur in the samples in the fact that 
not a single limestone or dolomite has been found in 
them, although these rocks according to Nathorst (p. 288) 
contribute to form the Silurian formation. The Devonian, which 
has a vide distribution in the outer parts of the two bays just 
mentioned, and may therefore be supposed to have contributed 
much more largely to the formation of the deposits, is not 
stated to contain slate, and this rock was therefore probably 
derived from the tertiary formation. This formation has only a 
very limited extent in the country inside the territory explored 
by the expedition, but is found in far greater amount north of 
Ho clis te Iters Vorland, and possibly still farther towards 
the north. It therefore seems most probable that at least a 



69 

great part of the slate found in the samples was derived from 
icebergs which came from the north though some part of it 
may have originated from rocks at the bottom of the sea. 
Nor is the possibility excluded that greater masses of tertiary 
existed formerly and were eroded during the ice-age, but these 
rocks should , as shown above , be found only in the very 
outermost samples. 

The basalt is found solid near most of the samples, and 
its presence is very easily accounted for, as it may either 
have originated from coast-ice or from rocks at the bottom of 
the sea. 

The first three deposits occupy a peculiar position as 
compared with the rest in as much as they are situated on, or 
in the immediate neighbourhood of the moraine which must 
exist at the bottom of the sea. We have already seen that 
they contain, in consequence of this, a larger amount of frag- 
ments than the deposits found further inland. It has also been 
already mentioned that they contain much more granite than 
the majority of the other samples, namely altogether 14 frag- 
ments out of 26. Of the other 12. 10 are sediments, and only 
2 basalt, which circumstance is rather difficult to explain, as 
the basalt occupies a far larger area of the inland country than 
is composed of the sedimentary formations. It is possible, 
however, that much greater quantities of the latter existed 
formerly, but were eroded during the ice-age. Of the 10 sedi- 
ments, 4 are quartzite or hard sandstone derived probably 
from the Silurian and the Devonian formations which must 
extend towards the north inside С lave ring 0. Three, are 
loose sandstones probably derived from the Jurassic, and 3 
are clay-slates from the tertiary formation, thus all the solid 
formations from inland are represented in the fragments of 
the three samples, which fact is well in accordance with their 
having originated from the moraine. 



70 



Samples Nos. 4 — 7, which were obtained immediately on 
the inland side of the preceding ones, show a quite different 
constitution. If we leave out of consideration 8 pieces of clay 
in No. 5, which may perhaps have been hardened at the bottom 
of the sea, only 9 rock-fragments altogether are found in the 
4 samples ; of these only one is granite, while 6 are sediments 
and 2 basalt. Most of these must be supposed to have been 
conveyed hither by icebergs. The proportionately large quantity 
of sediments is somewhat remarkable. 

Samples Nos. 9 — 13 are, as above mentioned, some of the 
coarsest of all, and contain a great number of fragments which 
must be supposed to have originated from the moraine. The 
composition also shows a certain analogy with that of the 
three first samples, as 29 fragments out of 92, or about a 
third part consists of granitic material. They also contain 
fragments of 34 sediments, half of which are quartzite or hard 
sandstone, the greater part of these originating from the De- 
vonian ; 6 are loose sandstone, and 1 1 slate. These samples 
differ, however, from the first in containing a large amount of 
basalt, 29 fragments in all, this being due to the wide distribu- 
tion of basalt in the country inland from Кар Broer Ruys. 

In samples 14 — 19 very small quantities of rock-fragments 
are found, so that we can hardly draw any decided conclusion 
from the ratio between them. Altogether in the 6 samples 
there are 11 fragments, where of 4 are gneiss or granite, 
6 sediments, and 1 basalt. These must presumably have been 
derived from icebergs. They also show a somewhat similar 
ratio in their rock-fragments as was seen in the samples 4 — 7, 
the only difference being that these contain a somewhat smaller 
amount of granite. The one bivalve found in sample 18 must 
also have been derived from the ice, as it was found at a far 
greater depth than that at which it could originally have lived. 

Sample No. 22 shows an equal mixture of the different 
ingredients and here, as before mentioned, we must imagine 



71 



that the fragments originated from icebergs for the most part, 
though it is not possible to draw any certain conclusions from 
their nature. 

The samples obtained from along the Liverpool Kyst 
show a somewhat characteristic mixture of rocks. As the 
country inland from the coast consists as far as we know 
exclusively of granite or gneiss, these rocks would be expected 
to predominate in the samples, but this is not at all the case 
in the greater number of these. The first few samples Nos, 26, 
27, 29 and 31, show about the same composition as regards 
rock-fragments; taken together they contain 38 of granite- 
gneiss, 30 sediments, and only 3 of basalt. This last circum- 
stance excludes the possibility that many of the stones were 
derived from icebergs coming from farther north, as it has been 
already proved that this being the case, the amount of basaltic 
material would not be much less than the other ingredients. 
Neither could it be imagined that the fragments originated from 
moraines at the bottom of the sea, as, in that case, the depo- 
sition of material at the sea-bottom must have taken place 
much more slowly than we have otherwise reason to suppose 
likely. If the fragments had been derived directly from land 
or from rocks at the bottom of the sea, as it would seem most 
natural to expect they probably would have consisted exclusively 
of granite or gneiss. The sediments must therefore have a 
different origin, and we can hardly imagine otherwise than that 
they came with the coast-ice from the outer parts of Davys 
Sund, and from Fleming Inlet and Carlsberg Fj ord. If we 
consider the constitution of the sedimentary rocks, this corres- 
ponds very well with the geological conditions of these parts. 
Out of 30 rock-fragments, 17 are quartzite or hard sandstone 
which may have been derived from the Devonian, 7 are loose 
sandstone from the .Jurassic, 6 are slates, the origin of which 
cannot be closer determined, seeing that the geological condi- 
tions at Fleming Inlet and Carlsberg Fjord are not as yet 



72 

known. Moreover the three fragments of basalt indicate that 
at least some ice-drift must have taken place from distant 
parts, and that an equal amount of the other rocks must be 
ascribed to this cause. 

In the two samples from the southern part of the Liver- 
pool Kyst i.e. Nos. 32 and 33, the above-mentioned transport 
of sediments decreases perceptibly, at least these rocks dis- 
appear entirely from among the rest. Out of 81 stones the 
two samples contain only 4 sediments , the remaining ones 
granite and gneiss, and not a single basalt. 

Sample No. 34, which was obtained from the northern part 
of the outlet of Scoresby Sund, has a very remarkable 
constitution, as, out of 6 rock-fragments, 5 are sediments and 
1 basalt, while not a single granite fragment is found and this 
in spite of the fact that the deposits were situated just at the 
southern point of the Liverpool Kyst. If any conclusion 
can be drawn from the proportionately small number of frag- 
ments, it would be that, at the bottom of the sea, in the 
neighbourhood of the sample, solid sandstone must be present. 
There is, however, always the possibility that this rock may 
have come with the ice from the bay, even if, as has previously 
been mentioned, there is good reason to suppose that such a 
transport was very slight. 

Nos. 35 and 36, which were found in the southern part of 
the outlet of Scoresby Sund have a constitution which 
corresponds perfectly with their place of origin, as, out of 27 
fragments, 24 are basalt, while only two are granite and 1 
sediment. These last named ones may have been conveyed 
hither by the ice, while the basalt was derived from land or 
from rocks at the bottom of the sea. 

Samples Nos. 37, 40 and 41, which came from the south 
of Кар Brewster, are as might be expected still richer in 
basalt; out of 51 stones, 48 consist of this rock, while 2 are 
granite and only one, sandstone. 



73 



Sample JNo. 42, south of Кар Stewart, contains 9 frag- 
ments, 1 of which is granite, 3 sediments, and 5 basalts, which 
is just such an admixture as ллоиЫ be expected when we 
consider the surrounding formations. 



2. The sandy ingredients in the samples. 

(0-05— 0-5mm.) 

The examination was carried out in the following way: A 
preparation in Canada balsam was made of each sample; then, 
by a gradual shifting of the object-glass 100 consecutive grains 
were counted off. The result is given in the following table. 

The numbers in the above table cannot claim to be abso- 
lutely exact in detail as it is often very difficult or even im- 
possible in sand-preparations to distinguish one mineral from 
another, and several of the different kinds pass into each 
other. Quartz and felspar are together very easily disting- 
uished from all other minerals though it is rather difficult to 
distinguish them from each other. As it would be a quite 
endless task to find axial images for the individual grains, re- 
fraction has been chiefly employed in the separation; the grains 
with a slighter refraction than the Canada balsam are classed 
under felspar, those with stronger refraction under quartz, and 
those in which twin-striation or cleavage cannot be seen are 
probably so small in number in proportion to the quartz and 
the rest of the felspar, that they can have no appreciable in- 
fluence on the result. The optically homogeneous felspar is 
certainly orthoclase in most cases, though a few grains of 
albite or oligoclase may also enter into this division. 

While the ordinary green hornblende cannot easily be mis- 
taken for other minerals, augite and olivine are very difficult 
to distinguish. The augite is almost always of a quite pale 
violet or brownish-grey colour. The olivine is colourless, or 
of a quite pale greenish colour. The augite has a somewhat 



74 



a 



Feldspar 

















02 

а 




<и 


о 

a 
> 

О 


a 
о 
u 
_^- 


3 
OS 


С 

g 
S 


1 
о 
tn 

s 


о 

(2 


0) 

s 

о 


2 

ьс 

(В 

Ö 

о< 

cd 
Он 

О 


"сЗ 
оз 
се 

со 


аз 
со 

о 








о 


s 








_св 

3 



-. се tH 



1 


59 


7 


2 


70 


12 


3 


64 


14 


4 


67 


8 


5 


59 


12, 


6 


67 


7 


7 


38 


14 


9 


44 


8 


10 


53 


14 


II 


55 


12 


13 


43 


12 


И 


40 


5 


15 


57 


7 


16 


63 


7 


17 


53 


4 


18 


69 


11 


19 


50 


12 


22 


46 


13 


23 


50 


14 


24 


56 


12 


25 


52 


20 


26 


59 


8 


27 


55 


14 


28 


55 


11 


29 


54 


8 


30 


51 


21 


31 


52 


13 


32 


30 


18 


33 


25 


23 


34 


49 


16 


35 


36 


17 


36 


19 


11 


37 


16 


5 


40 


14 


3 


41 


10 


4 


42 


33 ! 


4 


43 


48 


16 


45 


55 


11 


46 


56 


15 



1 



9 

6 

6 

13 

11 



13 

4 
5 
5 

7 
7 
2 
9 
4 
2 

15 
8 
6 
6 

11 
5 
4 
3 

3 

1 
1 



less double-refraction, but there does not exist any convenient 
way to distinguish between them in rounded grains of sand. 
The consequence is that the numbers given for these minerals, 
especially for the olivine , which is always found in small 
quantities, must be considered as rather inexact; the total 



75 

sum however is of much greater importance. As they must 
both have been derived mainly from the basalt their separation 
is of no very great importance. 

It is very difficult to distinguish between the opaque grains 
and the basalt. A great part of the first mentioned consist 
certainly of magnetite, while another part must be supposed 
to consist of basalt, which is very rich in iron. Generally 
most of the basalt grains are translucent in several points of 
their edges and are of a dark brown colour, in some of them the 
whole grain is also somewhat translucent. Grains of transparent 
brown glass have not been found in any of the samples, but 
a very large number of the grains which are classified as basalt 
have certainly a glass-like ground-mass, sprinkled with a great 
many small dark particles. 

Under the heading clay or slate, have been classed grains 
of greyish colour and of a very smooth, fine-grained consi- 
stency. Their number does not play any very prominent part 
in the determination of the origin of the sand, as they may 
largely originate from more or less coherent clayey particles 
in the sample, which it has been impossible to separate by 
boiling, partly perhaps owing to the fact that concretions 
rich in iron and manganese have already begun to form in 
the clay. 

Under the last heading: «aggregates or uncertain», are 
classed a number of different fine-grained rocks, which it is 
impossible to separate in the preparations. These are gen- 
erally found in somewhat small quantities or not at all, in 
samples which contain few sedimentary rock-fragments, as is 
the case with most of the samples from No. 30 — 40. This may 
perhaps indicate that some of these grains are fine-grained 
sandstone, or sandstone-slate, but this coincidence may be 
more or less accidental. 

With regard to the ratio between the individual minerals, 
there are several striking peculiarities. 



76 



It has been seen that quartz has a special tendency to 
appear in great quantities in the samples, even where one would 
expect it to be almost absent. In samples Nos. 37, 40, and 41 
from the south of Кар Brewster, though the sample seems 
to consist almost exclusively of basaltic material we see that 
there is from 10 to 16perCt. of quartz present. This is con- 
nected with the wellknown tendency which quartz has to appear 
in grains of sand, so that the percentage of it in a sand 
deposit is always many times greater than its percentage in 
the rocks from which it was derived. Sand which originates 
from granitic material will thus contain 60 — 70 per Ct. of 
quartz, while much less than half of the granite consisted of 
this mineral. If we determine the ratio between the different 
rocks which have contributed to the formation of the sand in 
a sample, we must always reduce the amount of quartz very 
considerably, and must also make smaller changes with regard 
to the ratio between the other minerals. In the three samples 
above-mentioned we should probably come very near to the 
real ratio if we fixed the quartz at 3 — 5 per Ct., then the 
total amount of quartz, felspar and hornblende would become 
about 10 in these samples, which number would about represent 
the amount of granitic material contained in them. 

For the rest, the amount of quartz is fairly equal through 
out the samples; it culminates at 70 per Ct. in No. 2; and 
thus corresponds pretty closely with the amount in some of 
the samples obtained during the ingolfexpedition to the 
West-coast of Greenland. There the collective mass of quartz 
and felspar reaches 80 per Ct., while it here, in No. 2, amounts 
to 82 per Ct., which is perhaps the highest percentage generally 
reached in granitic sand. It must, however, be remarked that 
the ratio for the East-Greenland samples is somewhat difficult 
to determine, for on the one hand the proximity of basalt, 
slate etc. will diminish the amount of quartz, on the other 
hand the presence of sandstone will augment it, as sand 



77 



originating from this rock Nvill probably contain very nearly 
100 per Ct. of quartz. 

With regard to the felspar, this is found in all the samples 
in less quantities than the quartz. The ratio between the two 
minerals is generally between Vs and V's. As might be expected, 
the proportionately smallest amount of felspar is found in the 
samples, where part of the material originates from sandstone. 
In the case of samples, where the quantity of granite and 
gneiss among the coarser ingredients, far surpasses that of the 
sediments as is the case in Nos. 30, 32 and 33, the amount 
of felspar will become much larger, viz. from half the amount 
of quartz up to about the whole amount. This last ratio, 
which occurs in No. 33, is very striking and rare, and cannot 
be explained altogether by the absence of sandstone, but the 
solid rocks which are found nearest this deposit either on land 
or at the bottom of the sea, must be very poor in quartz, 
as would be syenite or hornblende-schist. 

The felspars with distinct microcline structure have no 
great distribution in the samples, though somewhat more so 
than in the samples of the Ingo If expedition, where never 
more than 1 per Ct. was found. Here the microcline is missing 
in the greater number of the samples, but in a few it is found 
in comparatively large amount, chiefly in No, 19. This fact 
might perhaps have been considered accidental, were it not 
subsequently found to obtain also in samples Nos. 25 — 33 from 
along the Liverpool Kyst in which about two grains are 
found in each sample. This circumstance must here be con- 
nected with the nature of the rocks. 

The total amount of grains of plagioclase is about as large 
as that of microcline, but they are found to be more evenly 
dispersed in all the samples. It is strange that none of this 
mineral is found in the samples consisting mainly of basaltic 
material. This feature which was also noticed in the samples 
of the Ingolfexped ition, is caused by the fact that the 



78 



labradorite, though it is found as chief-ingredient in the basalt, 
must very rarely appear in the sand, owing chiefly to its small 
size and its form, like flat tables. Not a single grain of 
labradorite with twin-striation has been found in any of the 
samples. 

The hornblende is found in very varying amounts in the 
samples; as a rule there is remarkably little of this mineral 
compared with what is generally found in quartz-sand, this 
appearing especially in all the samples up to No. 27. In the 
following samples obtained along the Liverpool Kyst to 
Кар Brewster, we find, on the contrary, very large amounts, 
a fact which indicates that the country lying inland from the 
coast must contain a considerable amount of rocks rich in 
hornblende, syenite, diorite or hornblende schist. In the last 
samples, smaller amounts are again found, yet more than in 
the first samples. In samples 37 — 41, found south of Кар 
Brewster, this characteristic is even more striking, as the 
chief mass of the samples originates from basaltic material. 
This indicates that the contributions coming from the north, 
must mainly have originated of the rocks of the Liverpool 
Kyst, from which they were probably conveyed by coast-ice. 

The amount of augite also varies, but generally much 
larger than the amount of hornblende. It naturally bears a 
certain relation to the amount of basalt in the fragmental 
stony ingredients of the sample, but it generally only reaches 
half the percentage of this rock. The great inclination of this 
mineral appear as grains of sand is remarkable, and it does 
not seem, in this respect, to be much inferior to quartz. 

In samples Nos. 1 — 6, which in 40 fragments contain only 
2 of basalt, the augite in the sand is also present in smaller 
amount than in any of the other samples, namely on the 
average 2^з per Ct. In the samples No. 7 — 15 on the contrary 
the basalt was found in rather large quantities, namely 31 out 
of 96 , and here augite is found to an amount averaging 



79 



14 per Ct. In samples ]\o. 16 — 25, very few fragmental in- 
gredients are found for instance as in 23, where 4 are basalt, 
thus about 17 per Ct. From 3 to 9 i.e. an average of about 
5 per Ct. of augite is found in these samples , so that the 
amount of basalt in the samples is perhaps not so large really 
as would be imagined from the comparatively few frag- 
ments. 

In the following samples the amount of augite seems to 
increase somewhat in proportion to the amount of basalt, in 
samples Nos. 26 — 30, only 2 fragments out of 60 are found 
to consist of basalt; here the amount of augite in the sand 
reaches an average of about 5 per Ct., thus an even larger 
percentage than the basalt. The ratio of the next samples 
jVos. 31 — 34, undergoes still greater variation, as, in them, 
only two basalt fragments are found out of 98. The augite 
here is found in an average amount of about 10 per Ct., and 
we must thus suppose that at any rate a great deal of it has 
its origin in various other rocks, which however cannot be 
accurately determined in the comparatively small fragments. 
These are the same samples as those which contain very large 
amount of orthoclase and hornblende, and a closer geological 
examination of the rocks of the Liverpool Kyst will pre- 
sumably be of great interest. 

In the samples rich in basalt near Кар Stewart, the 
old ratio between the basalt and the augite reappears, and here 
it can be stated with greater certainty, as only a very small 
amount of foreign rocks can have entered into these samples. 
In samples Nos. 35 — 41, out of 78 stones, 72 are basalt, thus 
about 92 per Ct. Of augite about 37 per Ct. is on the average 
found in these samples, hence we may conclude that about 
40 per Ct. of pure basaltic sand will be augite; in sample 40, 
the amount of augite mounts to 51 per Ct., so that we may 
be somewhat justified in terming the sand Augite- Sand. 
This amount is larger than in any samples of the Ingolf- 



80 



expedition, a fact which does not prove the Icelandic basalt 
to be of another nature than the Greenland one, but merely 
admits that in most of the Icelandic samples an unusually 
large amount of volcanic glass is found, which has probably 
fallen down as ash for the most part, and this changes the 
percentage of the augite. 

In the sample No. 42, were found 5 basaltic stones out of 
9, thus about 55 per Ct., while the amount of augite in the 
sand is 35 per Ct. In the three last samples (Nos. 43 — 46) no 
fragmental ingredients are found, so that it may be possible, 
from the amount of augite, to form a judgment of the part 
which the basalt has played in the formalion of these deposits. 
No. 43, which is situated in Fleming Inlet, has 4 per Ct. 
of augite; we should thus expect that about 10 per Ct. of the 
ingredients of the sample were of basaltic origin, probably 
originating from the country near Кар Moorsom. No. 45, 
situated in Carlsberg Fjord, has 9 per Ct. of augite, but 
probably only a part of it originates from the basalt, while the 
rest must come from the above-mentioned rocks at the Liver- 
pool Kyst. The same is probably the case with the augite 
in No. 46, obtained from Hurry Inlet. 

The olivine is found everywhere in smaller quantities than 
the augite, and generally stands in a certain relation to it with 
regard to amount, wherefore it is of no special interest. 

Rutile, Zircon and Tourmaline, are, as might be expected, 
only found in very small quantities in the sand, and the same 
is the case with the mica which is even strikingly sparsely 
represented. 

Nor is garnet present in very great amounts in any of the 
samples at the highest the percentage is 6, while in a single of 
the West-Greenland samples from the Ingolfexpedition it was 17, 
and in the next East-Greenland one taken near Angmagsalik, 
it was 9,5 per Ct. A large amount of garnet in the samples 
generally indicates that these for a great part must have their 



8t 



material from crystalline schists while smaller amounts of 
iiarnet, or none at all, indicate an origin from eruptives or 
î^ediments. If we look at the table, rather conspicuous differ- 
ences between the individual samples will be noticed. The first 
seven contain, on the whole, small amounts, such as an average 
of 1 per Ct., while the next eight (Nos. 9 — 17) contain on an 
average 3V2 per Ct. This must correspond with some differ- 
ence in the nature of the rocks of the country inland. On 
examining the chart it will be seen that deposits Nos. 9 — 17 can 
get material from С lavering- and its neighbourhood, whereas 
the deposits above mentioned cannot, there will therefore be 
found in this part some rocks rich in garnet. If we proceed 
we shall see that samples No. 18 to 31, contain very small amounts 
of garnet, only 1 per Ct. on au average. With regard to the 
first of these, this circumstance is connected with the large 
amount of sediments that enter into it; in the deposits along 
the northern part of the Liverpool Kyst on the other hand, 
the small amount of garnet must have originated in some 
special way with the archæan territory on land. 

Along the southern part of the Liverpool Kyst, a larger 
amount of garnet suddenly appears (2—5 per Ct.), and there- 
fore some crystalline schists must occur here. As might be 
expected, absolutely no garnet is found in the deposits south 
of К ар lî г e w s te г. 

The amount of opaque grains is obviously connected Avith 
the amount of basalt in the samples; only in the samples from 
along the Liverpool Kyst is a comparatively larger amount 
found, a tact which is probably due to special conditions in 
the rocks of the counlrv. 



ГУ. G-eneral view of the factors which contribute 
to the formation of the deposits. 



Å. brief survey will now be given of the degree in which 
the various factors already mentioned contribute to the forma- 
tion of the deposits. The different ingredients in these must 
have been mainly derived from one or other of the following 
four sources, 1) the land, 2) the drift ice, 3) moraines at the 
bottom of the sea and 4) solid rocks at the bottom of the sea. 
It is impossible to say for certain which of these factors plays 
the most prominent part in the district now under consider- 
ation , we can only say that they have each contributed con- 
siderably to the formation of the deposits. The material they 
supply is of a very diverse nature. 

I. The transport direct from land which, in other parts 
of the earth, is by far the most important of the factors which 
supply the bottom of the sea with mineral material is here 
subordinate to the other factors mentioned. The mode of 
origin of the material belonging to this class is somewhat 
varied; probably only a small amount is loosened directly by 
the waves lashing against the rocks of the coast, the greater 
part being conveyed hither by larger or smaller rivers; some- 
times the wind will also be able to convey a considerable 
quantity of material into the sea. At any rate the particles 



83 



which have been conveyed direct from land soon become 
sorted by falHng through the water. Even if only a sHght 
current is present, the finest particles will be conveyed several 
miles from the place where they were washed into the sea, 
the rock-fragments will sink to the bottom almost immediately, 
while the medium sized grains will be deposited in the space 
between. If the current runs parallel with the shore, the in- 
gredients from the different places will be mixed up with one 
another, so that nearest land will be formed a very mixed 
deposit, whereas some of the finest material will be conveyed 
some distance away from the shore. If, on the contrary, 
the current flows at some distance from the shore, as is espe- 
cially the case near projecting points, the ingredients will be 
far more completely sorted, so that almost exclusively coarse 
material will be deposited near land while all the finer material 
will be conveyed far out sea. 

Various circumstances may however influence deposition 
which is thereby rendered very complicated. Thus, instances 
have been given above of the influence on the fineness of the 
deposits exercised by differences in depth, which may some- 
times be very great. If there is a somewhat straight coast-line 
along which runs a fairly constant current as is the case with 
the Liverpool Kyst, the difference between adjacent depo- 
sits at the same distance from land will be very great, provided 
there is a great difference in the depth. When the current 
runs over a comparatively deep place, the speed will be slight 
and the finest particles will have time to get deposited in 
such great quantities that the sample will be almost pure 
clay, whereas in the less deep parts, the current will be so 
rapid that sand and stones will be almost exclusively depo- 
sited. 

In llie bays it is rather different, especially in the smaller 
ones, where the area is not large enough for the lide to pro- 
duce currents. There almost all the ingredients will be able 



to be deposited on the spot, a fact which causes very fine 
deposits, especially as also the other formerly above-mentioned 
factors will be of no great importance here. The samples which 
were found in Carlsberg Fjord, Fleming and Hurry Inlets 
belong, as has already been shown, to the very finest, while, on 
the contrary , a sample obtained from S с о r e s b y Sund is 
of much coarser consistency. 

Generally speaking , it will be very difficult to determine 
what proportion of the ingredients of a sample have been 
deposited by transport direct from land. We have here 
two things to go by, namely the size of the grains, and 
the mineralogicai constitution. With regard to the size of 
grains, it has already been explained what the size will be in 
deposits which have been formed exclusively in this way. The 
other factors which contribute to the formation of the deposits 
will in most cases produce a very mixed deposit with finer 
and coarser ingredients intermingled. In almost every case 
we can, therefore, only be sure that the material conveyed from 
land will form a certain part of the finer ingredients of the 
deposit; how great a part, it is often impossible to determine. 
Ice-transport, for instance, may deposit large quantities of clay 
at the bottom of the sea, which cannot in any way be disting- 
uished from other clay; we have therefore hardly any facts to 
go by except that there must probably be a certain proportion 
between the finer and the coarser particles in the material conveyed 
by the ice, this proportion being tolerably persistent every- 
where. If in a sample very few rock-fragments are found 
we may suppose that only an insignificant part of the clay in 
the same sample can have been transporled by ice. But the 
circumstances are rendered still more complicated by the fact 
that part of the material may have originated from the bottom 
of the sea, and this part may consist of all sizes of grains, 
and we have no means vvhertby we can determine the quan- 
tities of each of these bei'oreliaiul. Onlv after a close examina- 



85 



tion of the curves for each individual sample can any con- 
chisions be drawn. 

The case will be somewhat altered if we take the mine- 
ralogical nature of the ingredients of the sample into consider- 
ation also. Here, more specially with regard to the deposits lying 
nearest land, we can draw fairly certain conclusions as to the 
nature of the material transported direct from land. That is 
to say it must be rather closely related to the rocks of the 
country inland , whereas ingredients transported in other ways 
have as a rule a very mixed constitution. 

Speaking generally it is most probable that, in the case 
of deposits nearest land (inside of 20 — 30 kilom.) the greater 
part of the sandy and part of the clayey ingredients have ori- 
ginated direct from land. In the case of more distant deposits 
however. I he portion which has been transported by the cur- 
rents will always be less the farther we get from land, and will 
only consist of the finest ingredients. 

2) In order to realise the value of the second of the above- 
mentioned factors viz. the deposition of material at the bottom 
of the sea by the ice, the samples of this expedition olïer facts 
of considerable interest. We should have expected that a very 
large number of the deposits were formed in this way, but 
the more the samples are examined in detail, the more is it 
proved that the influence of ice must on the whole be some- 
what slight. 

The question as to how great a quantity of material was 
transported by ice to East-Greenland, has been discussed already 
by jNordenskiOld , Eber I in and Bay, and I shall not enter 
liirlher into this matter here as no further observations for 
the elucidation ot this question have been made. I shall there- 
fore only discuss the part played by ice-borne material in the 
formation of the deposits. Even if ever so little material may 
be observed on the icebergs, yet, in the course of very long 



86 



periods, this would form enormous deposits, provided the other 
factors Avhich contributed to their formation worked on a still 
smaller scale. 

The material conveyed by ice is, as far as has been 
observed, of somewhat different kinds. The sheet-ice, which 
forms by far the greater part of the whole ice-mass, transports 
almost exclusively the finest ingredients, while the icebergs and 
the coast-ice must certainly be able to convey some rock-frag- 
ments, although according to Bay, such material is very 
insignificant in amount in the water north of Scoresby 
Sund. The comparatively few expeditions which have pene- 
trated into these parts are however insufficient for the purpose 
of determining anything with certainty in this respect. In 
other parts of Greenland, icebergs have frequently been ob- 
served to be quite laden with rocks and gravel, and some such 
may very well exist in these parts, though they have not been 
observed. 

It is impossible to tell how a deposit formed exclu- 
sively by ice would appear in these parts, as long as we do 
not know anything about the ratio between the amounts of 
the pebbly and clayey material conveyed. Nor does an exa- 
mination of the samples furnish us with a definite answer to 
this question , as not a single sample is found in which we 
can suppose that the material deposited by the ice forms the 
chief mass. There may possibly be some difference between 
the different localities owing to the fact that in a few places is 
a comparatively large number of icebergs found, while in other 
places they are perhaps rarely found ; but on the whole the 
material deposited by the ice must be rather homogeneous. 
Especially may we be justified in concluding that if we have 
two adjacent deposits whereof one is exceedingly fine while 
the other contains large amounts of pebbly ingredients, then 
a great part of these deposits cannot have been formed by ice. 



s: 



But, as lias been slio\vn above, in tbe samples of this expedi- 
tion a number of i-ases have been found in which adjacent 
deposits differ very widely with regard to their mechanical con- 
stitution, which differences must certainly be due to purely local 
relations of the bottom of the sea. 

If we consider the mineralogical nature of the samples, 
we shall be able to draw from it certain conclusions with re- 
gard to the depositing power of ice. As icebergs have their 
origin in so many different localities, the material they convey 
must also be very mixed; if therefore the samples show pro- 
nounced mineralogicai differences directly connected with the 
geological nature of the nearest tracts of land then in such 
cases the influence of the ice must have been rather slight. 
These considerations prove plainly that in the samples nearest 
land the deposition of ice has played no great part. In the 
deposits lying farther from land the case is somewhat different, 
for these will generally contain a very mixed material conveyed 
in other ways, and which cannot be easily distinguished from 
that which has been conveyed by ice; there is, however, as 
has often been mentioned above, sufficient reason to suppose 
that in these also the influence of the ice is comparatively 
slight. 

On the other hand, merely from the mineralogicai nature 
of the samples we can conclude that the drift-ice must be of 
some importance with regard to deposition, and that, in these 
parts, at least some transport of pebbles must take place. 
For, it will often be seen that beside the chief ingredients of 
the sample, which plainly show by their homogeneousness that 
they have originated in rocks of the neighbouring land or of 
the bottom of the sea, there will be found a few others, whicli 
<annot have been derived from any neighbouring place, and 
must thus have been conveyed hither by icebergs. For instance, 
if. out of 100 grains, we have 90 granite, and the rest sedi- 



88 



ments or basalt, which last is not found solid in any place in 
the neighbourhood, we may conclude that these, together with 
a corresponding amount of the granite, have been conveyed 
hither by ice, while the chief mass of the granite has origi- 
nated in the solid rocks of the immediate neighbourhood. It 
has been proved in this way that in none of the samples 
can a greater part than about Vs or Ve be supposed to 
originate from the ice , this is stated in reference to the 
samples that were found nearest land; with regard to the 
others , it is impossible to state anything with corresponding 
accuracy. 

3) The third source of those mentioned above from which 
the deposits may have derived material is the moraines , or 
other ice-deposits at the bottom of the sea. Such deposits 
can sometimes be obtained directly by aid of the sounding- 
tube , in which case we have not to do with a true sea-floor 
deposit. In the case of moraine-derived material we must 
suppose that deposition at the bottom of the sea took place 
exceedingly slowly, and near land we cannot suppose that such 
could be the case, while at a greater distance from land it will 
appear more Ukely. If moraine-ridges are left at the bottom of 
the sea from the ice-age , there is some probability that they 
may be quite uncovered by later deposits for their greater 
height in proportion to the surrounding territory will generally 
cause a fairly strong current to run above them, so that the 
finer ingredients which generally form the greater part of 
the deposit cannot be laid down. If, on the contrary, the mo- 
raine material is not found at any specially great height, the 
whole tract will propably have been covered over since the 
ice-age by a thin layer of deposits through which large 
quantities of ice-borne pebbles may project, and these later 
oil by their disintegration will produce material for the 
samples. 



89 



With regard to the mechanical constitution of the ingred- 
ients \\hich the deposits get from moraines at the bottom of 
the sea, it will be clear from what has been said that they 
will be the coarser ones contained in the samples. All original 
moraine-material is as a rule coarser than the material of 
the samples, and from moraine-ridges where the currents are 
strong part of the clay will always be washed away, so that 
we must imagine such parts at the surface almost exclusively 
covered by larger or smaller pebbles, and in the spaces between 
them sand and clay will be found. If the sounding-tube rests 
on one of the pebbles no sample will be taken up, but, as 
a rule, we may suppose that it will be dragged some distance 
along the bottom of the sea or, will of its own accord slide 
down from the projecting pebbles. Such samples will be of 
a very varying constitution, but are as a rule rather coarse. 
The best proof of the fact that we have to do with mo- 
raine-deposits is that, when we find a row' of coarser 
deposits away from land, and others nearer land consider- 
ably finer, such a difference can hardly be explained in any 
other way. 

An examination of the nature of the pebbles which have 
been taken up may tell us a great deal with regard to the pre- 
sence of morainic material at the bottom of the sea. By look- 
ing at the geological map we can draw fairly certain conclu- 
sions as to what the constitution of the moraine-material will 
be in each locality, and, in the places where the real facts 
correspond with these conclusions we are somewhat justified in 
supposing that the coarser ingredients of the samples were 
derived from the moraine. As a rule, the moraine-material in 
the samples now under discussion will be of a very mixed 
nature, as each ice-current will have passed through several 
different formations, but still there are some characteristic 
features by which it can be distinguished from other material 



90 

especially that which has been ice-borne. The basaltfor- 
mations north of Scoresby Sund are only found at the 
outmost parts of the country, and consequently the icebergs 
of the present day cannot contain basaltic material; the coast- 
ice may perhaps convey some, but this will only be a small 
quantity. The ice from the ice-age , which filled up the bays 
right to the mouths, must on the contrary have eroded a 
large amount of the basalt territory, and this accounts for 
the fact that, although the basalt occupied all the outer- 
most tracts except in the case of Liverpool Kyst, com- 
paratively little of it is found in the samples nearest 
the coast but much more in deposits farther out. When 
we come very close to the shore larger quantities of basalt 
will again be found, which have their origin direct from 
the coast. 

4) The 4**^ factor whereby material is conveyed to the 
deposits is the solid rock of the sea-floor. Where we have 
to do with such, the mechanical constitution of the samples 
is most varied, according as they have been obtained in close 
proximity to some rock or at some distance from it. The 
existence of submarine rocks is often shown by just such 
a seemingly unreasonable variation between adjacent deposits. 
Something the same is the case with regard to the miner- 
alogical nature of the samples. As each mountain consists 
as a rule of only one kind of rock, a deposit which gets 
its material from such will be of a very homogeneous con- 
sistency. We have a still more certain sign of the presence 
of submarine rocks, when the fragments vary suddenly from 
one sample to another, if, for example, we have two adjacent 
samples, one of which consists of basalt, and the other of 
granite, we may conclude with certainty that Ihey must pro- 
cure their material from rocks at the bottom of the sea, 
unless they have been obtained so close to the shore that tiie 



91 



appearance of various rocks in tlie samples can be explained 
thereby. 

The existence of rocks at the bottom of the sea can now 
be proved in many different parts of the territory herein 
described, but still only in the neighbourhood of the shore. 
The presence of such rocks indicates that those tracts were, 
in a comparatively late geological period, higher situated than 
at present, so that the rocks could be worn away by the atmo- 
sphaere , and by the erosion of the water. Otherwise we can 
hardly imagine any power which would produce rocky ground 
at the bottom of the sea itself, where the deposition of loose 
material tends to level the floor. We can on the other hand 
state with equal certainty, that if no submarine rocks are found 
the territory cannot have been raised at any late geological 
period. 

It is impossible to determine with certainty how great 
has been the sinking which has taken place in these parts. 
The fact that a few of the deepest-lying deposits (over 200 D. 
fathomsi contain a large amount of material derived from 
rocks at the bottom of the sea, does not prove that the 
locality from which the sample was taken has been raised 
above the sea, it is sufficient if one or more rocks in the 
neighbourhood have been raised. It seems probable that 
the sinking may have been about 100 D. fathoms, which is 
somewhat less than the sinking which has taken place round 
Iceland. 

It is impossible to say for certain, to what part of the 
quaternary period this higher situation of the country must 
be reckoned; the phenomenon itself can only be conjectured 
from the conditions prevailing at the bottom of the sea and 
can probably not be connected with other geological phe- 
nomena. Both in Greenland and Iceland raised layers of 
.»ilieils are found showinü that the countrv at times has been 



92 



considerably lower than now, but we cannot at present draw 
any conclusions as to the order in which these different 
changes of level succeeded each other in either country. In 
southern Scandinavia, sinking of the country has taken place 
twice since it was covered by ice , and in the interval it has 
been raised above the present level of the sea; possibly the 
same changes have taken place in Greenland. 



Y. The organic ingredients of the samples. 

An account of the third characteristic feature of samples 
is still wanting, viz. their organic contents; but whereas these 
contribute in the highest degree to the character of samples 
generally the case is quite different in the samples now under 
discussion, they being almost devoid of organisms. This fact 
may arise from one of two causes, either that inorganic ingre- 
dients have been deposited in uncommonly large quantities or 
that remarkably few organisms live in these waters. Probably 
both factors worked in concert. The result is that only in 
comparatively few of the samples have organic remains been 
found, and these belong to comparatively few groups of animals 
viz. bivalves, echini, sponges and foraminifera. 

The bivalves have been found only in very small numbers 
namely one whole bivalve with both shells M in No. 18, and a 
few small indeterminable fragments in No. 19. Both have a 
certain interest in that I hey were found at greater depths than 
those at which these animals can have originally lived, viz. at 
124 and 159 D. fathoms, and must therefore like the bivalves 
and snails mentioned by J e n s e n ^) , serve either as a proof 
that the sea-floor was formerly situated at a higher level than 



') Aslarte crenata, Gray; determined by Jensen. 

') Om Levninger, af Gruridvaiidsdyr etc. Vid. Medd. Nal. Foren. 1900, p. 229. 



94 



now, or they must have been transported to this place by 
ice or by some other means of transport. The first supposi- 
tion is, as has been shown above not so very improbable for 
there is sufficient reason to suppose that the bottom of the 
sea was situated formerly at a considerably higher level than 
now. We have only here the difficulty which also seems to 
exist with regard to the mollusca in deeper water, that it is 
not probable that they should have been able to avoid having 
been covered over by later deposits during the long period 
which must have elapsed since the sinking began. As, however, 
В ay M has observed shells on the ice in these very parts, we 
may suppose that the bivalves found in the samples were con- 
veyed thither in this manner. 

A small number of spines of echini have been found in 
a single sample (No. 13), and are of no special interest. 

The foraminifera have the greatest distribution of all 
the organisms, although they are not found in great numbers 
in any of the samples. The most common ones are : 

a. The sand-tube foraminifera have been found in eight 
different samples (No. 1, 7, 18, 27, 30, 35, 43 and 45) distrib- 
uted over the whole territory; in each sample only one or two 
specimens are found. 

b. The rotaliform foraminifera have been found in four 
samples; in two of these (No. 23 and 30) occur only 1 — 2 
specimens which are therefore of no great interest; in No. 40 
more have been found, and in 33 they even amount to 1 1 per Ct. 
of the ingredients between 0*5 and \^^. Both these samples 
were obtained much nearer the coast than most of the others, 
and only a single other sample (No. 41) was obtained as far in. 
This proves that these foraminifera must be deposited in spe- 
cially largo numbers near land, seeing that we have every 



') Medd. (»ni Gionl. XIX. 189ß. p. 179. 



95 



reason to suppose that the deposition of inorganic material 
must liere tal^e place much more quickly than in the open sea. 

c. Of nodosarine foraminifera only 1 specimen has been 
found I in No. 30), and the same is the case with 

d. Haplophragmia one specimen of which has been found 
in No. 42 in a rather significant place, namely in Scoresby 
Sund; otherwise these two forms are of no special interest. 

Sponge spicules are only found in five samples from 
along the southern part of the Liverpool Kysl; they occur 
in comparatively large numbers , yet not so as to influence 
the general appearance of the sample. These five samples are 
No. 30, 32, 3i, 35 and 36. x\s the deposition of inorganic 
material so near the coast takes place very quickly, unusually 
large numbers of sea-sponges must grow at the bottom of the 
sea in this reaion. 



Explanation of the tables II — IX. 

The area, bounded by the curve, represents the percentage of 
the different sizes of grains in the samples; of the two lots wherein 
each of the figures is devided the upper one, to the left, shows 
the amount of clay substance, the rest represents the amount of 
the other mineral ingredients, and herein is also included the very 
small number of organisms. Further explanation is to be found on 
pages 34 — 36. 



Indhold. 



Side 

Notes on some specimens of rocks collected by C. Kruse on the 
East coast of Greenland between lat. 65° 35' and 67° 22' N. By 

Dr. Otto Nordenskjöid 1 

Samples of the sea-floor along the coast of East Greenland 74^2 — 

70 N. L. By 0. B. Beggild. (Hertil Tavle I-IX) 17 



SE. ЭП9 



Meddelelser om Grønland, 



udgivne af 

Commissionen for Ledelsen af de geologiske og geographiske 
Undersøgelser i Grenland. 



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2deD Afdelinff. 



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^^ 1909. 



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XIV. Undersøgelser af Grønlandske Nefolinsyenitcr af N. V. Issing. Miuera- 
logiske Undersøgelser i Julianebaab-Distrikt af Gust. I*'iink. Undersøgelser i 
Egedesminde-Distrikt i 1897 af Frode Petersen, Helgi Pjetui'sson og C. Kruuse. 
Med 12 Tavler. 1898. Kr. 8. 



I 



^^^ ;за9 



III. 



The minerals from the Basalt of East-Greenland. 



By 



0. B. Bøggild. 



XZTIII. 



Amongst other material of scientific interest brought back 
by the Carlsberg expedition to East-Greenland, were 
a variety of zeolites and other minerals, obtained from cavities 
in the basalt. It was proposed to me that I should undertake 
the examination of this material. At first I thought it would 
be desirable to wait until the Geologist of the expedition, Dr. 
0. Nordenskjold, had published an account of the Geology of 
the district explored , thinking that I might thus become 
acquainted with the mode of occurrence of the minerals and 
the conditions of their formation. In the mean time, however, 
Dr. NoRDExsKJöLD uudcrtook to be at the head of a South Polar 
expedition and some considerable time may therefore elapse 
before the publication of his results. Moreover, I am now 
engaged in working out a general description of Greenland 
minerals and cannot therefore omit from such a work an essen- 
tial part, such as the description of the minerals in question, 
I have therefore decided to undertake the examination of these 
minerals now, confining myself, in the present treatise, mainly 
to an account of their crystallographic properties. 

In addition to the minerals brought back by the above- 
mentioned expedition, I have also examined a collection of 
zeolites made by Harz and Bay, who were members of the 
Ryder expedition in 1891 — 92. Further, I have collected and 
restated facts already recorded in literature, with regard to the 
minerals of the East-Greenland basalt, so that the account con- 

7* 



100 



tained in the present treatise may be complete. Finally, 1 shall 
also mention a few zeolites, found in basalt, fragments of 
which have been obtained at various times from drift-ice off 
the south coast of Greenland being probably derived from the 
basalt region of East Greenland. Although many of these zeo- 
lites have a very characteristic crystallographic development, 
yet, in no case, has it been possible to discover definitely 
whence they originated, and that in spite of the fact that one 
would consider them to be very easily recognisable. The basalt 
territory of East- Greenland is, however, so extensive and has 
been so httle explored, that it would be the merest chance if 
one were able to indicate any locality whence the fragments 
would have been derived with absolute certainty. Moreover, 
there is always the possibility that they may have originated 
from unknown Arctic regions situated even further north. 

Our knowledge of the Geological structure of East-Green- 
land has been rendered fairly complete by the various expedi- 
tions that have been sent out during the last century M. The 



^) Here and in the following is referi'ed to the following works: 

ScoRESBY, Journal of a voyage to the northern whalefishery etc. Edin- 
burgh 1823, with App. I. Jameson, List of specimens of rocks brought 
from the eastern coast of Greenland with geognostical Memoranda, p. 399. 
Die 2te Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt in den Jahren 1869 und 1870, Leipzig 
1874, together with the following treatises in 11. Bd. : Toula, Allgemeine 
Uebersicht der geologischen Beschaffenheit Ostgrönlands, p. 475, and 
Lenz, Specielle Darstellung der geologischen Verhältnisse Ostgrönlands, 
p. 481. 

Den östgrönlandske Expedition udført i Aarene 1891 — 92 under Ledelse 
af С. Ryder with the paper of E. Bay, Geologi. Meddelelser om Grön- 
land 18, 1896 p. 145. 

Nathorst, Bidrag til nordöstra Grönlands geologi. Geol. foren. förh. 
Stockholm. 23. 1901, p. 275. 

Carlsbergfondets Expedition til Östgrönland, 1898 — 1900, under Ledelse 
af G. Amdiui' with the following papers in Meddelelser om Grönland. 
27, 1902: 111. Hartz Beretning om Skibsekspeditionen til Grönlands 
Östkxst 18. Juli til 12. Sept. 1900. p. 153. iV. G. Amiirui-, Beretning om 
Kystexpedltionen langs Grünlands Ostkyst 1900 p. 183. V. J. Koch, Be- 
mærkninger vedrorende de paa Expeditionen opmaalte Kyststrækninger 
p. 273. 



101 

results obtained show us that the basalt covers a considerable 
tract of country, but tliat it is not continuous, as it occupies 
two regions some distance apart. 

1) The northern basalt-area stretches from Shannon 
Ö to Davys Sund, a distance of about 300 kilometres, in a 
SSW. to NNE. direction. It forms quite a narrow belt, embracing 
all the outermost islands and peninsulas along the coast-line in 
that region. The basalt presents immence plateau like surfaces 
and somewhat higher basalt cones project but rarely. Basalt- 
veins occur here also fairly frequently and follow, as a rule, 
the direction of the coast-line. 

The rock-samples examined were proved , with very few 
exceptions, to consist of different varieties of typical basalt. 

2) The southern basalt-area covers an extensive tract of 
country. It begins, on the north at Scoresby Sund, the 
southern side of which consists almost entirely of basalt, as 
do also a great part of Gaaseland and Milnes Land. It 
also exists in the form of horizontal veins between the Rhaetic 
Lias beds of Hurry Inlet. From Scoresby Sund, basalt 
extends all along the coast down' to Kangerdlugsuak, a distance 
of about 400 kilometres and it most probably stretches far inland 
in this region, as no other rocks can be seen anywhere from 
the coast. 

Very little is known as regards the nature and occurrence 
of the basalt. 

Jan .Mayen is fairly well known geologically and was 
also examined by the members of this expedition. With very 
few exceptions, only basaltic rocks are found here, varying, 
however, considerably in their nature. 

It is impossible to obtain a very reliable estimate of the 
nature of the minerals contained in the basalt cavities or of 
their relative abundance. Generally speaking, only a few more 
or less isolated localities have been examined , and the choice 
of these has, for the most part, depended on the condition of 



102 



the ice or on other chance circumstances. When an unusually 
large quantity of minerals has been obtained from any place, it 
is generally due to the fact that the expedition stayed there 
some considerable time. On the other hand, there may be many 
places, exceptionally rich in minerals, from which we have only 
a few specimens or none at all, simply because the expedition 
did not stay there long enough for collections to be made. All 
along the coast, from Кар Dalton southward to Kanger- 
dlugsuak, no minerals were obtained, as the boat-expedition 
had neither sufficient time nor room for collecting rocks and 
minerals. Another entirely unknown region is the south coast 
of Scoresby Sund, between Кар Brewster and Sydbræ; 
this coast is very difficult of access and has never been visited 
by any expedition. 

Moreover, the description by Lenz of the zeolites found in 
the northern basalt region, is very incomplete. 

As far as can be judged from the material at my disposal, 
the minerals of the basalt are distributed in the various districts 
as follows : 

The district from Кар Dalton to Кар Brewster is 
rich in various minerals, none of which can be said to predo- 
minate. 

No zeolites have been obtained from Кар Dalton, but 
small quantities of quartz, calcedony and calcite have been 
found there. 

In the large, conspicuous medial moraine of Henry Gla- 
cier, various minerals were found, such as stilbite, heulandite, 
chabazite, levynite, thomsonite and calcedony. 

Henry Land is fairly rich in minerals, laumontite and 
stilbite having been obtained thence in comparatively large 
quantities; most of the other East-Greenland zeolites have also 
been found there in smaller quantities. 

The district around Turner Sund is also fairly rich in 
minerals , especially stilbite ; in lesser quantities analcime, 



103 



natrolite. mesolite, scolezite , thomsonite, calcedony, quartz, 
calcite and aragonite were found to occur. 

On M an by Peninsula no minerals were collected and, 
on Stewart Ö, only small quantities of calcedony. 

The district round Кар Brewster is fairly rich in 
minerals and various zeolites were found but none in large 
quantities ; calcedony and quartz were present. Jameson quoted 
from this locality: calcedony, cacholong, grey and white ame- 
thyst and a fibrous zeolite. 

The basalt along Scoresby Sund contains large quan- 
tities of chabazite and differs in that respect from that of the 
district mentioned above; thomsonite and levynite are widely 
distributed here, but stilbite, heulandite, apophyllite and calcite 
occur only in insignificant quantities. 

Very few zeolites have been found in the regions further 
north. The expedition brought back very small quantities of 
scolezite and stilbite from Sabine Ö. Lenz mentions other zeol- 
ites, chiefly chabazite as being conspicuous in the rock of 
Pendulum Ö and minerals such as quartz, calcedony, calcite 
and aragonite, which were found in various locahties, will be 
treated of later. 

No zeolites have been seen in Jan Mayen up to the 
present time; the expedition brought back, however, small 
quantities of calcite and aragonite. 

Owing to our very slight knowledge of the East-Greenland 
minerals, it is difficult to draw a comparison between them 
and those of the other basalt-regions situated nearest to them, 
namely West-Greenland and Iceland. 

Both of these regions have been carefully examined and 
considerable quantities of difi'erent minerals have been obtained 
from them, also a very much greater number of specimens 
of tlie individual minerals. The basalt of the northern regions 
and that of Scoresby Sund seem to agree most closely as 
regards the minerals with that of West-Greenland. This agree- 



104 

ment consists in the small size of the zeolites and the predo- 
minance of the mineral chabazite. On the other hand , the 
basalt south of Scoresby Sund resembles more the Iceland 
basalt, the distance from Iceland being also inconsiderable. 
The zeolites in this basalt, more especially the stilbite attain 
a considerable size and, possibly, by a closer examination of 
the country, we might discover that zeolites were present in 
comparatively large quantities. 

A description of the places where the various minerals 
were found will be given later, as also an account of the more 
prominent characteristics of the minerals belonging to each 
locality. For the position of the localities, reference should be 
made to the maps accompanying the various accounts of the 
expedition given in the Meddelelser om Grönland vol. 27. Maps 
of the northern territory will be found in the account of the 
German North Polar expedition and in Nathorst's treatise. 

Quartz. 

In the basalt-region of East-Greenland, quartz was found 
in few localities and generally in small quantities. It was 
either in very small crystals or amorphous. 

Кар Dalton. A fairly large quantity of quartz was ob- 
tained from the walls of a cavity in the basalt on the slope of 
Station-mountain. The walls of the cavity were thickly 
studded with quartz-crystals to the length of 1 centimetre. 
Form of crystals a short prism of the ordinary combination of 
faces: w{loTo}, r{l0Tl}, «{OlTl}. The faces, especially the 
rhombohedral faces are well developed and bright. The cry- 
stals are semitranslucent and of a whitish colour. 

From the same locality was obtained a quartz fragment, 
which filled a cavity. This is covered on the outside by im- 
pressions of disintegrated calcite-crystals. 

Henry Glacier. The specinien is a fragment of the wall 
of a fissure, consisting of calcedony covered with small quartz 



105 

crystals of very irregular shape; the most prominent form is: 
/•{lOTi}; ^(oiîl} is quite insignificant. As a rule no prism- 
faces are developed. 

Turner Sund. At Turner Sund or its immediate neigh- 
bourhood , various fragments of quartz were obtained , which 
have no particular relation to one another. 
II From the Sound itself, — no further particulars as to 
locality being stated — , was obtained the in-filling of a 
cavity, the outer part of which was formed of a thick layer 
of calcedony, covered inside with quartz crystals. The cry- 
stals were about b™'" in length and were of the ordinary 
combination: ш {loTo}, г{1оГ1}, slolTl}; they were fairly 
clear and transparent. 

2) Another specimen from Turner Sund consisted of a cavity, 
quite filled with quartz, without any distinctly developed 
crystals. 

3) On the mountain-slope by the Sound a larger cavity (ca. 2 
dm.) was found. The walls of the cavity are Hned with 
a thin layer of greenish calcedony and inside this are small 
(1 — 2°™) transparent quartz-crystals. All the interior of the 
cavity is filled with fibrous aragonite. The quartz crystals 
are of a very characteristic form namely /'{юи} with very 
well-developed bright faces; at the lower end each of these 
is bordered by two symmetrically-situated faces, which re- 
semble scalenohedral faces, but are of compound nature and 
rough surface, so as not to produce the least reflection. 
The prism and negative rhombohedron are not developed. 

4) From Turner Ö was obtained a smaller fragment, consisting 
of a crust of calcedony and opal , on which groups of 
minute quartz crystals of the ordinary from are developed. 

.51 On the mainland, from the north-west extremity of Turner 
Sund, another specimen was obtained. This is a cavity 
(ca. 12 cm. I lined with calcedony and filled in with (juartz, 
having no distinct crystal form. 



106 

Flache Bay and Sabine Ö From these localities Lenz 
quotes (page 486, 489) numerous cavities containing quartz 
crystals. 

Calcedony. 

This mineral, like quartz, has only been found in small 
quantities in East-Greenland and is not very characteristically 
developed. It has already been mentioned as occurring in con- 
junction with quartz. It was found most plentifully in the fol- 
lowing places: 

Кар Dalton. On Depot mountain, a few cavities (up to 
8 cm.) were found filled with white and grey agate. In some 
cases the cavity is quite filled in with quartz. 

Mount Henry; east side. A few quite small cavities 
in a grey dolerite are filled with finely banded bluish or greyish 
agate. 

Turner Sund. The specimen shows^'a bluish-grey, very 
translucent calcedony, forming a layer on the walls of a cavity 
of about 2 centimetres thickness. This is coated over on the 
inner side with quartz crystals. 

Stewart Ö This is a smaller fragment of blue trans- 
lucent calcedony, with small quantities of white opal. 

Кар Brewster. Jameson quotes from this locality : botry- 
oidal calcedony, ordinary calcedony, agate and several other 
forms of quartz. 

Sabine Ö and Pendulum Ö. Lenz mentions as occur- 
ring here ordinary calcedony and "blutjaspis". 

Calcite. 

Calcite has been found in most of the localities in East- 
Greenland where zeolites occur, but generally in rather small 
quantities. It is sometimes found in the form of crystals, 
which are usually small and insignificant, sometimes it occurs 
as a granular mass or, again, it may be an individual crystal 



107 



filliiiir all the space between the zeolites. Wherever calcite has 
been found with zeolites it is younger than these. 

Кар Dalton. On Station mountain a single fragment 
was found consisting of granular quartz ; all over the outer 
surface of this are distinct impressions of calcite crystals , to 
the size of 4 cm., the calcite itself having completely dis- 
appeared. The crystal form is that of acute rhombohedra 
/'{0221) with bright, well-developed faces. 

Mount Henry. In a few cavities, some small (2 — lO'"™) 
bright, colourless crystals are found, associated with laumontite, 
embedded in coarse-grained masses of whitish calcite. The 
crystals are all acute rhombohedra /"{0221); the faces of the 
larger ones are irregular and curved, but those of the smaller 
are generally bright and well-developed. 

Turner Ö. Optically-continuous masses of calcite are 
found filling the spaces between stilbite and natrolite in the 
cavities. Also loose cleavage-fragments of about 4 cm. occur; 
these are semi-transparent and of a pale yellow colour. 

Кар Brewster. Calcite appears here in various forms: 
II As small crystals (1 — 3°™) on the walls of a fissure in a 
grey üne-grained basalt. The crystals are acute rhombohedra 
f?{088l}; the faces being very rough and dull and the 
colour a dark yellowish-brown. 
2i As the infilling of a cavity, between columnar masses of 
mesolite and penetrated by fine mesolite needles. Here the 
calcite is for the most part fine-grained, but sometimes 
crystals 2 cm. long are found, in the form of acute rhom- 
bohedra /"{0221} with rough, dull faces. The colour is a 
light-brown. 
3) In small quantities calcite occurs as the infilling of cavities, 
in association with small heulandite crystals. There is 
usually only a single calcite individual in each cavity and 
the colour is greyish. 



108 



The south side of Gaasefjord. Among the incoherent 
masses found here was a single fragment of a breccia, con- 
sisting of black vesicular basalt, with a cementing material of 
white, granular calcite. In cavities in the latter, many small 
crystals (1 — 3™™) were found in the form of acute rhombo- 
hedra /"{022l} with rough and dull faces. 

Danmarks Ö. Cavities in a soHd reddish basalt were 
filled in with calcite together with small chabazite crystals. The 
calcite forms a single individual of about 5 cm. and also extends 
into several adjacent cavities. 

Кар Broer Ruys and Sabine Ö. Lenz mentions calcite 
scalehonedra as occurring here, but gives no details as to the 
mode of occurrence. 

Pendulum Ö. Lenz mentions the occurrence of calcite 
here in different forms : 

1) A rhombohedron (size 5 cm.) white in colour with fine 
twin-striations. 

2) Somewhat large crystals of a pure yellow colour in amygda- 
loidal basalt. 

3) A yellow, opaque, calcareous tufa. 

Shannon Ö. Lenz mentions from here also an yellow, 
opaque calcareous tufa. 

Jan Mayen. Here, very small indefinitely-shaped calcite 
crystals were found in the cavities of basalt and basalt-breccia. 
These were unaccompanied by other minerals, with the excep- 
tion of aragonite crystals , which were found in one cavity. 
The crystal-form was that of irregularly formed rhombohedra 
rlloTl}; in a few cases scalenohedra occurred, presumably 
V (2131} with strongly-curved faces. 

Aragonite. 

This mineral has been found in many places in East- 
Greenland and also in very small quantities at Jan Mayen. In 
the latter place, however, it was crystallised, whereas, in all 



109 



the others , it was foiiiul in the ordinary form of columnar 
aggregates. 

Turner S und. A single rather large infilling of a 
cavity labout 2 cm.) was obtained from here. The outer lining 
consists of a layer of small quartz crystals, while the inner 
part is quite filled with columnar aragonite of a brownish 
colour. 

Flache Bay. According to Lknz, whitish aragonite was 
found here , both in the fibrous form and in masses with 
radiating structure. 

Sabine Ö. Lenz mentions from this locality very fine 
amygdaloids of whitish, prismatic aragonite. 

Shannon Ö. According to Lenz, a radiating group of 
aragonite crystals, with a strong vitreous 
lustre was found here. 

Jan iMayen. Small, colourless arago- 
nite crystals (size 2 — 3"^™) partly arranged 
in radiating groups, were found in one 
cavity in a grey fine-grained basalt, the 
other cavities containing calcite crystals. 
The crystal form is that of longish prisms, 
in the combination b[oio}, ы [i\0],k[0l\], 
î{02l}. Most of the crystals are twinned, 
often repeatedly so. One of the most com- 
monly occurring forms is seen in figure 1. 
The crystals are rather irregularly developed 
and the faces are generally very rough. 




Fig. 1. Aragonite; 
Jan Mayen. 



Thomsonite. 

Thi.s material has been found in a few localities in Kast- 
Greenland. The crystals are very small as is usual with this 
mineral. ;md the crystalform is, with one exception, badly 
defined. — The localities are : 



no 



Henry Glacier. In a bloch of brown basalt from the 
medial moraine numerous cavities were seen, containing various 
zeolites, such as chabazite, levynite and thomsonite. This last- 
mentioned mineral was found partly as lining in a cavity in 
which no other zeolites were present and partly as a globular 
mass on the levynite crystals. In both places exceedingly small 
crystals were found on the surface, projecting freely and flat- 
tened parallel to a(lOO}j any more accurate determination of 
the faces was impossible. The colour was greyish or brown. 

Henry Land. 
1) From the east side of Mount Henry was obtained a single 
fragment of grey basalt, the cavities of which are almost 






Fig. 2. Thomsonite; 
Henry Land. 



Fig. 



3. Thomsonite; 
Henry Land. 



entirely filled with snow-white columnar thomsonite. The 
crystals generally radiate from a single point on the side 
of the cavity. A few of the cavities contain crystals in the 
form of very thin rectangular plates parallel with a{lÜO}. 
The breadth of the crystals is about 2™™. The commonest 
form, represented in fig. 2, consists of a{lOO}, ш{110} and 
e{80l}. A few of the crystals show narrow faces of /(601), 
r{lOl}, c[00l} and b[OiO]. The combination of all the 



Ill 

faces is shown in fig. 3. Tlie form /^{601} which has not 
been fonnd before in thomsonite is determined bv^) 



Average y . .. Number of Calculated 

value ' measurements value 

/•:« = (601):(100) = 9°12' 8°45'— 9°53' 4 9°20' 



The faces of the crystals are generally dull and coated over 
by a brownish film ; occasionally they are quite bright. 
2) From the hot spring a specimen was obtained which seemed 
to be an incrustation, without any of the rock. This con- 
sisted mainly of stilbite crystals, interspersed with a number 
of small, spherical bodies formed probably of thomsonite. 
The surface is rough and striated, without distinct crystals. 
Colour, a brownish white. 

Turner Ö. Among larger masses of columnar scolecite 
are found a few, small (up to 1 cm.) radiating masses of thom- 
sonite. In one cavity there occurred small (1 — 2™™) projecting 
crystals in the form of very thin plates, the faces of which 
could not be more closely determined. 

The north coast of Gaase fjord in Scoresby Sund. 
Here thomsonite is found in very large quantities and is, with 
the exception of chabazite, the most common zeolite obtained 
from the isolated basalt blocks in the moraine, it is found in 
two somewhat different forms: 

1) In a reddish-coloured basalt, all the walls of the cavities 
were found to be lined with a crust of thomsonite about 
1°^ thick. The internal surface of this crust has a well- 
marked velvety appearance, due to some minute, closely- 
packed crystals, the breadth of which does not exceed 
Q-imm xhe crystals have the form of thin, rectangular 
plates and are very regularly developed , but the marginal 



'i Here, as elsewhere in this paper, the value of angles is calculated 
according to the axial ratios given by Dana (System of Mineralogy 
1892) unless other^wise stated. 



112 



faces cannot be determined because they are so very small. 
The colour is brownish or greyish. In addition to thom- 
sonite, only a few chabazite crystals were found in these 
cavities. 
2) Other blocks consist of a reddish grey basalt, in the cavi- 
ties of which about equal quantities of chabazite and thom- 
sonite crystals are seen. The thomsonite here has the form 
of small regular spheres (about l"^^ diameter) from the 
surfaces of which numerous crystals project. The form of 
these crystals cannot be definitely determined ; the colour is 
brownish. 

Natrolite. 

This mineral has only been found in a few places and in 
rather small quantities. The crystals are always small and very 
badly developed. 

Mount Henry. Natrolite was found here [in radiating 
masses of 2 — 3 cm. without any surrounding rock and unac- 
companied by other zeolites. In one cavity needle-shaped 
crystals were found, projecting freely. These were all much 
decomposed and had no determinable faces. 

Turner Ö. Radiating masses of natrolite were found in 
cavities here, associated with stiibite. Freely-projecting crystals 
are also occasionally found, similar to those mentioned above, 
being also decomposed and without determinable faces. In some 
of the cavities free calcite was also found. 

Кар Brewster. A few radiating masses of natroUte were 
found in a cavity which was almost filled with stiibite. The 
masses measured about 1 dm. 

Mesolite. 

Mesolite was only found in two locahties. 
Turner Ö. A small detached fragment was found, con- 
sisting of a crust of about З"""* thickness. The mineral was 



113 



fibrous mesolite studded on the inner surface by numerous 
short needle-shaped crystals. The mesolite was much disinte- 
grated and оГ a brownish colour. 

Кар Brewster. The specimen found here was a block 
with a single cavity, the walls of which were covered with 
radiating groups (about 2 cm.) of snow-white mesolite. The 
central part of the cavity is almost filled with calcite , into 
which fine mesoHte needles project everywhere. When the 
calcite is dissolved out with hydrochloric acid, the hair-like 
radiating crystals are very distinctly seen. 



Scolecite. 

This mineral has only been found in a few localities in 
East-Greenland and in rather small quantities. Well-developed 
crystals are not found. 

.Mount Henry. The specimen is a loose block con- 
sisting wholly of scolecite, without any surrounding rock and 
unaccompanied by other zeolites. The scolecite is found in 
crystals arranged in radiating groups; the length of the crystals 
may reach 6 cm. and the breadth 1 — 2^^. The faces devel- 
oped are w{ll0} and 6{010}; no terminal faces are developed. 
The crystals, generally speaking, are somewhat decomposed, 
opaque, white on the inside and brownish outside. The faces 
are quite dull. 

Turner Ö. A few pieces of scolecite without any sur- 
rounding rock, are accompanied by small masses of columnar 
and crystallized thomsonite. The scolecite forms radiating mas- 
ses to the size of 5 cm. More rarely, freely projecting crystals 
are found bordered by w{ll0) and ^{oio} without terminal 
faces. The colour is generally snow-white, sometimes reddish. 

Sabine Ö. A couple of small fragments have been ob- 
tained from here , of about 3 cm. in diameter. They consist 
rxviii. 8 



114 



of scolecite, the crystals of which are arranged parallel to one 
another. The surface of the fragments is worn and disinte- 
grated. 

Apophyllite. 

Apophyllite is very rare in East-Greenland as it has only 
been found on three fragments from two different localities. It 
varies very much in its development in the different places ; as 
a rule the crystals are of a fair size. 

Кар Brewster. From here we have a single amygda- 
loid, without surrounding rock. The 
apophyllite fills the greater part of 
the cavity and is not accompanied 
by other minerals. The size of the 
crystals varies from 1 to \o^^. The 
crystal form is almost cubical (fig. 4), 
with c(OOl) and a{lOO} most pro- 
Fig. 4. Apophyllite; minent; on the corners are little 
Кар Brewster. r ^ 

faces of p [111]. The faces are 

rather badly developed and dull. The crystals are brownish- 
white and semi-transparent. 

Sydbræ, in Scoresby Sund. 

1) In one of the basalts with cavities containing thomsonite 
and stilbite, which are so frequent in these parts, a few 
crystals of apophyUite were found. These were developed 
on the thomsonite crystals, some singly and some in groups. 
The size of the crystals is about 15™™. The form is that 
of acute pyramids, with p{lll} and a{lOO} predominant. 
Very small faces of c{00l) and з/(301} are also developed. 
The faces are curved and very rough. The crystals are 
semi-transparent and of a greyish colour. 

2) A fragment of basalt was found, having no connection with 
the specimens mentioned above and with regard to which 
it is expressly staled that it was found in situ. Within it 
are columnar masses of apophyllite without crystal-faces. 



115 



The length of the individual crystals may be as much as 
4 cm. They are semi-transparent and of a greyish-white 
colour. 

Analcime. 

This mineral has been found only in very few fragments 
in East-Greenland, from three different localities. As a rule, 
the crystals are fairly large. They have not been found in 
association with other zeolites. 

The east side of Henry Land. Here the analcime was 
found crystallized in cavities in grey basalt. The crystals 
usually fill the greater part of the cavity so that distinct faces 
are rarely seen. The crystals are always icositetrahedra and 
may attain a length of 1^2 cm. The part nearest the basalt 
is clear and translucent, the rest of the crystals is whitish and 
semi-transparent. 

Turner Sund, opposite the landing-stage. From here 
was obtained a small fragment of a grey, compact basalt con- 
taining numerous cavities , the walls of which are thickly 
studded with crystals, the smaller cavities being quite filled up 
with them. The size of the crystals is somewhat insignificant 
i. e. up to 4^™. The crystal form is that of the icositetrahedron 
with fairly well-developed, bright faces. The crystals are semi- 
transparent and whitish. 

Кар Brewster. Numerous cavities were seen to occur 
here in a dark-grey compact basalt, the walls of the cavities 
being covered with analcime crystals varying in size from 1 to 
jQmm The smaller cavities are usually quite filled up. In one 
of the larger cavities, the spaces between the chabazite crystals 
are partly filled with calcite The crystals are exclusively icosi- 
tetrahedra. The faces are usually very well-developed and 
bright in the case of the smaller crystals, in the larger ones, 
however, they are rather strongly curved. The smaller crystals 
are semi-transparent and greyish, the larger ones are white 
and opaque. 



116 



Stilbite. 

Stilbite is the most widely-distributed zeolite in East-Green- 
land. It has been found in especially large quanties iu the 
district south of Scoresby Sund, in which locality the crystals 
are of comparatively large size. In the Sound itself and to the 
north of it, this mineral is less plentiful and occurs in much 
smaller crystals. Stilbite is most commonly found in isolated 
crystals, or in masses consisting of few individuals. Well- 
developed sheaf-like or cauliflower-like forms are very rare. 

Bartholins Bræ. Stilbite was found in the smaller 
cavities of a brown dolerite rock, in which were also cavities 
containing chabazite and levynite. The crystals were small 
(2 — 3™°4 and plate -like, they were bounded by the faces 
è{010}, c(00l}, e(01l}, the last-mentioned being somewhat 
narrow; w{ll0} and/'llOl} are almost equally developed. The 
crystals are colourless rather bright and translucent. 

Henry Land. 

1) On the east side of Mount Henry, a small fragment of an 
amygdaloid was found, the walls of which consisted of very 
small quartz crystals on which were a few stilbite crystals, 
to the size of 15™"^. The form here is very different from 
that of any other East-Greenland stilbite specimens, as the 
crystals are very sheaf-hke, with/'(lOl} well-developed and 
w{llo} insignificant or absent; c{00l} and e(01l} are also 
found. The colour is almost pure white and the crystals 
are semi-transparent. 

2) Also on the east side of Henry Mountain^ but rather near 
the shore, some more stilbite was found, this being the 
most important occurrence of stilbite as yet known in 
Greenland. The diameter of the cavities in which it is 
deposited varies up to 2 dm. The walls are coated with 
layers of dark, cloudy lithomarge ; inside this are large 
quantities of small quartz crystals (about 1™™ long), which 



117 



form, in a few places, a layer 
of several centimetres in thick- 
ness. The quartz layer is some- 
times deposited on the stilbite 
crystals themselves. The length 
of the stilbite crystals is from 
3 — 4 cm. and they fill the grea- 
ter part of the centre of the 
cavities. They are flattened 
parallel to Ь (OIO) and show the 
combination: r{00l}, 6{010}, 
e {oil}, m {по} and t {l30} 

(Fig. 5). The last mentioned form is rare in stilbite 
occurs very commonly here. It is determined thus : 




Fig. 5. Stilbite; 
Henry Land. 



but 



Average Variations ^"'«ber of Calculated 

value measurements value 

^:è = (130):(010) = 28°53' 27°40'— 29°53' 4 29°Ô2V2' 



The accuracy of the calculation is very close, considering 
that stilbite, on account of its curved faces is, as a rule, 
not at all well adopted for measurements. The crystals are 
of a light reddish colour and slightly transparent. 

3) On the beach, at the foot of Mount Henry, stilbite crystals 
have been found. They cover the walls of a fissure in grey 
basalt. The crystals are covered, especially on one of sides, 
with a layer of rounded, grey, calcite crystals. The stilbite 
crystals are about 5™°i long; their form is rather broad with 
r{00l} about as large as ô{010}; ш{П0} and /"{Toi} are 
also found. The surfaces of the crystals are cloudy and 
of a brownish colour; the inner part is whitish and semi- 
transparent. 

4) From the hot spring some rather small stilbite crystals of 
the ordinary flattened form were obtained, in association 
with small spherical masses of thomsonite. 



118 



Turner Sund. The specimens were derived from the 
vicinity of the mainland. One label was marked «opposite the 
landing-place», the others bore no definite statement of loca- 
lity. They consisted of partly coherent amygdaloids of an 
irregular shape and without surrounding rock, numerous stilbite 
crystals occurring in them. The rock, which is now quite 
disintegrated was probably tufa. The stilbite is unaccompanied 
by other zeolites, though sometimes irregularly formed crystals 
of clear calcite are found in the cavities. The length of the 
crystals is generally 2— 8°^"^, and they occur in plates flattened 
parallel to & {OIO}. Other forms which also occur are: c(OOl) 
and w{ll0}; more rarely e{01l} as very narrow faces. The 
crystals are rather cloudy and their colour is whitish, tinted 
slightly with brown or red. 

Turner Ö. 

1) The inner wall of Fyrböderdal. From here we have 
small bright crystals, size 1 — 2^^, in the cavities of a 
black basalt. The crystals are in flattened plates of the 
ordinary form. 

2) The summit of Fyrböderdal (700 metres above sea-level). 
Here the stilbite occurs in irregular cavities, probably in 
tufa. It is associated with natrolite and a few irregularly- 
formed calcite individuals. The stilbite crystals may attain 
a size of 2 cm. but are rarely at all freely developed, as 
the cavities are, as a rule, completely filled up by them. 
The crystals are in the form of plates, flattened parallel 
with è {oio). Other predominant forms are c{00l} and 
w(ll0}; generally also e{0ll} and ^{l30} in the form of 
narrow faces. The colour is a pale reddish-white ; the 
degree of transparency slight. 

Кар Brewster. In a single tufa cavity some large (up 
to 3 cm.) stilbite crystals were found, together with some small 
heulandite crystals. The stilbite crystals are somewhat sheaf- 



119 

like, with /> {oio} and f[\Ol] about equally developed. The 
crystals are semi-trans[iarent and of a greyish colour. 
Gaa se fjord in Scoresby Sund. 

1) The south coast. A few small amygdaloids were found here 
isolated from their surrounding rock. The interior was al- 
most completely filled with stilbite, so that crystals faces 
(б(010}, f{00l}, Ш {ito}) were only found in a few places. 
The length of the crystals was about I cm. ; they were 
cloudy and of a greyish colour. 

A few loose fragments of basalt were also found here, 
which contained almost exclusively chabazite. One fragment, 
however, had a few stilbite crystals developed on the cha- 
bazite crystals. The stilbite crystals are of the same form 
and size as those mentioned above and are also very irre- 
gularly developed. 

In addition to these, a pale grey dolerlte rock had some 
of its cavities filled with levynite, but others contained both 
levynite and small (1 — 2^^) stilbite crystals, or, in some 
cases, stilbite crystals only. The form of the crystals differs 
from the ordinary one, as è{010}, c'{00l} and /"{loij pre- 
dominate and m{llo} is only seen as small faces at the 
corners. The crystals are clear and transparent, with 
irregular curved faces. 

2) Gaaseland. In a single block obtained from a moraine and 
perhaps of identical origin with the specimens mentioned 
above, a few cavities were found containing, in addition to 
chabazite, small stilbite crystals of the ordinary form. The 
crystals are small, semi-transparent and colourless. Most 
of the cavities in the rock were filled exclusively with 
chabazite. 

Sabine Ö. Stilbite was found here only as a single 
small fragment. It seems to be partly columnar and partly in 
the form of small sheaf-like crystals (1—3"™). of the combi- 



120 



nation b{0l0], c{00l}, /"{lOl} and m{llo}. The last-men- 
tioned occurs only occasionally. The crystals are cloudy and of a 
reddish colour. 

Heulandite. 

This mineral is found only in a few localities in East- 
Greenland and in rather small quantities. The crystals vary 
very much being often very differently developed even in speci- 
mens from the same locality. 

Henry Glacier. Heulandite was found in the medial 
moraine of the glacier in two, very different forms : 

1) Л brownish-grey dolerite rock was found to contain several 
cavities, the greater number of which were devoid of zeol- 
ites, while a tew contained heuland- 
ite crystals. The length of the cry- 
stals is 3 — G^^] their form somewhat 
resembles the pseudo-tetragonal com- 
plex (represented in fig. 6), which 
this mineral has also been observed 
to assume in other localities. Com- 
bination 6{010}, c{00l}, ^{201}, 

s {201}, m {110}. The faces are generally bright and well- 
developed, occasionally somewhat curved. The crystals are 
semi-transparent and of a whitish colour. 

2) Other specimens consist of a breccia-like rock in which 
fragments of an exceedingly compact basalt 
are cemented together with zeolites. In 
only a few places do these take the form 
of freely-developed crystals. The main mass 
of zeolites consists of cbabazite, on which 
are grouped small heulandite crystals (length 
V2"^™), which are developed as shown in 
fig. 7. The crystals form plates parallel to 

Fig. 7. Heulandite; ^f^'^^l' *'»^ ^^S^s of wliich are bordered 
Henry Glacier. ' by c{00l}, ^ {20l}, s{20l} and r {50t}' 




Fig. 6. Heulandite; 
Henry Glacier. 




121 



the last-mentioned face, which is always very narrow, has not 

been observed before in heiilandite; it is determined by the 

angle : 

Average v„--„f ^ Number of Calculated 

, Variations . , 

value measurements value 

r:c={50l}:{00l} = 77^^54' 76°53'— 78°53 4 77°o8i' 

The comparatively large variations in this angle are mostly 
caused by the faces both of >'{50l} and c{00l} being usually 
somewhat broken and facetted so that, as a rule, several di- 
stinct reflexes are produced by them ; the form must, however, 
be considered to have been definitely determined. 

These small crystals are perfectly clear and transparent 
with very bright faces. 

Mount Henry, east side. Grey fine-grained basalt, which 
was found here, contains a few cavities almost completely filled 
with heulandite. Very few crystals are found, their length 
being about 2°^. The following combinations occui": ^{Oio}, 
c{00l}, ^{20t}, s{20T}, ni[]l0}. The colour is a deep red. 

Кар Brewster. Here the heulandite is found in two very 
different forms : 

1) It occurs with stilbite in a single amygdaloid, probably 
obtained from tufa. The heulandite crystals are small 
(1 — 2°^), few in number and are interspersed among the 
large stilbite crystals. They have the form of plates parallel 
to è{lOO}, bordered by c{00l}, ^{20l} and s {20T}. The 
faces are bright and fairly well-devel- 
oped; the crystals are of a pale reddish ^-^^^c • .^-^^^^ 
colour. / ^ I \ 

2) .Many heulandite crystals were found in j\ /ч: Ч /* •.- 

cavities in a dark brownish very fine- [/ XJ ;.••■"" 

grained basalt. The crystals are small 1 "^ \ / 

(1—2™'"), well-developed and unaccom- \\. ■■'''A'^^^ 

panied by other zeolites. Sometimes ^. „ n ■ j-. 

•^ Fig. 8. Heulandite; 

the space between the crystals is filled Кар Brewster. 



122 



with calcite. The crystal form is shown in flg. 8. Combin- 
ation: 6 {Oio}, c{00l}, t{20l}, s{20T}, m{ll0} and m{Tu}. 
The faces are generally bright and well-developed. The 
crystals are greyish and semitransparent. 
Gaaseland in Scoresby Sund. In the brownish basalt 
of this district, the cavities of which contain almost exclus- 
ively chabazite and thomsonite , a single fragment was found 
with cavities containing heulandite, associated with the chabaz- 
ite. The heulandite crystals are 2 — Z^^ long and of the 
ordinary heulandite form è {OIO}, c{00l}, ^{20l}, s{20T} and 
w{no}. They are fairly clear and transparent. 

Float ice near lluilek in South-Greenland. Heulandite 
is the particular kind of zeolite which has been found in largest 
quantities in the loose blocks obtained from floating ice. This 
fact is remarkable as heulandite is of only secondary import- 
ance in East-Greenland. It is found on the ice in three dif- 
ferent forms, none of which is exactly identical with those 
mentioned above, nor can the varieties of basalt, in which it 
occurs , be identified with any of the heulandite-containing 
basalts of East-Greenland. Another remarkable feature is that 
all the basalt-fragments with heulandite that were found on the 
ice were accompanied by a soft, bluish or 
greenish mineral, perhaps celadonite, which 
has not been found in East-Greenland proper. 
1) In the cavities of a small fragment of 
compact, reddish-brown basalt, small heu- 
landite crystals were found, of about 2™°^ 
length. The walls of the cavities are 
covered with a thin layer of bluish cela- 
donite. The crystal-form, which is rather 
characteristic, is shown in fig. 9. Com- 
bination &{010}, ^{201}, w{ll0], s {201}, 
m{Î11}, .-г {021} and c{00ï}; the two last 
forms are very small, especially ('{OOl}. 




Fig. 9. Heulandite; 

Float ice near 

lluilek. 



123 



The crystals have bright faces and are rather well-devel- 
oped. They are of a pale reddish colour. 

2) Heiilandite crystals were also found in the cavities of a 
reddish-brown compact basalt, enclosed in a thin layer of 
pale-green celadonite. The length of the crystals is about 
5mm The form mostly resembles that shown in fig. 8. The 
faces are bright, well-developed, and the crystal fairly clear, 
transparent and colourless. 

3) In a pale-grey dolerile rock numerous cavities were found 
with quite small heulaudite crystals (length about l^^). The 
walls of the cavities are covered with a thin layer of bluish- 
green celadonite. The form closely resembles that shown 
in fig. 8, but c{00t) is far less developed. The faces are 
rather curved: the crystals are clear and colourless. 

Chabazite. 

Chabazite has only been found in a few places, but in one 
of these, namely in Scoresby Sund it is found in such large 
quantities, as to far exceed, in total amount, all the other zeol- 
ites. The chabazite crystals, however, are always of rather 
insignificant size and crystallographically very simple. 

Henry Glacier on the medial moraine. Here chabazite 
was found in the cavities of a brownish-coloured basalt, which 
also contained several other zeolites such as stilbite, heulandite, 
levynite and Ihomsonite. The length of the crystals is gener- 
ally about 2'"'", but may be as much as b^^. The crystals 
consist, as a rule, exclusively of the fundamental rhombohedron, 
/•{lOTl} but a few crystals also have narrow faces of a{ll20}, 
.s-{022l} and e{01Ï2}. Penetration twins occur twinned about 
с {0001}; in a few cases, twin formations about г{|ОП} are 
also found. The crystals are usually colourless and rather 
transparent; the faces are. as a rule, well-developed and bright. 

Henry Land east side. The specimen found here con- 
sists of a single small fragment of basalt, with a cavity con- 



124 

taining small chabazite crystals (length 2^^). The crystal form 
is that of the fundamental rhombohedron: r(l0Tl}, rarely with 
narrow faces of e{01Ï2}. There are occasional twin form- 
ations about c{000l}. The crystals are greyish-white and 
semi-transparent. 

Sydbræ in Scoresby Sund. A few fragments of basalt, 
obtained from here, have chabazite in their vesicular cavities, 
this mineral being sometimes accompanied by apophyllite and 
thomsonite. The crystals are 2 — b^^ long and are all in the 
form of the fundamental rhombohedron; there are a few twins 
about c{000l}. 

Gaase fjord in Scoresby Sund. Many fragments of 
rock were found both on the north and south sides of Gaase- 
fjord, all containing chabazite, either by itself or in association 
with other zeolites. The fragments were all obtained from 
detritus-cones or moraines and, in the latter case, it naturally 
is difûcult to determine whence they originated. The specimens 
obtained from the different sides of the bay seem to differ from 
one another and will, therefore, be described separately. 
t) The north side of the bay: — the numerous fragments 
obtained from the north side were found in a moraine. 
Most of these contain mainly thomsonite in the form of 
spheres or incrustations, the surface of the mineral in the 
latter case being studded with a few chabazite crystals. In 
other blocks are cavities filled exclusively with chabazite. 
The length of the crystals varies from 3 — S^^. The fun- 
damental rhombohedron r(l0Tl) is the commonest crystal 
form; the other forms with the narrow faces mentioned 
above occur more rarely. Twins occur about c(000l} and, 
less commonly, about r(lOÏl). The crystals are usually 
semi-transparent and greyish. 
2) Southside of bay. The fragments from the south side of 
the bay contain as a rule chabazite only. This mineral is 
sometimes found in crystals, resembling exactly in form and 



.125 

size, those mentioned above. In a few cases it is seen in 
smaller crystals, 1— 2°^™ in length, which, in addition to 
^•{lOTl}, almost always exhibit well-developed faces of 
a {1120} and c>i(022l}. One fragment contains very small 
crystals (about 1/2'"°^) together with stilbite; here r{l0Tl}, 
s {0221} and e(0lT2} are almost equally developed. 
Danmarks Ö in Scoresby Sund. A few loose blocks 
of basalt were found here containing small chabazite crystals 
unaccompanied by other zeolites, but sometimes associated with 
calcite crystals. The form is almost exclusively that of the fun- 
damental rhombohedron. The crystals are semitransparent and 
greyish. 

Floating ice near Iluilek in South-Greenland. 
On the drift-ice a fragment of a grey fine-grained basalt was 
found. This has numerous cavities , some of which contain 
chabazite crystals, others levynite, while others are lined with 
a quite thin layer of a soft, sky-blue mineral: celadonite or 
lithomarge. The basalt is not quite like any variety found in 
East-Greenland and the minerals also differ from those of 
known localities. The chabazite occurs in rather small crystals 
of 2 — o"""^ in length. The only form is that of the fundamental 
rhombohedron: r(l0Tl}. Twin formations are very common, 
especially about >-{lOÏl). The same crystal may be twinned 
about different faces of the rhombohedron. The crystals are 
colourless and semi-transparent. 

Levynite. 

Levynite has been found in a few localities in East-Green- 
land, though not in large quantities. 

As however this mineral is, generally speaking, rarer than 
the other zeolites, we must suppose that on the whole it is 
more common in East-Greenland than elsewhere. 

Henry Glacier, the medial moraine. A brown fine-grained 
basalt was found here with numerous cavities containing various 



126. 



zeolites, chiefly levynite, chabazite, thomsonite and stilbite. 
Only one zeolite is found, as a rule, in each cavity, but, in 
one case, thomsonite was found on crystals of levynite. The 
length of the latter crystals is 1 — 2™™; the form varies some- 
what. In some cavities they are thin and plate-like, in others 
rather thick. The form comes close to the ordinary levynite 
form with c{00l}, r{loTl} and s{022l}. Penetration-twins 
twinned about с (OÜOl) are almost always found, so that 
r{l01l} is only developed in the re-entrant angles. 

Measurements of the better-developed crystals of the thicker 
type reveal a circumstance which is probably also to be noticed 
in other levynite crystals , but which is here very marked. 
From the positions where the two rhombohedra should be 
situated no reflex, or hardly any, is seen, but, on the other 
hand, reflexes appear from two scalenohedra which are situated 
not very far from the rhombohedral faces. Owing to the stri- 
ation, the angles vary considerably, but the forms can, with fair 
certainty, be determined as being two new ones ?; (2 . 10 . 12 . l) 
and w{l0.2. 12. 11.} The faces s{022l} andr{]On} are 
very small and give only very feeble reflexes. The axial-ratio 
generally employed for levynite, namely с = 0"8357 (Haidingee) 
is not apphcable to the crystals from this locality, for which 
с = 0*8010i has been calculated. 

The following angles have been measured: 









Average 
value 


Variation 


Number 
of meas- 
urements 


Calcul- 
ated 
value 


z:c =^ (10n):(0001) 






= 42°46' 


42°42'— 42°54' 


5 




s:c =(0221): (GOOD 






= 61°28' 


60°49'— 61°53' 


3 


61°36'i 


r:s =(1011): (0221) 






= 49°12' 




1 


49°37'J 


u:c = (10.2.12.11) 


(0001) 




= 43° 6' 


42°55'— 43°15' 


4 


43° 7' 


w:r=(10.2.12.11) 


(loTl) 




= 6°14' 




1 


6° 7' 


v.c = (2.10.12.7 ) 


(0001) 




= 55°42' 


55°26'— 56°25' 


4 


55°48' 


v:u= (2.10.12.7 ) 


(10.2.1 


2.11) 


= 33°50' 


33^^20'— 34° 15' 


3 


33°55'f 



As will be seen from the indices, the scalenohedral faces 
V and и are both situated in the zone rs == {lOÏl, 022 1 }. 



к I 




Fig. 10. Levynite; Henry Glacier. 



127 



They are striated parallel to their intersections with the faces 
of this zone. Moreover since the zone cv --= {OOOI, 2.10.12.7} 
contains the face // {2 . 10.12. 11 }, tiie two scalenohedra и and v 
lying in this and in similar zones meet in horizontal edges. 

A penetration-twin with the above-mentioned scalenohedral 
faces is represented in fig. 10. The twin formation is however, 
not always equally per- 
fect, so that sometimes 
the larger part of the 
crystal may belong to 
a single individual 
The thinner crystals 
are partly developed 
in the same way, but here the forms /{lOTl} and s{022l} are 
generally more prominent; the exact relations are not easily 
made out owing to the very narrow faces. 

G aase fjord. On the south side a single fragment of a 
light grey dolerite rock was found. This is labelled «main 
rock» and contains several cavities with small levynite crystals 
from 1 — 3™™ in length. Small stilbite crystals are also present, 
sometimes in the same cavities as the levynite, sometimes in 
separate ones. The levynite has the form of flat plates, with 
curved irregular faces. The form is almost the same as that 
mentioned above, as both rhombohedra and scalenohedra are 
developed. The crystals are transparent and colourless. On 
the north side of Gaasefjord, among many fragments of basalt 
with chabazite, a few were found with the cavities containing 
levynite. These crystals are quite small about 1 —2i"ni in length, 
and of approximately the same crystal form as the preceding 
ones. In a few cavities, a peculiar kind of crystal was found, 
which has been observed before in West- Greenland, but which 
I do not think has as yet been described. Both basal planes 
are covered with a thin layer of threads of a silk-like lustre, 
placed perpendicularly to the plane. In transverse sections of 



128 



the crystal these look like stripes with a well-marked silky 
lustre, surrounding the central, vitreous part of the crystal. 
The crystals of this nature, which have been found in this 
locality, are situated in special cavities and have no marginal 
faces, but, as typical levynite crystals with the same silk-like 
layer have been found in West-Greenland and on the drift-ice 
(as is mentioned below), it is probable that the crystals described 
above are composed of this mineral. 

Float ice near Iluilek in South-Greenland. In the 
rock that has already been described under the heading of 
chabazite, cavities containing levynite also occur. These cry- 
stals are of rather insignificant size (2 — 3°^"^ in length) and are 
in the form of very thin plates. They consist of the combin- 
ation: c{000l}, r{l0ri}, s{022l}, without development of the 
above-mentioned scalenohedra. Twins about с (oOOl) occur, as 

shown in fig. 11 ; pene- 
о • : — w-r^ tration-twins which, as 




a rule, are common in 

this mineral are not 

Fie. 11. Levynite; Float ice near Iluilek. n л л mi i 

* found here. The rhom- 

bohedral faces are well-developed and bright; almost without 

any trace of striation. The base is quite plane, but always 

velvet-like and dull and gives no reflex on the goniometer. 

The reason for this is that the face is overlaid by the very 

thin layer of silk-like threads above-described. 

Laumontite. 

This mineral has been found only in a single locality in 
East-Greenland. 

Henry Land. A basalt-breccia is found near the hot- 
spring ^) consisting of fragments of a disintegrated greyish-black 
compact basalt, cemented by a rather incoherent aggregate 



M Mentioned by Haut/ 1. с. page 159. 



i 



129 

of laumontite crystals. There is no trace of other zeolites, but 
the cavities are sometimes tilled by large calcite individuals. It 
is not as yet known whether this development of laumontite is 
connected in some way with the presence of the hot spring, 
in which case it might be of comparatively recent origin, or 
whether the fact that it occurs near the spring is accidental. 
The only fact recorded about the water is that it contains 
sulphuretted hydrogen and that the temperature is 38° C. ; we 
know nothing with regard to the occurrence of any mineral 
deposits. 

The laumontite crystals which, in a few of the cavities, 
are rather well-developed, may attain a length of I cm. and are 
of the ordinary form. They are usually bordered by ?w(llO} 
and c{00l}; more rarely by quite small faces of a{lOO} and 
e{20l}. A few twins about a (lOO) occur. The crystals are 
incoherent as is usually the case and crumbling; their colour 
is a reddish-white. 



IV. 



Contributions 



to 



the Anthropology and Nosology 

of the East-Grreenlanders. 



By 



Knud Poulsen. 



9" 



Ihe small tribe of Eskimaux — counting 350 to 400 mem- 
bers — at Angmagsalik on the East-coast of Greenland about 
65^2*^ lat. N. has in so far special interest in physical respect, 
as it in contradistinction from the West-coast Eskimaux is 
known free from European intermixture and is the only surely 
unmixed Greenland group of Eskimaux. 

During the second Danish expedition to East-Greenland, 
conducted by lieutenant Amdrup in 1898 — 99, I made during 
the wintering of the expedition at Angmagsalik some anthro- 
pological measurings and put down some notes on the structure 
of the population. I found opportunity of examining 40 grown-up 
individuals, 29 men and 1 1 women, besides a few children. 
All these visited our wintering station during the winter. The 
material though not great may still possibly be of some interest 
when compared with and supplying the measurings and exa- 
minations made by the head of the Danish woman-boat expe- 
dition, the present captain G. F. Holm. Then 46 grown-up 
individuals from the district of Angmagsalik were examined, and 
besides 45 individuals from the southern part of the East-coast 
— by the then lieutenant Garde — together with a similar 
number from the southern part of the West-coast. On the 
basis of these examinations the police-surgeon, doctor Søren 
Hansen, gave a representation of the structure and other phy- 
sical properties of the East-Greenlanders^), a representation. 



'i Søren Hansen: Bidrag til Østgrønlændernes Anthropolügl, Meddeielser 
om Grønland. X. Bd. Pg. t -41. Kbv. 1886. 



134 



which contains the substance of our knowledge of this question, 
our former acquaintance with it being based on spread and 
h'ttle informing notes in different travels (Clavering — Graah). 

The named representation gives a full portrait of the 
appearance of the East-Greenlanders, and when I nevertheless 
think that the following remarks may be of some interest, it is 
essentially because the material has been added to by my 
measurements — from 46 to 86 — and my material, the 
measurements having been made according to the same prin- 
ciples, may be compared with the former. 

The greater the number of examined individuals, the better, 
of course, the chance of a reliable result. 

I have not measured individuals already measured by cap- 
tain Holm in 83 — 85. it might certainly have been tempting 
to measure just the same individuals again to examine how the 
nearly 14 years had influenced the development of the structure 
of their bodies. But partly 1 believe that by so small differences 
that would be in question here, no guarantee could be obtained 
of sufficient exactness with the employed systems of measure- 
ment and two different examiners, partly it would certainly have 
been possible to examine only very few of the formerly mea- 
sured. — Having had opportunity to examine only the Angmag- 
salik-Eskimaux, the following remarks will of course only refer 
to these. The representation is based solely on the examina- 
tion of living individuals. A collection of craniums and some 
bones of the pelvis brought home by the expedition will namely 
later on be revised by another together with the very conside- 
rable and interesting material of Greenland craniums in the 
possession of our anatomical Museum. 

The average size of the 40 measured is for men 1611, for 
women 14771^1". But excluding respectively 3 men and 1 woman 
the average numbers become 1624 and 1491 (max.: 1745 and 
1550, min.: 1490 and 1398). These 4 are mentioned as 17—18 
years old, but in my notes as not yet wearing natit, an article 



13; 



of dress that covers the sexual organs and is applied by the 
young East-Greenlanders when they, he or she , think them- 
selves and are thought by their cognates to be full-grown. 
Søren Hansen found for 31 men and 15 women the average 
size to be 1647 and 1551 (max.: 1760 and 1650, min.: 1540 
and 1450), thus 23 and 60™°^ more. If the average size is cal- 
culated according to all measurements in hand from Angmagsalik, 
the result is seen lo be about 163Ч and about 152 cm. The 
average size of grown-up West-Greenlanders calculated on a 
very great number of individuals from the whole of the West- 
coast is stated to be 162 and 152 cm.M. After this there 
seems to be no reason to insist on the theory of the East- 
Greenlaoders being taller than the West-Greenlanders, provided 
that the collected number of individuals from Angmagsalik is 
thought sufficiently great, what it likely must, when it is taken 
into consideration how considerable a fraction it forms of the 
whole population. 

In the treatise of Søren Hansen on the anthropology of 
the West-Greenlanders, he also remarks that the difference of 
size found according to the measurings then in hand, is so 
small, that it is doubtful if any importance maybe ascribed toit. 

As substantiated by Søren Hansen, it also appears from my 
measurements that the size of the East-Greenlanders is some- 
what, but not much smaller than the established size of the 
European nations (1650°™), and that they, as little as the 
Greenlanders altogether, can be stated to be very small people. 

As to the proportions of the body Søren Hansen writes 
the following according to the examinations of Holm and Garde: 
'•The arms strong and muscular; the length between the out- 
stretched hands nearly the same, most frequently a little smaller 
than the size of the body; but the chest being very much 



') .'^вren Hansen: Birlra!.' til Vestgrønlænderncs Anthropologi. Meddelelser 
om Grenland, VII. Bd Ре. 163— 2,50. Kbhvn. 1893. 



136 



developed and the breadth of the shoulders taking up therefore 
a proportionally great part of the length between the outstret- 
ched hands, the arm itself must certainly be stated to be short, 
if anything. The nether extremities short; the muscling slightly 
developed. The chest very strong. The abdomen well propor- 
tioned, not very prominent". 

I have made measurements of the length between the out- 
stretched hands (measured over the back), of the stature in 
sitting posture, of the distance from the spinal process to 
tubera ischii and of the extent of the chest. These measure- 
ments as well as my general notes on the circumstances 
appertaining here, lead to the very same result, wherefore 1 shall 
not tire with recounting of numbers. But in this connection 
1 presume to draw the attention to a hypothesis set up by 
Søren Hansen in : Bidrag til Vestgrønlændernes Anthropologi, 
in the section of the proportions. 

He writes here: "Starting by the theory that a series of 
races may develop themselves in a similar way as a series of 
species of the animal or vegetable kingdom, there is a reason 
to believe that this development is analogous with the deve- 
lopment of the single individual in the way that the lowest link 
of the series corresponds with a more childish or at least 
juvenile degree of development and the highest one with the 
most developed phase. Starting by the supposition that the 
place of the Eskimaux in physical respect is in the lowest end 
of the system we must — if the hypothesis is right — look 
for juvenile features in their structure". After having discussed 
the influence of the occupation on the proportions, he arrives 
at the result that the proportions of the West-Greenlanders in 
several particulars offer juvenile traits — ^ thus the small feet 
and the relatively short arms. As to the nether extremities it 
might be expected according to what has been set up that they 
also were shorter in the Eskimaux than in all other human 
races because they — as the upper extremities — are relatively 



137 



shorter in children than in grown-up people. According to the 
measurements of Søren Hansen on the West-Greenlanders their 
nether extremities are slightly developed, if anything, but still 
not so short as might be expected. 

Their relative length seems to be smaller in the East- 
Greenlanders. This appears partly from the general remarks 
on this circumstance in Søren Hansen's : Bidrag til Østgrøn- 
lændernes Anthropologi, partly from my measurements. 

The hands and feet of the East-Greenlanders are practically 
always remarkably small and well-formed. 

As to the form of head and face my measurements are 
very consistent with the former in hand, as may be seen from 
the comparison undernoted. The main race-character of the 
head is its breadth-index, the proportion between its greatest 
breadth and greatest length. It stands thus: 





Men 


Women 




Average 


Maxim. 


Minim. 


Average 


Maxim. 


Minim. 


According to Søren Han- 
sen's measurings . . . 
According to mine. . . . 


76-9 
76-5 


84-2 
80-2 


71-8 
732 


75-6 
75-7 


81-2 
78-9 


69-9 
72-0 



The greatest length of the head is : 





Men 


Women 




Average 


Maxim. 


Minim. 


Average 


Maxim. 


Minim. 


According to the mea- 
surings of S. H 

According to mine. . . 


192 
19-2 


201 
20-5 


18-5 
18-1 


18-7 
18-4 


19-5 
19-3 


17-8 
17-8 



The greatest breadth of the head is: 



According to the mea- 
surings of S. H. . . . 
According to mine . . . 



Men 



Average Maxim. I Minim. 



14-7 
14-7 



15-7 
15-6 



140 
14-2 



Women 



Average 

141 
140 



Maxim. Minim. 



153 
14-6 



131 
13-4 



138 

The congruity between the two groups of measiirings is, 
as may be seen, even surprisingly great which is not quite 
without importance, I presume. The fact is, that when as here 
two different examiners at different times have arrived at so to 
speak the same result by measuring a number of individuals, 
not quite small in proportion to the whole population, and not 
the same individuals the two times, it may surely be said to 
prove that the result is correct, not only that the measurings 
have been fairly correctly executed both times, but also that 
the number has been sufficiently great to give a trustworthy 
expression of the real facts. The result, then, becomes this, 
that the form of the head of the East-Greenlanders , as also 
stated by Søren Hansen , is pronounced mesaticephalous , yet 
more particularly tending to dolicocephalism and not pronounced 
dolicocephalous as formerly stated for the Eskimaux generally 
by Broca, Virchow and Girard de Rialle among others. 

To determine the length of the face I have Ике the former 
examiners measured the length of the face viz. the distance 
from glabella to the kin, the "breadth of the zygoma" or more 
correctly the distance between the two zygomata and the breadth 
of the nether jaw viz. the distance between the angles of the 
nether jaw, measured when the mouth was open. From these 
measures Søren Hansen has calculated three indices, namely: 

index facialis superior^ viz. {the proportion between breadth 
of zygoma and length of face. 

index gonio-zygomaticus^ viz. the proportion between breadth 
of zygoma and breadth of nether jaw. and 

index facialis inferior^ viz. the proportion between length 
of face and breadth of nether jaw. 

The averages of these indices are: 

According to According to my 
Søren Hansen measurings 

index facial, sup 103-8 100-9 

index gonio-zygomat 82-3 80-4 

index facial, inf 85-4 81-1 



139 



.My indices correspond with the following average measures : 

Length of face 140"5 

Breadth of zygoma 14 1*7 

Breadth of nether jaw ... 113'9 

which is in good conformity with the statement of Søren Hansen 
that the length of the face is a Uttle smaller than its breadth 
and that this is about Vs greater than the breadth over the 
angles of the nether jaw. The differences of the found indices 
are also so small that scarcely any significance can be ascribed 
to them ; at any rate, Søren Hansen remarks in full conformity 
with my measures and observations that the form of the face 
is oval or perhaps rather elliptic on account of the lower part 
of the face being relatively broad. 

To determine the form of the nose I have measured the 
distance from the root of the nose to the place of meeting be- 
tween septum nasi and the upper lip, and the distance between 
the outermost points of the wings of the nose. This measure, 
stated by Broca, has been used by Søren Hansen on the West- 
coast and is recommended in preference to the distance between 
the bottoms of the furrows behind the wings of the nose (Vir- 
chow), a measure, used by Holm on the Woman-boat expedi- 
tion, in this point then Holm's and my measurements cannot 
be compared, my average index becoming higher: 70'2 against 
628. The form of the nose is besides individually very dif- 
ferent in the East-Greenlanders, so different that an average 
index after all does not give any impression of it. According 
to my measurements index varies between 88*4 and 59'3, 
according to those of Holm even between 81'1 and 403. 
According to the measurements of Holm a considerable diffe- 
rence of sex is found, index being for men 639, for women 
609; according to mine there is a similar difference of sex, 
but in opposite direction, index being for men 69*2, for women 
72*9. According to the very extensive measurings of Søren 
Hansen on the West-coast the average index is there for men 



140 

76'2 and for women 77*3 (the measures after Broca) — thus 
greater for women and on the whole not little greater than that 
found for the East-Greenlanders. But so great differences be- 
tween the results of the different observers and so great 
distances from maximum to minimum in the series of exami- 
nations of the same observer partly indicate very great individual 
differences, but also that measuring of the dimensions of the 
nose is a difficult thing, perhaps on the whole scarcely possible 
to execute with sufficient exactness to give a trustworthy im- 
pression of the form of the nose. 

The measures are also so small that errors in themselves 
insignificant may give quite misleading results, and to him who 
has tried a few times it will soon appear, how difficult it is to 
measure exactly the distance between the outermost points of 
the wings of the nose. Partly the wings of the nose are very 
easily pressed together, and partly with many people an invo- 
luntary play of the wings of the nose is found, so that these 
do not take up the same position in a constancy. At any rate 
1 have often by repeated measurings of the same individual 
obtained different sizes of the breadth of the nose, certainly 
only slight differences, but yet sufficient to influence the result. 
Though not believing that any greater significance may be 
ascribed to the measurings of the nose, I will just mention 
the considerably higher nasal index, found by Søren Hansen for 
the West-Greenlanders than by me for the East-Greenlanders, 
of measurings executed in the same way. Certainly my mea- 
surings are less numerous, but yet sufficient to make it impro- 
bable that the great difference might be due to a mere accident, 
and as the crossing of the West-Greenlanders with European 
elements must be thought to have worked towards a lower nasal 
index, it is not quite out of the way to think that the found 
fact might suggest a difference of tribe. — In my notes I 
have everywhere to the measures affixed short remarks on the 
form of the nose. According to these it is very variable as 



I«. 

I 



141 



has been said. In about the half part of the cases is noted: 
Prominent, straight, well-formed or nearly straight, rather well- 
formed or the like. In about Vs is found noted: Great, curved, 
slightly hunched or beautifully formed, slightly curved and in 
the rest broad, flat or retrousé. But there are all forms of 
transition from pronounced Mongolian nose to pronounced 
Indian nose. 

That which characterizes the eyes of the East-Greenlanders 
the most is their Mongolian shape produced by the forming of 
the so-called Mongolian fold — the fold of the skin imme- 
diately over the upper eyelid prolonging itself and covering the 
inner angle of the eye. Thus Søren Hansen describes the 
Mongolian fold of the West-Greenlanders in whom it is often 
found, though less developed than in the Mongols. Being very 
general in the East-Greenlanders it was only missed in hardly 
10°/o of the observed and was often very strongly developped. 
But the palpebral fissure itself is nearly always horizontal. Its 
presence suggests kinship with the Mongols and its more rare 
appearance in the West-Greenlanders is probably a consequence 
of the crossing. The colour of the iris of the eye is brown in 
different shades, most frequently dark-brown. I have not seen 
a single East-Greenlander with blue eyes, and if it appears on 
the whole it is certainly a very uncommon thing. 

The hair is black or dark-brown , always straight. The 
growth of the beard is scarce as the hairiness on the whole. 
Yet the hairiness of pubes is often rather well developped. 
The colour of the skin on the covered parts is light tawny or 
light olive. On the lumbar region darker, often with a rather 
strongly bluish tint that seems to be strongest in young indi- 
viduals, perhaps being a rest of the blue spot found on the 
cross of infants. This much mentioned spot was present in 
the few infants I saw. As to its importance I refer to Søren 
Hansen. The uncovered skin is tawny or reddish brown. The 
skin of genitalia pronounced bluishly pigmented. 



142 



The teeth are on the whole strong, but much worn. Only 
once I saw a carious tooth. They are often rather misplaced, 
but holes in the series of teeth are so to speak never seen, 
not even in old people in whom they are nearly worn away. 
The eye-teeth are often chisel-formed. 

As to the outer ear I shall lead the attention to an 
anomaly of form which I found in the great majority of the 
individuals observed. The ear being else well-formed, not less 
than 36 of 44, examined on this question, were found to have 
the little lobulus auris grown fast with its front edge in its 
whole extent to the skin of the face, and lobulus was in most 
cases moreover so small that there really was no one at all. 
Only in one individual, a grown-up man, it was found tolerably 
well developped on both sides; in one it was present on the 
right side, but not on the left, and in the resting 6 it was only 
present by way of suggestion. 

As is well known, the want of lobulus auris like anomalies 
of form of the outer ear on the whole have been looked upon 
as one of the outward signs of intellectual or moral degene- 
ration by many anthropologists and criminaUsts. Starting by this 
hypothesis numerous statistics have been collected in prisons 
and lunatic asylums to show the special frequency of such 
anomalies in criminals and deranged persons. But the material 
was collected starting by a preconceived hypothesis, and later 
examinations and comparisons with the outward ear of normal 
individuals have shown that the examination is utterly doubtful. 

But it is a fact that heredity asserts itself very much in 
this domain, the same anomaly of the form of the ear being 
very generally seen to repeat itself generation after generation. 
That the said peculiarity of the outward ear of the East-Green- 
landers might be due to a mere accident, is scarcely probable; 
it is too frequent for that. That it might have any relation 
whatever with what is called with one word degeneration is 
naturally excluded, and its exceedingly frequent presence in 



143 



the East-Greenlanders not at all degenerated, neither mentally 
nor bodily, might almost prove the untenability of the said 
theory. Possibly one might imagine the inhabitants of Angmag- 
salik, at any rate those examined by me, being descended from 
some very few families in whom the abnormity had accidentally 
been present and descended by heredity from generation to 
generation. How far it may be thought to have any importance 
as race-character for the East-Greenlanders or Eskimaux on the 
whole can naturally only be decided by far more extensive 
examinations on this point, also of other races of unmixed 
Eskimaux. Such are not in hand, as far as I know. However, 
the great variability of the fact in other races rather tells 
against the possibility of ascribing such an importance to it. 

As may be seen from the preceding, there is on the whole 
a rather exact -coincidence between mine and the former mea- 
surings and observations, so exact, that it must be thought 
permissible in most points to take all measurings together and 
use the mean of the averages of the former measurings and 
mine as an expression of the real facts. 

If the main characters of the bodily structure of the East- 
Greenlanders should be named in a few words the characteri- 
zation would be as follows : People strongly built ; somewhat 
but not much under the average tallness; muscular; arms a 
little short, if anything; rather tiny and short legs; a very 
strong, arched and broad chest; a rather well-formed abdomen; 
small, well-formed hands and feet. The head mesaticephalous, 
almost amounting to dolicocephalism, the length of the face 
a little shorter than its breadth; the lower part of the face 
broad. The nose very variable in form ; most frequently of an 
average breadth, rather often broad, as a rule straight, rarely 
slightly curved. The eyes dark-brown with the Mongolian fold, 
but not "oblique". The ears well-formed, but with fast-grown 
or missing lobulus auris. The hair dark and straight. Growth 
of beard and other hairiness rather scarce. The teeth strong, 



144 



worn. Colour of skin tawny or light olive, darker on the parts 
not covered by clothes. Genitalia and the lumbar region with 
a more or less bluish tint. 

The measures employed for the examination are : 

1. The stature. 

2. The length between the outstretched hands (measured over 
the back). 

3. Height of the seat. 

4. Distance from vertebra prominens to tubera ischii. 

5. Extent of the chest (just over the papilla); for grown-up 
women also beneath the mammae. 

6. The length of the head (from glabella to the most promi- 
nent point of the nape of the neck). 

7. The greatest breadth of the head. 

8. Length of the face (from the kin to glabella). 

9. Breadth of the zygoma. 

10. Breadth of the forehead (vertical over the outer angle of the eye). 

11. Breadth of the nether jaw (by open mouth). 

12. Height of the nether jaw (from kin to row of teeth). 

13. Length of the nose (from the root of the nose to the place 
of meeting between septum nasi and the upper lip). 
Breadth of the nose (between the outermost points of the 
wings of the nose). 

List of the measures. 



14. 



Sex 


M. 


M. 


M. 


M. 


M. 


M. 


M. 


M. 


M. 


Age 


с. 40 


с. 25 


с. 45 


с. 22 


с. 20 


с. 18 


с. 28 


с. 37 


с. 30 




Ul 


1-562 


1-586 


1-745 


1-736 


1-645 


1-568 


1684 


1-682 


1-652 




^2 


1-600 


1-594 


1-710 


1-655 


1-670 


1-554 


1-642 


1-704 


1-643 




^3 


0-802 


0-836 


0-966 


0-949 


865 




0-908 


0-905 


0902 




4 


0-552 


0592 


0-688 


0-677 


0598 


0-554 


0-628 


0-630 


0-624 




.5 


1-002 


0-912 


0-975 


0932 


0-890 


0-846 


0936 


0-936 


0-940 


c» 


,6 


0194 


0188 


0-196 


0-188 


0-193 


0-191 


0-198 


0-186 


0-200 


3 


-ч7 


0153 


0150 


0-150 


0-148 


0-149 


0-147 


0-148 


0-145 


0152 


a 


8 


0-150 


0-140 


0-142 


0-134 


0150 


0-133 


0148 


0-140 


0-139 




.9 


0150 


0145 


0-154 


0-148 


0148 


0-138 


0146 


0146 


0-145 




10 


1-128 


0-121 


0129 


0-124 


0118 


0114 


0-114 


0122 


0116 




11 


0122 


0-112 


0-120 


0-110 


0125 


ОНО 


0-112 


0-118 


0-114 




12 


0048 


0-046 


0046 


0046 


0-054 


044 


0-047 


0-043 


0047 




13 


0-0.59 


054 


0052 


0042 


0053 


0-044 


0-050 


0053 


043 


- 


1 14 


0-037 


0-032 


0-035 


0030 


033 


0-033 


0-034 


0-036 


0-038 



14Ö 



Sex 


M. 


M. 


M. 


M. 


M. 


M. 


M. 


M. 


M. -J 

с. nl\ 


Age 


с. 25 


с. 26 


с. 18 


с. 25 


с. 50 


с. 40 


с. 26 


с. 25 




f 1 


1-612 


1-490 


1-530 


1-640 


1-638 


1-614 


1-670 


1-670 


1-458 




2 


1-610 


1-510 


1-488 


1-658 


1-664 


1-598 


1-680 


1-624 


1-412 




3 


0-816 


0774 


0-815 


0-864 


863 


0-856 


0-825 


0-908 


0762 




4 


0-568 


0-534 


0-580 


0-584 


610 


0-606 


0-574 


0-635 


0-п27 




5 


0-896 


0-807 


0-876 


0-980 


0-952 


0-968 


0822 


0-955 


0-736 


OD 


6 


0184 


0181 


0-192 


0-198 


0-193 


0-188 


0-182 


0-205 


0-187 




7 


0-144 


0-142 


0-142 


0-145 


0147 


0-149 


0-146 


0-156 


0-142 


CD 

tu 


8 


0-141 


0-137 


0-138 


0-140 


0-149 


0-141 


0-148 


0-150 


0-143 


ei 
TP. 


9 


0140 


0-139 


0-136 


0-143 


0145 


0140 


0-144 


0146 


0134 




10 


0-112 


0-110 


0-114 


0-114 


0114 


Olli 


0-114 


0115 


0-110 




11 


Olli 


0104 


0-107 


0-115 


0116 


0114 


0-113 


0-114 


0109 




12 


0-049 


0-045 


0048 


0050 


0-044 


050 


0-043 


0-054 


0046 




13 


0047 


0049 


0050 


0049 


0052 


U049 


0-048 


052 


0048 




i 14 


0032 


0030 


0-032 


0037 


0038 


0-035 


0-032 


0-032 


0035 



Sex 


M. 


M. 


M. 


M. 


M. 


M. 


M. 


M. 


M. 


Age 


с 23 


с. 25 


с. 32 


с. 23 


с. 23 


с. 40 


с. 35 


с. 25 


с. 45 




f 1 


1-620 


1-580 


1-663 


1-610 


1-662 


1-517 


1-636 


1-594 


1-606 




2 


1-558 


1-590 


1-630 


1-545 


1-624 


1-492 


1-622 


1-602 


1-6-20 




3 


0-835 




0-885 


0-926 


0-887 


1850 


0-882 


0-875 


0834 




4 


0650 


0-905 


0-610 


0-628 


0-580 


0602 


0-620 


0-650 


0-572 




5 






975 


0-926 


0-973 


0-922 


0920 


0-934 


0-935 


сю 


6 


0-187 


0-194 


0-195 


0-198 


0-197 


0-195 


0-192 


0-190 


0194 


5 


7 


0-145 


0-145 


0149 


0-146 


0147 


0-149 


0-145 


0-142 


0-143 


<o 


8 


0-130 


0-140 


0151 


0154 


0-148 


0-143 


0-139 


0155 


0149 


<u 

IP 


9 


0-128 


0144 


0-143 


0-146 


0-146 


0-152 


0-142 


0154 


0-141 




10 


0-115 


0-136 


0-117 


0-120 


0-12-2 


0122 


Olli 


0-118 


0-112 




11 


0-106 


0118 


0116 


0122 


0119 


0-121 


0112 


0125 


0112 




12 


0042 


0-050 


0-049 


0050 


0-044 


0044 


0-042 


0-052 


0-044 




13 


055 




0056 


052 


0-050 


0-044 


0-048 


0-050 


0-049 




[ 14 


0-035 


034 


0035 


0-034 


0-034 


0-036 


0036 


0035 


0-034 



Sex 
Age 



6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

И 

12 

13 

14 



M. 

с. 17 



ш 



M. 

С.Д7 



1-484 1-545 
1-462 i 1562 
0-788 i 814 
0-545 I 0-575 

0-866 0-917 



0-180 
0142 
0136 
0134 
Olli 
ОНО 
0-048 
0046 
0031 



0-189 
0146 
0-138 
0141 
0-117 
0116 
0-044 
0043 
0-033 



w. 

с. 19 



1-542 
1-560 
0-799 
0-575 

0870 

0-182 
0-140 
0-130 
0138 
0116 
ОНО 
О 040 : 
042 
О 030 1 



W. 
с. 23 



1540 
1-568 
0-818 
0-598 

0950 

0-193 
0139 
0136 
0-137 
0.118 
0119 
0045 
043 
0-034 



W. 

с. 30 



1467 
1-442 
0815 
0590 

0-908 

0-1Я0 
0146 
0-136 
0-144 
0-120 
0-115 
046 
0-039 
0-030 



W. 

с. 35 



W. 
с. 22 



1-516 
1-550 
0'810 
0-566 
0-900 
0-820 
0178 
0141 
0139 
0-141 
0-126 
0-115 
0-049 
0-043 
0-032 



1-514 
1-544 
0808 
0-564 
0-9-23 
0814 
0182 
0-137 
0-132 
0134 
0-113 
0-110 
0-044 
0-042 
0-030 



W. 

с. 30 



1-434 
1-398 
0810 
0-576 
900 
0-846 
0-186 
0-136 
0-134 
0132 
0-112 
0-108 
0048 
0044 
0-032 



W. 

с. 28 



1-398 
1420 
0-750 
0-538 

gravid 

0-183 
0-134 
0-132 
0-130 
0109 
0-105 
0-042 
044 
0034 



XWIU. 



10 



146 



Sex 
Age 



W. 

с. 40 



W. 

с. 19 



W. 

с.П 



с. 16 



W. 

с. 15 



W. 

с. 14 



W. 

C.12 



W. 

с 10 



M. 

с 14 



M. 

c.lO 



C.9 



6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 



1-492 
1-452 
0-766 
0-520 

0-815 

0-180 
0-140 
0131 
0138 
0113 
0-111 
0-042 
0-050 
0034 



1-550 
1-485 
0-856 
0-602 
0-985 
0-860 
0189 
0-143 
0-138 
0-137 
0-116 
0113 
0052 
0043 
0030 



1-460 
1-445 
0-766 
0-542 
0-890 
0-802 
0182 
0143 
0-136 
0-137 
0-111 
0-112 
0047 
0044 
0-030 



334 
303 

702 



1-330 
1-290 
0-678 



0500 0-480 




•728 

176 
141 
131 
130 
113 
113 
040 
042 
030 



0-724 



1-330 
1-330 
0-674 
0-465 

0-685 



1-160 
1-182 
0-658 
0-442 

0-652 



171 
137 
120 
124 
103 
104 
041 
049 
029 



174 
143 
130 
126 
116 
101 
040 
041 
028 



170 
133 
120 
117 
096 
095 
043 
038 
028 



1143 
1-132 

0-628 
0-405 

0-570 

0171 
0-137 
0115 
0-112 
0103 
0-094 
0-038 
0040 
0-027 



1-246 
1225 
0-660 
0-450 

0-710 

0172 
0-139 
0123 
0119 
0-106 
0-098 
0-040 
0039 
0-025 



1-278 
1-270 
0-682 
0-460 

0-712 

0-182 
0142 
0125 
0-127 
0-106 
0-102 
044 
0-040 
0030 



1152 
1060 
0-60O 
0-378 

0-602 

0-172 
0141 
0-120 
0115 
0104 
0-094 
0032 
0-037 
0-026 



То the above remarks on the structure of the East-Green- 
landers I shall attach a few notes on their nosological and 
hygienic conditions. One cannot obtain a very complete im- 
pression of their illnesses by living among so small and scat- 
tered a tribe one single winter — during the whole of the 
summer the expedition travelled outside the inhabited district — 
few illnesses of course appearing within so short time. 

My notes originate therefore partly from verbal com- 
munications, from the East-Greenlanders themselves, and from 
the Danish people living at the station. That all resorted to 
me to consult me in old and new, considerable and incon- 
siderable cases of illness when the population had begun 
to realize what a doctor is, and that I was a doctor, is no 
wonder, there having been no one before on the coast. The 
East-Greenlanders are on the whole a sound and strong race, 
well adapted to hold their own in the rough climate and under 
the bad hygienic conditions caused by the stowing of the rela- 
tively great number of persons in the small winter-houses 
where ventilation and cleaning are so to speak unknown. The 
temperature will often rise to more than 30° C. in the afternoon 
and evening in such a winter-house when all inhabitants are 
at home and all train-oil lamps are lighted, while the tempe- 



147 



rature is outside -^15 to ч- 30° С. Inside the house both 
grown-up people and children wear as a rule so to speak 
DOthing, and it does not inconvenience them to walk out into 
the cold in the same light dress — only increased by a pair 
of leather boots ; thus 1 remember once to have seen two quite 
young girls walking almost naked on the beach at about 
15 minutes' walk from the house, gathering sea-weed, though 
the temperature was about 4-15° С 

That the East- Greenlanders on the whole are such a sound 
and strong race, and that individuals of a delicate health are 
so rarely found among them, is mainly due to the selection of 
the nature, the delicate individuals most often perishing during 
the first years of life ; the art does nothing here as in civilized 
countries to keep them alive; on the contrary it is not rare at 
all that children thought at their birth to be less capable of 
living, are immediately drowned by their parents or housemates. 
All the same, illness is no rare guest, and the East-Greenlan- 
ders are very anxious about all that may be called internal 
illness in contradistinction from their strongly marked hardiness 
towards toils and outward injures. 

As has been told, many children perish during the first 
years of life, because nothing is done, and perhaps nothing can 
be done to preserve the delicate. The disturbances of digestion 
of infants, so general and often dangerous with us, yet seem to 
be rather rare which finds its natural explanation in the fact 
that every mother of course suckles her child. If it happens 
that the mother dies in childbed, or while the child is still an 
infant it must die, if no other woman can overtake the suckling. 
No other domestic animals than dogs being kept, milk is not 
known, and artificial nourishment therefore so to speak an im- 
possibility. The suckling is as a rule continued for a long time, 
often even till the third or fourth year of life, but then certainly 
in connection with other food. It is besides rather astonishing 
what is offered to the stomach of such a little Greenlander. 

10* 



148 



At any rate I believe that flesh of soals and blubber would 
agree very badly with our domestic shoots of one year. I 
remember to have seen a boy of 3 years one day sucking his 
mother and a few days afterwards smoking tobacco from his 
father's pipe. It is not very much in accordance with our 
principles of education and hygiene of children but the boy 
looked nevertheless all the better for it. 

Acute catarrhs of the stomach or intestines are general 
in greater children and grown-up people; they appear not rarely 
as house-epidemics and are certainly most often due to the 
eating of flesh of soals or sharks, rotten in whole or in part. 
It seems to be an exception when these poisonings have a fatal 
issue; at any rate I could not find any certain instance of it. 
I shall remark nevertheless that the expedition found an aban- 
doned place of residence far outside the inhabited district, 
where numerous skeletons of Greenlanders were found in a 
winter-house; they were according to what we learned later on 
certainly rests of some families that had gone northward from 
the inhabited district 20 years before. IVlost probably they had 
died of hunger; but it is in no way impossible that illness and 
then most likely poisoning from rotten flesh may have been at 
any rate a concurrent cause. Small epidemics of furunculosis 
sometimes appear, certainly another manifestation of the named 
poisoning. Bronchitis as well acute as more chronic is a rather 
general illness both in children and grown-up people. If pul- 
monary inflammation in the form of our croupous pneumonia 
is found I don't know. Phtisis certainly appears. I have seen 
myself a female patient offering at any rate clinically undoubted 
signs of this illness, and according to what has been told to 
me, a pulmonary suffering with hæmoplysis, lingering cough, 
expectoration and emaciation is not rare. But its course seems 
to be milder than our phtisis generally is. It happens for 
instance that the Greenlanders the day after such a hæmoptysis 
unpunished go to their kayaks, and the illness is said to pass 
often and relatively quickly into recovery. The patient, I saw, 



149 

having clinically a rather extensive phtisis, had walked some 
miles in liigh snow, having hæmoptysis while walking, and 
returned the next day the same way. Half a year afterwards 
I iieard that she had recovered. The illness having a fatal issue 
is not at all rare. I had unfortunately no opportunity of 
examining microscopically the expectoration. It might be inte- 
resting to see if the illness is really due to the same substance 
of infection as phtisis. 

Every Greenlander housing no end of lice, it is no wonder 
that scratchings and in consequence eczematous skin-affections 
are general. Also extended — most frequently acute — eczemas 
are found rather often. I did not see other cutaneous diseases, 
for instance not scabies. Sexual diseases are unknown. 

Snow-blindness is general, though snow-spectacles made 
of wood are known and used. 

It is certainly a great misconception to believe that people 
of nature should not be nervous, as it is generally thought. 
Not only slight nervous cases are found very frequently among 
the East-Greenlanders, but also real hysterics with so serious 
hysterical symptoms as palsies and convulsions. These latter 
cases were told me to be undoubtful and not quite rare. Really 
it is DO wonder either that the monotonous and during very 
long periods inactive life led especially by the women, may give 
opportunity of excessive personal observation and consequently 
overestimation of their small perceptions. These become, which 
is not quite unintelligible, the most interesting thing they have 
to think of and speak about, and women are also in East- 
Greenland thus made that the one will not be behind the other, 
no more so, when the question is whether which is the more 
ill. I have seen no case of proper mental disease, but such 
are mentioned by the natives, for instance, as appearing in 
connection with confinements. 1 saw one pronounced case of 
puerperal fever with a fatal issue, which does not seem to be 
very rare, it is really wonderful, if anything, that births on the 
whole can pass away without infection, no measure of cleaning 



150 



whatever being known during the birth and the hygienic con- 
ditions of a Greenland cottage being the worst imaginable. 
That it is not more frequent is certainly because the substance 
of infection is not brought into the parts of generation by 
internal examination or artificial delivery; when it does take 
place I think that the birth-giving woman herself infects her 
parts of generation with her own dirty fingers. Assistance of 
others is namely not used during the birth; when this has been 
gone through, the navel string is cut over with a mussel- shell 
or a similar blunt instrument. Ligature of the navel string is 
not known, so the bleeding must be thought to stop on account 
of the blunt cutting. There is no doubt that mechanical dis- 
proportions may occur during the birth. Instances are known 
of the mother dying during the birth without being delivered. 
Having not seen nor heard about any case of rachitis, I do 
not believe that rachitic deformations of the pelvis are the 
causes of the mechanical disproportions. 

More considerable deforniities are certainly very rare, 
children with such being as a rule undoubtedly killed shortly 
after having been born. The only one I saw was a young man 
whose left hand was somewhat deformed, being first nearly 
4 ctm. shorter than the right one; the outermost points of the 
three middlemost fingers were besides stiff, and between these, 
being very delicate, a web was distended reaching nearly the 
outermost point. — 

The East-Greenlanders do not know anything of cure of 
illness beyond the magic arts of the Angekoks. Yet they have 
during the last years sought medical aid from the missionary 
of the colony, and they were very anxious to get medicine 
from me. I vaccinated a considerable part — about Vs — of 
the popoulation which they highly appreciated. Though I tried 
to explain to them the meaning of the vaccination, yet they 
certainly ascribed supernatural powers to it. And then it was to be 
like the Europeans, something, they preferred to all in the world. 



,.••'* 



V. 



On the Geology and Physieal (leogpaphy 
of East-liPeenland. 



By 
otto Nordenskjold. 

1907. 



JLhe expeditions under Koldewey and Payer, Ryder 
and Nathorst, which had previously visited the parts of East- 
Greenland in question, returned with a number of observations 
on the geology and geography, the main characteristics of which 
were thus already known before our visit. In consequence, I 
considered that the time I spent up there as a member of the 
Danish expedition of 1900, should be devoted in the main to 
observing phenomena that had not up to that time been the 
object of special study. 

Among my chief aims 1 took upon myself to collect a 
considerable pétrographie material from a number of interesting 
rocks, the occurrence of which in this region has already been 
known since Scoresby's time. He mentioned the occurrence 
of a series of porphyritic rocks, but little was known about 
their age and nature at the time of our expedition. Then there 
are a series of syenites and of peculiar basic eruptives, that 
were Grst met with by Nathorst. Although we only worked 
in the outskirts of the districts where these occur, while the 
time that could be devoted to their study was also extremely 
short, yet 1 succeeded in collecting a not inconsiderable ma- 
terial for a pétrographie examination, calculated to clear up, 
in some degree at least, the nature, age and distribution of 
these rocks. Then there is the study of the archæan rock, 
which has not hitherto been the object of special investigation 
in these parts of the world; and, finally, the basaltic rocks, 
which occur in very large masses with rich pétrographie varia- 



154 

tion, and the study of which proved specially interesting owing 
to the important contribution our expedition succeeded in making 
to the question of the age of the whole group of the North- 
Atlantic Basalts. 

Not less interesting is the study of East-Greenland's sedi- 
mentary fossiliferous beds, of which a comprehensive material 
was collected during the expedition. In this work I received 
most valuable assistance from mag. sc. N. Hartz, the leader 
of the expedition at that time. In the main each has devoted 
himself in the same degree to the work, but the collecting of 
fossils from the Rhaetic and Jurassic deposits in the SE. part 
of Jameson Land has been carried out by Hartz alone. The 
collections brought back have already been described in part, 
viz. the marine Jurassic Fossils by V. Madsen^), Sauria by E. 
Fraas^) and tertiary marine fossils by J. P. J. Ravn^), while 
the triassie fossils will later on be described by K. Gr on vail, 
and the plant fossils that were brought home by Hartz himself. 

I shall touch on various points bearing on the results of 
these investigations in the following pages. 

Besides these questions, special attention was devoted 
during the expedition to another point, which, especially in 
Polar regions, should be of great interest, viz., the morpho- 
logical study of these regions from a dynamico-geological point 
of view, the characterising of their varied, often peculiar, sur- 
face features, and the study of the forces that have produced 
them, some of which operate here with an intensity that finds 
no parallel elsewhere. In these respects the district under 
consideration is of remarkable interest by reason of the ex- 
ceptional variations it offers, and by reason of its great free- 
dom from ice, despite its proximity to the mighty sheet of 
land-ice. 



Meddelelser om Grønland XXIX: t57. 
Meddelelser om Grønland XXIX: 277. 
Meddelelser om Grønland XXIX: 93. 



155 



A particular interest attaches in this respect to the study 
of Jameson Land, which is covered with Quaternary beds. 
Even if, as will be shown later, the work that has been carried 
out here has not yielded the contributions to the question of 
the glacial formations in general that might have been expected, 
it has, however, given rise to various interesting interpretations 
of the geological development of the district. 

Some of the results of these investigations are contained 
in the following pages. That these investigations are incomplete 
is willingly admitted; they necessarily suffered from the same 
difficulties that always attend expeditions of this nature: the 
splitting up of the time upon various tasks, the comparatively 
short time available for each of those (during the summer there 
were in all about 35 days on which any considerable time 
could be devoted to work on land along the Greenland coast, 
and some of these, moreover, under unfavourable circumstances), 
and the impossibility of remaining on one spot and carrying 
out special investigations there. But at the same time it is 
incumbent on me to give expression to the exceeding kindness 
which the leader of the expedition extended to me, and which 
enabled me to pursue my investigations with a freedom that is 
not usually within reach of those who take part in expeditions. 



The district, the examination of which is the chief basis 
of the description that follows, is composed of the stretch of 
coast between Cape Dalton at 69° 25' N. and Scoresby Sund, 
of the tracts round the 3 large fjords, Scoresby Sund, Fleming 
inlet and Davy Sund, and Kong Oscar Fjord with its southern- 
most forks, Segelsällskapets (Royal Yacht-Club) Sund and Fors- 
blad Fjord. A few days were also spent on Sabine Ö situated 
considerably further north (74° 30' N.), besides which a landing 
was made at С Borlase Warren. Observations taken at these 
places may serve to amplify tlie remaining results. The same 



156 

is true to some extent of the observations taken in the course 
of the journey at a few other arctic and subarctic spots, namely, 
on Jan Mayen and in the NW. territory of Iceland between 
Dyrafjord and Önundarfjord, observations which are referred to 
here only in so far as they supply further knowledge of phe- 
nomena investigated in Greenland. 

The mapping-out of the first-named territory, begun by 
Ryder and continued by Nathorst, was proceeded with during 
the recent expedition and completed in its main features; I 
may, therefore, refer in this place to the maps that have now 
appeared. The best maps of the more northerly stretches of 
coasts will be found in the account of the Second German 
North Polar Expedition^), Up to the present time we are in- 
debted, for our knowledge of the geological formation of the 
district in question and of the contiguous tracts, to the ex- 
peditions mentioned below ^). Geological maps of different lo- 



^) The most important chartographic material will be found in the following 
works: 

Die zweite deutsche Nordpolarfahrt in den Jahren 1869 und 1870 
unter Führung des Kapitän Karl Koldewey. Bd. I und II. Leipzig 
1873—74. 

J. Payer: Die oesterreichisch-ungarische Nordpol-Expedition in den 
Jahren 1872 — 74 nebst einer Skizze der zweiten deutschen Nordpol-Ex- 
pedition 1869—70. Wien 1876. 

С Kyder, Meddelelser om Grønland XVII: 1. 

А. G. Nathorst, Två somrar i norra Ishafvet. II. Stockholm 1900, 
and Ymer, 1900, p. 145. 

For the Danish Expedition of 1900: Meddelelser om Grønland XXVII. 
2) Of works on the geology of East Greenland which are referred to in 
this paper, the most important are : 

William Scoresby jr.: Journal of a voyage to the northern 
whale-fishery, etc. With an appendix: Jameson: List of specimens of 
the rocks brought from the Eastern coast of Greenland. Edinburgh 1823. 

Die zweite deutsche Nordpolarfahrt unter Führung des Kapitän 

Kolde wey. Bd. II. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse. 3. Geologie 
(Papers by F. v. Hochstetter, F.Toula, О. Lenz, О. Heer och А. 
Bauer). Leipzig 1874. 

Meddelelser om Grønland. Bd. XIX. (Papers by E. Bay, B. Lund- 
gren och N. Hartz). 

A. G. Nathorst: Bidrag till nordöstra Grönlands geologi. Geol. 



157 



calities will be found in the words of Hochstetter and Bay; 
a comprehensive jreological map of the wliole littoral was pub- 
lished after our return (1901) by Nathorst^. This latter is 
in several respects supplemented by the results of the Am- 
drup -Hartz Expedition and therefor I have considered it 
useful that a new general geological map of the district should 
be appended to this paper to which I refer in the following 
pages. 

To the best of our knowledge, the whole interior of Green- 
land in this region is composed of a mighty mass of primary 
rock, broadly speaking quite monotonous, though in detail, as 
far as 1 know it, built up of a richly varied series of gneisses 
and other crystalline schists. All the large fjords extend with 
iheir inner branches into this district, most of which is, as far 
as we know, covered by a mass of inland-ice. 

Oulside this central mass lies a coast-belt of varying 
breadth — averaging from about 50 to 70 Eng. miles — con- 
sisting of a rich alternation of greatly divergent rocks, chiefly 
of more recent formation. One would be inclined to think 
that these rocks constitute the remnants of a huge, sunken 
area, the central mass remaining as a vast "Horst"; but this 
view is scarcely borne out at present by the observations taken 
though by this I will not deny that a great part of the rocks 
of the littoral zone may owe their present state to dislocation. 

In this coast-belt can be distinguished, from S. to N., four 
sections, each about 2 degrees of latitude in length. The two 



Foren, i Stockholm förh. XXIII (1901): 275 (with pétrographie descrip- 
tions by H. Üackström). 

О Norden skjold: Notes on some specimens of rocks collected 

on the Kast coast of Greenland between lat. 65° З-У and 67° 22' N. 

Meddelelser om Grønland XXVIII: 1. 
M The geological map published by 0. B. Bøggild in his paper "on the 
samples of the sea-floor", Meddelelser om Grønland XXVIII: 17, must 
be regarded as founded exclusively on this older map, as on account 
of m> abcence in the South Polar regions no results of this last ex- 
pedition could be included. 



158 

southernmost of these areas were first made known in detail 
through the Ryder Expedition, the third through Nathorst, 
the fourth through the German Polar Expedition. 

The most southerly of these areas, which according to 
Amdrup' s observations may be considered to begin in the 
region of Kangerdlugsuak Fjord (32° W. long.) and stretches 
north to Scoresby Sund, consists chiefly of a mighty mass 
of basaltic rocks of the same kind as those already known 
from Iceland and the Faroes. It was our expedition that first 
discovered in these basalts large isolated pieces and intervening 
layers of tertiary sediments, generally of inconsiderable extension 
but specially interesting because, together wich plant fossils, 
they contain a well preserved marine fauna. 

The next two areas resemble each other in that they consist 
for the most part of sedimentary rocks, and from a topogra- 
phical point of view in that they are traversed by perhaps the 
most magnificent system of fjords in the world. In other re- 
spects they are quite dissimilar. In the south lies, as a pro- 
tection against the sea, the mass of primary rock of Liverpool 
Land, and the tract within, which is comparatively low, is built 
up almost exclusively of Jurassic rocks, with an underlayer of 
older formation in the NE. only. 

No rocks as recent as this are to be found, as far as we 
know at present, in the third area, which may be said to begin 
in the region of Davy Sund. Almost the whole of this section 
of the coast-belt consists of paleozoic rocks. These, first dis- 
covered by the German Polar Expedition, were held by Toula 
to correspond to the Hekla Hook formation of Spitzbergen. 
They were afterwards examined by Nathorst, who found in 
them traces of Silurian fossils, and could also indicate the 
presence of beds of Devonian age. At the extremity of the 
coast here occurs, in a state of fairly considerable develop- 
ment, a series of more recent eruptive rocks, already found by 
Scoresby and examined later by Bäckström from specimens 



159 



brought home by the Nathorst Expedition. I shall return to 
these rocks later. 

The extent of distribution of the various types is not 
yet known. 

The fourth area consists of the tracts N. of Mackenzie Bay. 
Here the primary rock everywhere approaches much closer to 
the outer coast-line, the littoral zone having at the most only 
a breadth of nearly 20 miles. Just as in the southernmost 
area, it is composed chiefly of basalt with intervening "layers" 
of partially fossiliferous tertiary rock; however, there are also 
strata belonging to the Jurassic system, somewhat more recent 
than those at Scoresby Sound. Beside the true basalt also acid 
porphyritic surface-rocks occur at Cape Broer Ruys. 

The Danish Expedition has brought back new material of 
general interest from only the two southerly of these areas, 
although in the two others as well observations and collections 
were made which amplify our previous knowledge and help to 
give a picture of this part of the East Coast in its entirety. 

I will now pass on to a pétrographie description of the 
rocks of the district, confining myself in the first place to the 
crystalline types of rock and to some hitherto little known 
non-fossiliferous or only slightly fossiliferous sedimentary for- 
mations. A brief survey of the stratigraphy of the district will 
also be included. I will then proceed to give an account of 
the topography of the district and the witness it bears to the 
history of its development. 



PetrograpMco-geological Description. 



I. Archæan rocks. 

As already stated, the archæan rocks constitute the bulk 
firstly of all the Greenland central mass, and secondly, within 
the tract with which we are here concerned, of the isolated 
and elongated peninsula north of Scoresby Sund, called Liver- 
pool Land. Already by reason of their position, far from each 
other, each of these tracts must be dealt with separately, and 
the same applies to the various districts situated far from one 
another at the bottom of the great fjords, where up to now 
opportunity has been afforded of getting to know the structure 
of the central mass. The following description will therefore 
be an account of the different localities. 

A. Structure of the Central Mass within Scoresby Sund. During 
the Expedition of 1900 we never penetrated so far into this 
fjord that I had an opportunity of studying the features of the 
primary rock in situ. The Ryder Expedition of 1891 — 2, on 
the other hand, brought back from here a considerable collec- 
tion of rocks, which I had an opportunity of examining both 
as specimens and in thin sections, and on these, as well as on 
the description given by Bay^), the following summary is based. 

The material in question, taken from a considerable area, 
shows that the rocks there are unexpectedly uniform and consist 
almost everywnere of gneiss, usually grey micaceous gneiss, 



M Medd. om Grønland. XIX, 147 seq. 



161 



very often containing garnet. Incomparably the most common 
are coarse biotite gneisses with pronounced schistosity; in these 
layers of hornblende schists were frequent, so, for instance, 
on Danmark 1., and, according to Hartz, inside Gaase Fjord, 
there together with chlorite and talc schists, and traversed by 
dikes of a peculiar amphiboline peridotite ^). Not rarely the 
gneisses are fine-grained, at times the mica retires, and now 
and then we find garnet- bearing, compact, finely banded forms, 
the appearance of which strongly reminds one of the true Saxou 
granulites. Nor are rocks similar to mica-schists wanting. From 
Danmark I. a small mass of archæan limestone is reported. 
It is especially remarkable that granitic rocks seem to be very 
scarce. From Bregne Point on Milne Land comes a specimen 
which may be a coarse biotite granite, while a fine specimen 
of coarse red granite (according to Hartz, a "dike-formation 
in gneiss") was met with in Hjörnedalen inside the fjord. More- 
over, pegmatitic veins were found in some places, but otherwise 
such kinds of rock seem to be lacking, in contrast to the state 
of things in the coast-belt, where granites together with red 
gneisses and hornblende schists play the leading part. 

In Nordostbugten (North-east Bay) I myself collected a 
series of blocks, among which were several grey gneiss-granites, 
but along with these also limestone and a more recent-looking 
syenite; it is conceivable that the latter was brought in by 
drift-ice from outside the coast-belt, and this may possibly be 
the case with the former as well. 

under the microscope, too, these rocks show the same 
uniformity; they are destitute of any characteristics unusual in 
gneisses. They often contain microcline and garnet, the struc- 
ture is the typical one, with pronounced lobate limitation in 
the grains, which, perhaps by reason of secondary growth, 
often poikilitically enclose lesser individuals. Relic siructures 



'j For the pétrographie description of this rock cfr. Bay loc. cit. p. 159. 
xxvin. 11 



162 



indicating that the rocks were originally composed of normal 
granites, have not come under my notice; indications, too, of 
porphyritic structures are rare. 

A strongly weathered biotite-gneiss from the interior of 
West Fjord contains, besides garnet, a mineral that seems to 
be a rhombic pyroxene. In the same fjord lies a locality called 
"Black Point" (Sorte Pynt), the hornblende rock of which also 
has a peculiar appearance ; it has probably been originally a 
pyroxene rock. Noteworthy are also the rings of garnet that 
here surround hornblende individuals. 

A remarkable quartzite formation appears in the middle of 
the archæan rocks, on Milne Land right opposite Rode I. 
One is inclined to connect it .with the peculiar conglomerate 
that appears on this island, and, as a matter of fact, it presents 
an appearance that is very young for a quartzite of archæan 
age, but microscopically it reveals itself as entirely crystalline, 
and no proof can be produced that we have here a deposit 
younger than the youngest primary rock. If only for the help 
this rock might offer to the understanding of the tectonics and 
the problem of fjord formation of the district, a closer examina- 
tion would be of interest ^). 

B. The Central JHass within Hong Oscar Fjord. Here 1 had an 
opportunity myself of collecting a series of specimens at the 
bottom of Forsblad Fjord. The rocks here show very striking 
dissimilarities to those appearing at Scoresby Sund. The chief 
rock is a medium grained biotite-hornblende gneiss, often finely 
striped, with now the one and now the other mineral predo- 
minatingly or exclusively present, and alternating with lighter 
layers where both retire. More or less plentiful in the rocks 
is garnet, which sometimes collects into lumps of more than 



^) A thin-slated quartzite of youthful appearance was found by Nathorst 
in Alp Fjord, within the district inside Kong Oscar Fjord, to be des- 
cribed presently. 



163 



5 cm. in section. Fine-i,4-ained granulite or hornstone-like 
varieties are also to be found. 

Besides stratifications of amphibolite, we find in these rocks 
dikes of dioritic rocks, of which a few that were examined 
microscopically proved to be garnet- and pyroxene-bearing rocks 
of amphibolitic appearance, while in another case amphibole is 
practically the only component present, with only traces of 
biotite and felspar. Whether some narrow dikes of a black 
compact rock, which occurred high up in the mountain 
traversing the gneis, belong to this or to some other more 
recent series, has not been determined. Limestone also occurs 
in blocks. 

Furthermore, I here came across irregular veins of a hght 
pegmatite, which possibly is connected with some lenticular 
masses of light granite that could be observed further out in 
the fjord. From these granites derive presumably a number of 
blocks collected in part right inside Forsblad Fjord, in part in 
Polhem's Dale, further out within the Cambrian-Silurian terri- 
tory. One of these rocks, apparently corresponding to the light 
pegmatite veins, is almost free of mica, contains some garnet 
and has a fairly gneiss-like structure, as several of the mineral 
individuals show markedly lacinialed outlines. Another, again, 
is a fine biotite granite, with ore and zircon and large felspar 
individuals, with their idiomorphic outlines very clearly defined. 
Thi.< is less the case, on the other hand, with the smaller in- 
dividuals in the mass proper, as secondary accretions here play 
a much greater part; and yet it is still observable that the 
quartz, as the last crystallized mineral, fills up irregular spaces 
between the other individuals. 

Here were also found blocks of coarse rocks rich in horn- 
blende, of somewhat divergent type. 

The district in question resembles Scoresby Sund in that 
grey gneiss forms the chief rock in each, but differs from it 
in the very varying appearance that the rocks display in so 

II* 



164 



limited an area. In how far the same is true of the other 
parts of the central mass inside the system of Kong Oscar and 
Franz Joseph Fjords, is not easy to decide from the descriptions 
that are to hand. We only find that the gneisses, here too, 
are often garnet-bearing and that granites do not seem to play 
any great part. 

It is from a fjord system situated far further north that 
we presumably have a series of blocks that were collected by 
me on the shore at Cape Borlase Warren. The rock in place 
is coarse basalt. Amongst the boulders brought home are 
coarse, almost pegmatitic rocks which most often have clearly 
been subjected to pressure. Characteristic is a coarse, grey 
hornblende-granite, also a coarse -red granite in contact with 
a hghter, striped gneiss rock. Also more recent rocks, clay- 
slates and sand -stones, occurred abundantly as blocks on 
the shore. 

As regards the character of the archæan rock on the stretch 
of coast S. of Scoresby Sund, 1 may refer to the description 
of the rocks collected by Kruuse which I have published on 
a previous occasion ^). 

С Liverpool Land. As far as we know, all this district, 
too, is formed, in its bulk, of archæan rocks. Still, it is at 
once evident that these are of quite another kind and ap- 
pearance than those that occur within the known and neigh- 
bouring parts of the central mass. This is true not only of 
the west side and especially the tract nearest to the inmost 
creek of Hurry Inlet, where the great variation may be bound 
up with other factors, but also of other parts of the district. 
So far, however, we have only material from a few places, i. e. 
(apart from the west side) from a point on the southern ex- 
tremity (Cape Tobin), and a spot on the east coast (Cape Greg)^). 
I will first describe these places. 

Ч Meddel, om Grønland. XXVIII, 1. 

^) Still further north on this coast, on the nortbernmost point, Nathors 



165 



Cape Greg is a sheer spur at the extremity of a penin- 
sula, situated about midway up tlie east coast of Liverpool Land. 
A short landing was made here; but, already by reason of the 
sheerness of the cliff, it was impossible for me to penetrate 
inland. Vegetation was very scanty; hence the variation in 
colour at the base of the rock, from red to dark green and 
white, was remarkable from a distance. The main rock seems 
to be a medium-grained, ruddy or green gneiss, which in the 
samples examined proved to have a fairly granitic appearance : 
large felspar individuals (perthite or microcline) show sharp 
outlines with indications of crystalline form, and it is only in 
the fine-grained intervening mass that the re-crystallization has 
gone further on. Here the individuals often very actively invade 
one another with their laciniated border-lines, and numerous 
individuals of beautiful "myrmekite" are to be seen. The rock 
has been subjected to pressure, and at times one could almost 
speak of a "mortar-slruclure". 

In this rock lie large and small lumps and lenses of a 
dark biotite-hornblende-rock, with some garnet, microscopically 
developed as a typical amphibolite. The lenses are sometimes 
drawn ont into long, plicated bands, in which the rock often 
runs into a fine, pure biotite schist. 

Interspersed among both the rocks just described we find, 
following the strike of the schists, numerous layers or dikes 
of light, often ruddy pegmatite, now quartziferous, now almost 
free from quartz and then composed almost exclusively of per- 
thitic felspar and large areas of biotite. Pegmatite rocks with 
large hornblende individuals also occur. I did not see any 
typical granites here, but do not doubt that the rocks described 
are composed of injected, strongly metamorphosed eruptives. 



collected a series of rocks from Murray 1. They are formed of horn- 
blende gneiss, diorite schists and pegmatite, and thus seem to resemble 
those at Cape Greg. 



166 



Åeruginous weatherings on the mountain-walls indicate the 
presence of copper pyrites or cupriferous iron pyrites. 

Cape Tobin. The southernmost part of Liverpool Land 
is low and easy of access ; broadly speaking, the rock is fairly 
monotonous, while in detail it reveals abrupt changes. Predom- 
inant is a coarse crystalline gneiss, in part grey granitic, in 
part, and this is the commonest, a banded form, where in the 
grey gneiss we find irregular, often undulated bands soon 




Fig. 1. Sample of the rock from C. Tobin, showing irregular red 
bands in the head-mass of grey gneiss. 

pinched out and consisting of a red, rather coarse crystalline 
mass, which is often purely pegmatitic and then occasionally 
rich in hornblende, often in the form of large, well developed 
crystalline individuals. Besides these rocks there are fine-grained 
hornblende schists ; the different varieties often show alter- 
nating stratification. 

A coarse, red pegmatite granite corresponds perhaps to 
the rock which forms the red bands in the grey gneiss, already 



I 



167 

described. Numerous blocks of basalt occur, as also of a dark, 
coarse crystalline rock, which seems to consist largely of 
pyroxene. 

iMicroscopically I have only examined a slide of the typical, 
banded grey gneiss. It reveals nothing remarkable except the 
combination, characteristic of the whole district, of hornblende 
and biotite in about equal quantities. For the rest it is rich 
in epidote of a fairly primary appearance. No distinctly granitic 
characteristics are to be found; the secondary re-crystallization 
reveals itself in the abundant presence of myrmekite. 

The West Coast of Liverpool Land, near the 
southernmore of the two large glaciers that push on towards 
Hurry Inlet. It is interesting to see how much more varied 
the rocks appear on the west than on the east side of the 
country. The rocks at the landing place indicated above consist 
mainly of a series of gneisses in quickly varying layers, chiefly 
a grey mica gneiss, and also amphibolite and mica-schist-like 
forms. Curious is a type met with somewhat further inland, 
which there seems to have a by no means inconsiderable distri- 
bution. Macroscopically a marked schistosity presents itself in 
close rows of small, red felspar eyes, and in a slreakily ar- 
ranged green mineral. Microscopically it can be seen that the 
rock has been subjected to very strong pressure; porphyritic 
crystals of both orthoclase and very strongly dismembered pla- 
gioclasel?) lie in a groundmass, which together with biotite and 
chlorite is almost exclusively formed of irregular stalk-like quartz 
individuals extended in the direction of the schistosity. What this 
rock originally was, it is hard to say; in any case it shows what 
strong transforming powers have been at work in this locality. 

In one spot a dike of fine, fresh basalt was met with. 
Besides this there occurred, in the same district, two rocks 
that deserve special mention. One is a limestone, part white 
with mica and some tremolile, part malacolitiferous and some- 
what greenish, and occuring in the gneiss in rather small quan- 



168 

tities. Interspersing thin irregular veins and stripes of a red 
quartziferous and feldspathic rock may possibly be connected 
with more recent granite injections. 

The other series of rocks is composed of true granites, 
which were not observed by me with any degree of certainty 
on the east coast, and even here they occur only in small 
quantities. That they are really granites, however, can be seen 
partly by the manner in which they often intersect like true 
dikes the stratification of the gneiss, partly by the fact that 
they sometimes contain sharpedged inclusions or fragments of 
basic rocks. 

Another rock from the same locality shows microscopically a 
fairly gneiss-like appearance, the mineral grains having through 
secondary growths assumed an irregular, lobated limitation, 
while large plagioclase individuals have kept their idiomorphic 
form. The rock is somewhat pressed and disintegrated and 
shows a number of curious intergrowths of quartz and felspar- 
whose nature — if they are to be considered as micro-peg- 
matite or as myrmekite — I could not determine. 

To this series belong also some rocks, that attracted my 
attention owing to their almost "mealy" appearance, which I 
attributed to chemical weathering. Under the microscope it 
can be seen that they are very strongly crushed, in reality it 
is possible that a part of the rock-meal that penetrates it is 
directly due to mechanical crushing. Still, it is more probable 
that ordinary felspar weathering, combined with the crushing 
of the rock, may here have gone rather far. In any case, the 
rocks deserve a more detailed examination. 

A block of a coarse sandstone conglomerate, collected by 
Kruuse in this district, seems, according to information re- 
ceived, to indicate that here too more recent sedimentary rocks 
occur in place, possibly corresponding to those described below 
from the innermost part of Hurry Inlet. 

Liverpool Land at the innermost part of Hurry 



169 



Inlet. Both petrographically and also in other respects, this 
tract offers a unique geological interest, and it is much to be 
regretted that, although two expeditions stayed here for several 
days, it is not yet possible to draw up a geological map of 
the district, on which the various crystalline rocks and the 
quaternary phenomena could be entered. Even now the topo- 
graphical basis which could make this work possible for a 
future expedition, is wanting. Nathorst has furnished a short 
survey of the geology of the district^). The sweep of the fjord 
is continued along a broad deep valley, which, broadly speaking, 
divides the two chief formations: in the west, Jurassic with an 
underlayer of Rhaetic, and a series of still older sedimentary 
rocks; in the east, chiefly primary rock and some curious 
strata, to which I shall return later. Moreover, on the Fame 
Islands as well as on the mainland, basic eruptive rocks of the 
labrador-porphyritic type were met with, besides which Nat- 
horst had already found blocks of the alnöitic rock that I 
shall describe later on. 

In this place we will only dwell on the archæan rocks. 
The district in so far reminds one of that just described, as 
both limestone and granite occur here too, and moreover in 
far greater quantities than there; above all it is granite, at 
least in places near the shore, that is the predominant rock, 
while gneiss retires. Here we Gnd a red, coarsely crystalline 
even-grained granite, consisting almost exclusively of felspar 
and quartz. Microscopically it reveals considerable pressure: 
the different grains are sharply defined, but with sinuous 
outlines which are scarcely primary. The plagioclase is strongly 
weathered, while microcline and, as a general rule at least, the 
orthoclase are quite fresh. 

The granite that forms in a mixture with basalt the curious 
breccia which is described later, is more strongly pressed, and 



') Geol. foren, i Stockholm fôrh., 23 (1001), pp. 282— 285. 



170 

at the border between the larger individuals a new mineral 
mass seems to be on the point of forming. Several intergrowths 
between quartz and felspar remind one of micropegmatite. 

Deserving of mention is also a macroscopically gneissoid rock, 
which was collected further north. It is more strongly crushed 
and presents in its best preserved parts an almost granulitic 
appearance, but at the same time characteristics that remind 
one of true granites, e. g. micro-pegmatitic intergrowths. 

The other chief rock in this district is only come across 
further inland at a height of about 500 m. It is a grey, gar- 
netiferous gneiss, rich in felspar, quite unlike the other types 
known to me from this coast. Microscopically it looks as if 
the large, sharp, often crystallographically rectilinearly bordered 
felspar individuals (mostly plagioclase) were, so to speak, ce- 
mented together by a mass of strongly pressed quartz; more- 
over, in the intermediate mass garnet and some altered biotite 
occur plentifully. We also find in the rock beds that pass 
over into true garnet-rock; the rounded, completely isotropic 
grains of garnet are cemented together by quartz, micaceous 
substance and ore. 

Just as at the spot further south, described above, so here 
in the primary rock there occurs limestone in the form of large, 
apparently lenticular masses. These limestones are of special 
interest owing to their close connection with young alnöitic 
rocks. It is well known that such a connection could apparently 
be pointed out wherever similar eruptive rocks occur, and for 
this several explanations have been adduced, among others, 
that the limestone might constitute a direct crystallization pro- 
duct of this extremely basic magma. However at the place 
here described it does not seem probable that this has been 
the case, at least not to any large extent. 

The limestone forcibly reminds one in its appearance of 
the corresponding rock from Alnon in Sweden, for instance, in 
its richness of foreign minerals, which, however, also applies to 



171 



the more southerly occurrences on lliis coast where no alnöite 
has been pointed out. We find, particularly, in close connection 
with the pure limestone veins, lenses, or irregular patches, of 
a green rock-mass, that consists principally of a pyroxene 
mineral, partly in orientated penetration with green hornblende. 
Furthermore, both the limestone and the green rock are tra- 
versed by red, granitic masses, and it was my opinion that 
this was a young intrusive granite that had broken through the 
limestone and in some places had penetrated into it, forming 
in part a breccia (exclusively with the green pyroxene rock), 
in part narrow injected veins. 

But these questions demand a closer examination from 
nature, and at the same time the question as to whether this 
light rock is a true granite or simply a curious development 
of other rocks, should be solved. What I have seen of it 
microscopically resembles the other granites of the district: 
apparently an old, pressed, almost gneiss-like rock. When 
large masses of it come in contact with limestone its appear- 
ance is altered, and it gives a more basic impression. 

In addition to what has been mentioned, even the purest 
limestone contains a number of foreign minerals, which for 
the most part could not be recognized under the microscope 
without a close examination. Particularly noticeable is a mineral 
with the interferential colours of titanite, but, as it seems, with 
still stronger refraction. Then we come across a sap-green 
hornblende, that sometimes appears implicated with quartz; and 
in particularly abundant quantities a light malacolite-like pyr- 
oxene mineral. One of the bails resembling a concretion con- 
sists of iron pyrite (or markasite). 

I have had at my disposal neither the time nor the material 
for comparison necessary for a more exact study of those min- 
erals, but hope that they will later be subjected to examinalion 
by 8ome specialist^). 

') Cfr. the appendix at the end of this paper. 



172 



So much is clear from the foregoing description, that the 
rocks of Liverpool Land, in a comparatively restricted area, 
show far greater pétrographie variations than those we know 
from neighbouring parts of the central mass. This is true already 
of the Ë. and S. parts of the Land, with their pegmatites and 
very pronounced hornblende rocks, but especially of the area 
nearest the inner part of Hurry Inlet, where granite occurs in 
greater quantities than anywhere else in the known parts of E. 
Greenland, and where both limestone and curiously developed 
crystalline schists contribute to make the rock formation varied. 

Later on in this paper I shall give a more detailed descrip- 
tion of the very interesting alnöite-like eruptive rocks which 
appear in the same region as dikes and small masses, but will 
pass on now to describe the more recent sedimentary rocks 
of the district. 



II. Post-archaean sedimentary Rocks. 

Thanks to the labours of the last Expedition we have now 
got so far in our knowledge of the geological formations of 
East-Greenland that, even if an immense amount of detail work 
still remains to be done, the time seems to have come for us 
to attempt to offer a complete survey of what we know. Little 
by little we have got to know a large number of series of form- 
ations, the majority of which, however, are either entirely 
lacking in, or are only very scantily supplied with fossils. It 
is, consequently, only through careful stratigraphie studies that 
one can hope, where indeed it is possible at all, to elucidate 
the question of their age, and such studies have not been 
carried out hitherto. And so, as a rule, we must confine our- 
selves to descriptions of certain localities, although we shall 
see that, notwithstanding this, we can go a good way towards 
drawing conclusions as to the age and reciprocal relations of 
the sedimentary rocks. 



173 



Within the area in question the following systems are 
clearly proved to occur: Silurian, Devonian, Triassic, Jurassic, 
(Rhaetic-Liassic as well as Middle and Upper Jurassic) and Ter- 
tiary (Eocene). Except that the series of strata characterized by 
Silurian fossils perhaps overlaps, in its lower part, into the 
Cambrian, the following non-fossiliferous local series, arranged 
in the order 1 consider they were most probably formed, may for 
the present be distinguished: Cape Fletcher series. Hurry Inlet 
series. Cape Brown series, and Cape Leslie series^). 

To the result of the paleontological examinations of fossils 
from this district, 1 shall only refer very briefly in the following, 
but, on the other hand, 1 shall dwell more exhaustively on a 
petrographically descriptive account of the different systems 
and series, setting out from those rocks whose age can be de- 
termined from the fossils they contain. I will divide them here 
into two main divisions: the reason for this classification will 
be gone into more fully when I come to formulate my views 
of the stratigraphy of the district. 

A. The older Prae-Rhaetic series. 
(Mottled Rocks.) 

1. Silurian and DeTonian (with possibly Cambrian strata). 
These rocks, which occur within the system of Kong Oscar 
and Franz Joseph Fjords, have been described in detail by 
Nathorst, who was also the first to point out fossils in them, 
and thus determined their age. However, they are very poor 



M To these must be added the so-called Rode Ö (Red 1.) conglomerate, 
described by Bay, which occurs quile isolated and about the age of 
which nothing can be said, but which I prefer to consider as prae- 
Rhaetic. The specimens of conglomerate pebbles seen by me seem to 
consist chiefly of gneiss and quartzite, also quartz; the matrix consists 
of splinters of quartz and felspar, joined together and coloured by iron 
oxide, besides which calcite is not altogether lacking. Iron pyrites, 
even in large lumjjs, seem to be common, and to their disintegration 
the red colour, which gives the locality ils name, presumably owes 
its origin. 



174 



in fossils, though their pétrographie variation is unusually strong. 
Nathorst, to whose description^) I refer, mentions, among 
other varieties, white, yellow, grey and black limestones and 
dolomites, red, green, and dark schists, and red, green, grey, 
and yellow sandstones. 

Within the area of these rocks I myself only landed at 
one spot, viz., in Polhems Dale, (Segelsällskapets Fjord), quite 




Fig. 2. Åkerblom 1., near the entrance of Segelsällskapets Fj., shewing 
folded manycoloured Silurian rocks. (C.Kruuse phot. 28:8:1900). 

near the limits of the primary rock. The fact that we 
were so close to the base of the formation gives the ob- 
servations taken a certain value. Although I had no op- 
portunity, except at a distance, of observing the line of 
junction itself, yet it was evident that, as Nathorst has 



1) Op. cit. pp. 288 — 298. 



175 



pointed out from other places, we have to deal with a super- 
stratification , not with two series of rocks separated by a 
fault. Possibly, therefore, the rocks I collected here belong 
to the Cambrian System. They have, as a matter of fact, a 
very old appearance. At the very bottom, on the shore, is found 
a green, dense, hard schist, quite different from the one we 
shall describe later as typical at Cape Brown and in Hurry 
Inlet. Above that we find quartzile and hard limestone in huge 
banks, of a fairly crystalline appearance; also a dark clay- 
slate. Among the rocks was observed a fine violet-red quarlz- 
ite, but for which it really looks as if here , at the bottom 
of the series, the red divisions of the formation had retired 
to some extent M. 

2. The Older Triassic System (Fleming [nlet Series). Fleming 
Inlet, which was first made known in detail through the Danish 
Expedition, is a comparatively broad, open bight between sheer, 
often perpendicular shores, the cliffs of which shine out in 
glaring red colours mixed with yellowish white, green, grey, etc. 
In a few places broad, deep side-valleys open, of which Örsted 
Dale is the chief. 

The expedition stayed here two days and made several 
landings, especially on the west shore and at the inmost part 
of the fjord. In both places were found, partly by me, partly 
by Hartz, traces of fossils, of which, however, only the last, 
taken from the slope opposite Pingels Dale, have so far proved 
determinable. They have not yet been described, but according 
to a preliminary communication, kindly supplied by Dr. K. 
Gronwall, they derive from the Triassic Period, of which 
hitherto no fossiliferous strata are known from Greenland^). 



') In the adjacent Berzelius Mountain, liowever, the mottled and red colours 
appear most brilliantly (cfr. PI. XI, also Fig. 2 above, showing the 
bright-coloured, folded layers on Àkerblom I, at the entrance of Segel- 
eallskapets Fjord). 

-) If we look aside from the Rhaetic beds. 



i 



176 



Further information cannot yet be given, but for the present 
account this is sufficient, even if an examination of the material, 
which is very desirable, should change our opinion in some 
details. 

Broadly speaking, the strata here are fairly horizontal, and, 
however variable their pétrographie character may be, there is 
no reason to assume that a continuous series does not exist, 
though from this it does not follow that dislocations cannot 
occur further off in the same district. 

The rocks themselves have, in the main, a rather young 
appearance. We find yellowish, grey, and more or less bright 
red sandstones, red, green and black schists, and dense, hard, 
grey and red, also dark, limestones. The latter are often de- 
veloped as fine oolites and varieties appear that consist entirely 
of balls, several centimetres in diameter and consisting of con- 
centric layers. In a grey-green clay-slate 1 saw a ball of dark, 
flint-like mass. In these respects the rock forcibly recalls the 
one at Cape Fletcher. Among the schists the lustrous types, 
so characteristic at Cape Brown, are as a rule wanting, yet at 
times there occur both red and green, loose, very likely cal- 
cereous, sandstone schists, which at the surface of the strata 
are resplendent with mica-scales. 

It is unfortunately impossible for me to show any sections 
of these rocks ^). The sequence of beds seems to be such 
that at the shore, at least towards the bottom of the fjord, 
bright red rocks predominate, while it seems as if the light, 
coarse sandstone prevailed higher up. So, for instance, 1 found 
on the W. shore at 180 m. a fine lustrous red schist, at 240 m. 
partly a narrow intervening layer of a green thinly laminated 
rock, partly loose, light sandstone, recalling the Jurassic series. 
But above these, as can be seen in several places, red schists 
again crop out, while, conversely, down by the shore at Cape 



') Partly because a number of notes made at the time were lost through 
an accident. 



I 



177 

Seaforth a coarse, yellowish sandstone crops out, with pebbles 
of quartz and of a green slaty rock, up to a centimetre in length. 
It does not look, therefore, as if the division of the series on 
purely petrographical lines was possible. Also in Pingel's Dale 
at the S. E. corner of the fjord, at 300 m. above the sea-level, 
a dark-green, lustrous schist, not unlike the one from Cape 
Brown, was found by Hartz. At 380 m. a fairly coarse, light 
sandstone with intervening layers of schists cropped out, and 
at 570 m. a red, non-lustrous, thinly laminated rock was met 
with. It was in blocks of sandstone schists from this series 
that the best preserved fossils were found. And still higher 
up, at circa 800 — 900 m., Koch found a black, bitumenous or 
(in other layers) a greenish schist, partly also a reddish con- 
glomerate that recalls very closely what is described below from 
Vargudden in Hurry Inlet. The rock is loose, the intermediate 
mass is very calcareous and contains numerous rounded mineral 
grains which, however, are frequently combined so as to show 
that they derive from older rocks, as well as true rock-fragments, 
among which some that derive from porphyritic surface rocks. 
To decide from the single sample I saw whether the rock is 
related to the similar conglomerates from Cape Brown and 
Hurry Inlet, is of course impossible, but a suggestion as to 
how the order of the strata may ultimalety be settled is con- 
tained in the similarity just pointed out. 

Almost at the same spot, close to the shore, in a little 
river, I came across several blocks of a curious limestone, 
which both at the surface of the cleft and, as it seems, in 
connection with concretionary formations, contains a fairly rich 
quantity of a dark metallically lustrous copper mineral, according 
to the determination of Böggild cuprite (red copper-ore), and 
interesting as being the first occurrence of this mineral in 
Greenland. Green, malachitish disintegration products give the 
rock a striking appearance. 

XXVIII. 12 



178 

3. Cape Brown and Hurry Inlet series. Cape Brown is the 
most northerly headland on the E. shore of Fleming Inlet. The 
Expedition here landed but for a very brief space, which only 
enabled me to collect what was cropping out nearest the shore. 
There were mighty banks of red and green schists, sometimes 
compact and more hornstone-like, but as a rule well charac- 
terized by the plentiful presence of a micaceous mineral which 
gives the surface of the strata a vivid sheen. From this I 
got an impression that the rock was rather crystalline, which 
is however disproved by the microscopical examination. The 
green rock here seems to consist of angular grains of quartz^ 
while plagioclase and other minerals are less abundant, with 
lamina of muscovite and green chlorite or chloritic biotite, 
cemented by a strongly doublerefractive carbonaceous mass. 
The structure is thus purely clastic. The schist is sometimes 
shattered and cemented into a breccia by crystalline limestone or 
it contains veins of calcite of a few centimetres in breadth. 

Furthermore I here came across, near the shore, a still 
more remarkable rock, viz. u coarse, firm conglomerate with 
an intermediate mass of red, green and dark grains the size 
of a pin's head and very many rounded balls of the most 
varied pétrographie character, granites of varied appearance, 
some of them coarse; further, grey quartzite, and a mixture of 
different kinds of many-coloured porphyries and porphyrites. 
I have microscopically examined both the matrix and a number 
of the balls. The former consists of a fine-grained, micaceous 
mass in which lie now angular, now rounded grains of quartz, 
felspar and heterogeneous fragments of rock. Among the bails 
the porphyries ofiFer most interest. There are varieties both 
with and without porphyritic quartz, while all the specimens 1 
examined contain phenocrysts of green chloritic mass which 
in its often regular hexagonal form shows that it is the pseu- 
domorph of biolite, very like those described from the eruptive 
rocks at Cape Fletcher. The ground-mass is now dense, 



179 



microgranitic , now a splendid granophyre. We also find 
balls whose ground-mass seems to consist of individualized 
cryptopegmatitic intergrowths, and the small grains show 
great variety, but it was impossible for me to set up any well 
defined types. It is true that I found no analogy to the basic 
tephritic forms of the Cape Fletcher series, but these even 
there occur in subordinate mass, and on the whole the resem- 
blance to the rocks of the area mentioned, distant only about 
12 miles, is too great for us not to be able to assume with 
certainty that the balls derive from that group of eruptive rocks. 
To this question 1 will return when describing the conglomerates 
in Hurry Inlet. 

To settle the very interesting question of the age of this 
series of rocks in relation to the Triassic bed further in in the 
{jord, it would be necessary not only to be acquainted with the 
nature of the superposed bed but also to examine the E. coast 
of the Qord. Koch stayed some time at this place and climbed 
the highest mountain, from the top of which (850—900 m. 
above the sea) he brought back, it is true, some red lustrous 
schists of the same kind as those from the shore. But as 
similar schists, even if subordinate, are also met with in the 
Upper Triassic series it is by no means precluded that the 
conglomerate cropping out on the shore can be at the base 
of this formation and itself belong to the same epoch. This 
is also the opinion to which I most incline, but until a de- 
tailed examination has been undertaken the possibility is always 
present that we have to deal with an older, Paleozoic series, 
which by dislocation is separated from the more recent beds. 

The oldest Hurry Inlet series. Nathorst, on his 
visit, already came across, in the innermost part of Hurry 
Inlet, at the foot of the archaean hills of Liverpool Land, 
firstly a coarse gneiss conglomerate, and secondly, nearer the 
shore, a black or grey clay-slate. However, he had no chance 
of determining their relations either to one another or to the 

12* 



180 



series of non-fossiliferous, red, white and green sedimentary 
rocks which here underlie the Rhaetic strata, and to which he 
also referred a ruddy sandstone and a calcareous conglomerate, 
which was met with on the Fame Islands underlying a sheet 
of Labrador porphyrite. 

By reason of their stratigraphie situation and pétrographie 
character Nathorst hesitatingly classed these last-mentioned 
rocks as Keuper. I had no opportunity myself of examining 
the strata on the W, side of Ryders River, but on the shore 
I collected a few samples during a single, short tour. From 
the Fame Islands Dr. Deichmann brought back a few samp- 
les, about which I shall have something to say below. 

During my own wanderings I came across, on the W. slope 
of Liverpool Land, a curious conglomerate that is probably 
identical with the one pointed out by Nathorst and mentioned 
above. In the main it forms a firm mass, the pebbles of which, 
it is true, stand ont plainly against the matrix, but yet are so 
firmly connected with it that they cannot easily be isolated 
even with the hammer. Since the matrix itself both prepon- 
derates in bulk and presents a tolerably compact appearance, 
while the fragments show angular shapes, the whole strongly 
reminds us of a volcanic breccia. But we have none such 
here; firstly a stratification can already be seen macroscopically, 
and secondly the microscope shows conclusively that we have 
here a clastic rock consisting of numerous grains, mostly 
quartz, but also felspar, and besides, in certain thin ledges, 
much garnet and iron- ore. As a rule these grains are sharp- 
edged, and as a typical cementing material is only sparsely 
present, the rock has a fairly crystalline look. But there occur 
also numerous grains, often well rounded, of rock-fragment, 
among them even micro-pegmatitic intergrowths of quartz and 
felspar, and their shape already shows that the whole is, after 
all, a clastic mass. That this is the case appears still more 
plainly in some intervening layers of green or red true clastic 



181 

schists, of the same appearance as the one met with at C.Brown. 
The green colour is probably caused principally by thin mica- 
ceous and chloritic scales ; moreover, there is a dense, sericitic 
mass; nor is calcite lacking as a matrix. 

I also came^across similar schists at another spot underneath 
the conglomerate rock. There were both green and red schists 
of the same appearance as those just described and, in ad- 
dition, lighter, hard, granulite-like layers which create a fine 
banded texture, while certain layers swell out into small lenses 
which may cut off the adjacent ones. In this series 1 also 
found veins or irregular layers of a dense, dark-grey limeslone. 

The conglomerate that here rests on the schist, differs 
from that just described in having a much looser character, 
which, as shown under the microscope, is closely allied to a 
well-marked crushing structure, and unless the foreign, well 
preserved pebbles were there one would be inclined to consider 
it a dislocation breccia rather than a clastic conglomerate. As 
it is, no other explanation can be given than that a dislocation 
has really taken place, chiefly affecting the conglomerate along 
the contact where it rests on the Archaean rock. In this con- 
glomerate, too, I found an intervening layer of schist, whose 
intense red colour was created by a fine dust of iron-oxide 
which transverses the cementing mass, whilst the numerous 
splinters of quartz which constitute the bulk of the rock are 
pure and uncoloured. In its structure the rock is exactly like 
the green schist just described. 

Of great interest are the pebbles in this conglomerate, which 
I tried to examine somewhat closer. True crystalline schists 
play no part, the chief mass is made up of red granites, of 
which, however, many, by their general habitus or their passing 
over into syenites, show that they do not belong to the normal 
archaean rock series, but to the more recent series of eruptives 
which are found cropping out further north on the coast and 
\\hich are later to be described, chiefly from the specimens 



182 

brought home from С Fletcher. Besides, already macroscopi- 
cally, red porphyries, mostly poor in quartz, are very prominent, 
and further bind together these rocks with those just named. 

Microscopically we can distinguish several varieties of por- 
phyries among the pebbles, with often a very dense, aphanitic 
though not really micro-felsitic ground-mass. Among the phen- 
ocrysts we very often find chlorite accompanied by apatite and 
ore, and in a distinct crystal form that seems to derive from biotite, 
even if occasionally hornblende should suggest itself. The re- 
semblance to the acid extrusive rocks of С Fletcher and the 
conglomerate pebbles of C. Brown is striking. Then 1 came 
across a fine granophyre granite. I have also examined a red, 
rather porphyritic granite. It is hard to determine where this 
rock should be classed. The quartz is fairly hard pressed and 
shows no crystallic shape, but is sometimes intergrown with 
plagioclase in a way that reminds one of a very coarse micro- 
pegmatite structure. The plagioclase itself usually shows idio- 
morphic outlines, and microcline is absent, through which the 
rock differs from the red granites, already described, which 
crop out in the district and with which in other respects a 
certain resemblance is to be seen. 

The rocks in the valley between Liverpool Land 
and Jameson Land (Ryder's Л^аИеу). These rocks, just de- 
scribed, were met with a little way up the slope towards the 
higher gneiss-area. Down in the valley itself the rocky foun- 
dation is not often exposed, but where it is to be seen, for 
instance near Vargudden, it consists, just as it does on the 
Fame Islands, for the most part of a coarse ruddy conglomerate 
which differs from the one just described in its looser con- 
sistency, and in that the pebbles and grains are mostly com- 
posed of quartz. Besides these, grains of granitic rock occurred, 
while in the specimen examined by me only a few small pebbles 
of micro-granite were seen, though their type could not easily 
be determined. The matrix chiefly consists of calcareous mass. 



183 

lu the rock occur iu many places rather large intrusive sheets 
of a basic eruptive rock with large porphyritic plagioclase crys- 
tals. In one place, on the border of the sedimentary rock, 
here strongly metamorphosed, it touches on a glassy structure, 
otherwise it scarcely differs from the tertiary olivine basalts of 
the district, with which it may presumably be closely allied. 

On one of the Fame Islands Dr. Deichmann came across, 
according to the report in situ, a curious greenish rock, 
which, as it appears, is completely crushed. It looks very 
much as if the original material had been a conglomerate, but 
both the pebbles and the mass are changed beyond recognition. 

Age of the conglomerate rocks. Thus, at four spots 
within a somewhat restricted area we come across curious 
conglomerate rocks which have this common characteristic, 
that their material includes porphyritic surface rocks, which 
are otherwise very rare in Greenland, but occur just here, 
though very likely not to any great extent. These conglomerates 
strikingly resemble one another by twos; on the one hand 
Fleming Inlet and the lowland round Ryders Elv, on the other 
C. Brown and Liverpool Land. This does not enable us, of 
course, to establish any safe comparison between them, but 
everything points to the conclusion this if ever a comparison 
by their pétrographie characteristics alone of sedimentary 
rocks of tolerably settled age is possible — they are all younger 
than the C. Fletcher eruptives and older than Rhaetic — this 
may be applied to these rocks. The conglomerate at Fleming 
Inlet is older than Rhaetic and more recent than the Triassic 
fossils met with there. To the strata in Ryders Dale one is most 
inclined to assign the same older Triassic age, if only because of 
its stratigraphie situation. The rocks at С Brown are probably 
somewhat older than those at Fleming Inlet, yet in point of 
age we cannot give them a place among the older Paleozoic 
epochs; we are inclined to think that they belong to the oldest 
Triassic or possibly to the Permian. There is no reason to 



li 



believe that the conglomerate and the schists on Liverpool 
Land do not belong to the same period, situated as they are 
on the level immediately below the Ryders Dale rock men- 
tioned above and not far from it. 

The crushed rocks that occur on several places in the same 
district, indicate that the boundary between the Archaean rock 
and the more recent fossiliferous formations on the west side 
of Liverpool Land is marked by a zone of dislocation. 

4. The sedimentary rocks of C. Fletcher. As we have already 
seen, the beds cropping out at C. Brown, in the most north- 
easterly part of Fleming Inlet, apparently belong to a somewhat 
older series than the Triassic inside the fjord. Still further 
along the coast-band, about 20 km. SSE. from C. Brown, the 
expedition made another landing at Cape Fletcher, the SE. cape 
of Canning Land at the entrance of Carlsberg Fjord (cfr. fig. p. 197). 
As the district between these two capes is still unknown it is not 
possible to express any opinion about the series of rocks at that 
place. The series at Cape Fletcher, however, it could easily 
be shown, must be older that those at С Brown, traversed as 
they are by several dikes or bosses of the same porphyry rocks 
that are represented amongst the pebbles of the conglomerate 
at the foot of С Brown. 

During our landing 1 devoted myself chiefly to studying 
and collecting these porphyry rocks, which shall be described 
in a later chapter. But 1 also got some conception of the 
sedimentary formation, though I cannot report on the strati- 
graphic conditions. The types of rock alternate very considerably; 
there are firstly hard, undoubtedly dolomitic limestones of a 
grey or black colour, and often of a very fine oolithic structure. 
The limestone alternates at times in thin bands with chert or 
silicious schists, and often contain small, rounded lumps of 
flint. Characteristic is a coarse, light-grey dolomite breccia. 
Furthermore, we came across, as a more irregular mass, a 
black, hard chert- or flint-like rock which, however, under the 



18Ö 

microscope proves to be quite crystalline, even if extremely 
compact. Then I found a violet coloured, pliyllitic schist, that 
revealed at the same time a conspicuous alternation of strata 
and a very apparent cleavage. Nor were red rocks lacking: 
there was both a coarse, vermilion sandstone with bright spots, 
and a fine-grained, red, micaceous sandstone, the grains of 
which, now rounded, now angular, consist largely of felspar, 
while a red pigment colours the not very abundant inter- 
mediate mass. 

The petrography of the series is obviously sufficiently un- 
like the Fleming Inlet series, even if there were no other 
reasons for believing it to be older, for us not to group 
them together without further investigation. Nathorst men- 
tions a loose stone of black chert from the Silurian area inside 
the fjord, but beyond this 1 do not know of the recurrence 
there of silicious rocks. In other respects, however, the pétro- 
graphie conformity with these formations is sufficiently marked 
for us to be able to assume that we may possibly have here 
a recurrence of the Silurian-Devonian series. In any case this 
С P'letcher formation is probably paleozoic. 

B. Rhaeto-Liassic and more recent sedimentary rocks. 
(Sandstone and schists without conspicuous colour.) 

5. Rhaeto-Jurassic formations. In contrast to the rocks 1 
have described above, which are always extremely poor in fossils 
but which, despite their greatly varying ages, must all be 
brought together in one pétrographie group, characterized partly 
by the frequent occurrence of dolomitic, often oolithic limestones, 
partly by the variegated, often red colours so frequently re- 
curring in strata of the most heterogeneous character, we find 
in these parts of East-Greenland also formations, most com- 
monly richly fossiliferous, in which limestones are of insigni- 
ficant occurrence, and the sandstones of which are always 
light-coloured or colourless, while the more retiring schists 



186 



can also be grey or greenish, but never red. These rocks 
belong partly to the Rhaeto-Liassic, partly to more recent sub- 
divisions of Jurassic, partly to the Tertiary. 

Strata belonging to the Jurassic system were first pointed 
out from East-Greenland by the German North Pole Expedition, 
viz., from Kuhn I., situated somewhat N. of Sabine I., and thus 
rather far from the districts where the Amdrup-Hartz Ex- 
pedition had its proper field of work. The rock here consists 
partly of brownish sandstone with small coal-seams belonging 
to the Dogger, partly of light sandstone and marls of the most 
recent Jurassic, the Aucella-beds. The petrifactions dis- 
covered have since been described by Toula. 

From the material collected during the Danish Expedition 
of 1891 — 1892 by Hartz and Bay, it was also shown that the 
rocks, that build up the SE. part of Jameson's Land, and in 
a steep escarpment (the so-called Neill's cliffs) form the shore 
of Hurry Inlet, belong to the Rhaetic and Jurassic systems. 
At C. Stewart, where the oldest strata are visible, there lies at 
the very bottom a mighty series of grey, sandy clay-slate with 
numerous, well-preserved fossil plants, deriving from the Rhaeto- 
Liassic. Above this lies light sandstone in which was found 
an intervening layer, about 2 metres thick, of very impure 
greyish limestone, rich in not particularly well preserved petri- 
factions, classed by Lundgren with the older strata from 
Kuhn I. (Kelloway). Then follow schists and light sandstones 
with banks of basalt. About the strata further north. Nat- 
horst has communicated a number of notes; he also found 
new fossiliferous horizons. 

I made no collections or examinations myself of the sea- 
cliffs at Hurry Inlet ^). However, I succeeded in making some 
interesting contributions to our knowledge of the Jurassic beds 
of Greenland, during my excursion to the inner and northern 



^) Hartz, who carried out the work here, has published a few notes of 
his observations in Madsen's work, quoted below. 



187 



parts of Jameson's Land together with Dr. Deichmann and 
during excursions from our landing places during a boat- 
journey along the W. and S. coasts of the same land. In the 
former case 1 could establish the fact that within the whole 
district traversed by me, up to the so-called Fossil mountain M, 
the rock consists of monotonous, light Jurassic sandstone, in 
which fossiliferous banks are not rare, and ammonites are now 
and again so plentiful that the ground at the weathering of the 
rock is thickly strewn with them for long stretches^). In the 
W. parts of Jameson Land the rocky foundation is covered by 
such deep quaternary beds that it could not be observed any- 
where, but we may presume that the Jurassic beds continue 
here and on the SW. side of the land they were also found, 
though only in a few places in the banks of large rivers. Only 
in one place did I find fossil remains, which are, however, of 
great interest and consist chiefly of Aucella Pallasii Keys; 
close by occurred also badly preserved ammonites. 

The petrifactions collected by Hartz and myself, have been 
described by Victor Madsen^), to whose work I need only 
refer. It appears that the Cape Stewart beds, which have long 
been known, belong to the Callovian and are found the higher 
up the further N. one reaches; here belong presumably the 
ammonites (among others Macrocephalites Pompeckji 
Mads.), which I found at a height of about 500 metres above 
the sea, right inside the innermost bay of Hurry Inlet. Under- 
neath this series were found in Nathorst Mountain fossil remains 
that are assigned to upper Bajocian or Lower Bathonian. On 
the other hand the beds I came across, both furthest SW. and 
NW., are essentially younger; the former (Aucella- beds) 
belong to the Lower Volgian, the latter are considered by 



') Cf. Koch's map, Meddel, om Grønland, XXVII, plate 8, also the map 

in the paper by V. Madsen cited below. 
*) Owing to the difficult) of carrying specimens during this long excursion, 

very little material could be collected, unfortunately. 
=>) Meddel, om Grenland, XXIX, 1.57-210. 



188 

Madsen, if his determination of a Simbirskites is correct, 
to belong to the youngest Jurassic or possibly the Lower 
Cretaceous. 

Nothing is known as to the continuation of the formation 
further north. Nathorst's observations at Antarctic Harbour 
are characterized by himself as uncertain, no distinct fossils 
having been noticed, but the pétrographie descriptions tally 
with a continuation of both the monotonous Jurassic beds and 
the motley Triassic series. However, the statement quoted 
above shows that one must by no means exclude the assumption 
that still more recent beds, of the cretaceous formation, may be 
met with in this district on some future occasion. 

As to the petrographical character of the Jurassic bed 
there is not much to add. At the shores of Hurry Inlet nu- 
merous blocks of a Scolithus sandstone, already observed by 
Bay, were seen. It may be mentioned that red formations are 
not altogether lacking. So, in the interior of Jameson Land, 
I found, for instance, a glaring brick-red sandstone alternating 
with the normal or light-coloured. But the colour is very un- 
like that found in the older formations and points rather to a 
secondary colouring in later times. 

Finally I may mention that conglomerates do not seem 
to be unusual, but that, in sharp contrast to the older for- 
mations, the pebbles most usually — exceptions may occur — 
are composed of quartz. This, too, most probably is connected 
in some way with the obviously divergent conditions under which 
these strata were formed, a knotty problem into which I cannot 
enter here. 

The new plant fossils from Hurry Inlet district will be de- 
scribed later by Hartz. 

6. The Cape Leslie sandstone. During the expedition of 1891, 
in the most easterly part of Milne Land, i. e. opposite Jameson 
Land, Bay came across a fairly large series of sandstone resting 



189 



on gneiss, with intervening layers of coarse conglomerate, but, 
so far as known, without any fossils. He expresses no opinion 
as to the age of the rock. Both from Bay's own description M 
and from the specimens collected by him which I have seen, 
it is clear, however, that the rock recalls, petrographically, 
certain strata in the Jurassic beds of Jameson Land: a loose, 
greyish yellow sandstone, consisting of grains of both quartz 
and felspar, of a youthful appearance. That the rock is more 
recent than Triassic seems probable to me from every point 
of view. It is, of course, possible that it is even more recent 
than Jurassic, i. e. that it belongs to the Tertiary or Cretaceous 
system. Yet there seems to be no reason to assume this, and 
on the map I have therefore marked it with the general colour 
of the Jurassic beds. 

From the sea Bay thought he noticed a rock recalling the 
Cape Leslie sandstone at a spot on the W. side of Jameson 
Land. I am not quite sure that the rock in situ is visible 
at all in that part from the sea, and, as we have seen, it be- 
longs to the Jurassic formation. But if the opinion expressed 
by me above is correct, then Bay is also right, even if in a 
way be did not mean. 

7. The Tertiary Sedimentary Rocks. I am not going to enter 
into the history of our knowledge about these deposits. For nearly 
all we knew about the Tertiary rocks of E. Greenland prior to the 
last Danish expedition we have to thank the German Polar Expedi- 
tion, which discovered Tertiary fossiliferous strata at several places 
near the most northerly part, then known, of the east coast. 
On Sabine L, in the so-called Hasenberg, were found plant- 
bearing strata, whose not very well preserved flora was shown 
by Heer to be identical with the common Arctic Tertiary flora, 
usually classed as Miocene. On Hochstetter Land there oc- 
curred mighty banks with remains of marine mussels, of which, 



<) Medd. om Grønland, XIX, 162. 



190 



however, only very few specimens could be brought back and 
these were so badly preserved that only their genus could be 
determined. 

The Tertiary rocks in this district are closely bound to 
the basalt, which has certainly contributed to protect these 
easily destroyed rocks. As a result of our work in 1900 it 
could be proved that also in the large basalt territory S. of 
Scoresby Sund Tertiary sediments occur. I shall return to 
these investigations directly; meanwhile a few words about our 
observations in the N. basalt region, where I only visited 
Sabine I. 

The Tertiary rocks have a very considerable distribution 
here, in comparison with the S. region. In many places low 
mountain ridges occur, formed exclusively of sandstone, and 
also huge layers between the sheets of basalt. So for instance 
Hasenberg is formed, to a considerable extent, of Tertiary beds, 
and here I succeeded in finding leaves of plants, which, though 
badly preserved, were of interest in enabling me to determine 
positively the age of the sedimentary rocks of that place. 

Incomparably better preserved fossils were found by Hartz 
in Germania Bjerg, in a piece of dark clay-slate of about 12 m. 
in length, inclosed in the basalt and somewhat burnt by it. 
This find is described by him in "Medd. om Grønland", Vol. 
XXVII, pag. 156. The flora, however, seems to be very poor 
in species. 

As to the pétrographie character of the rock, it is com- 
posed everywhere of loose, yellow or grey sandstones, very 
subordinately of dark schists. Conglomerate also occurs at 
times with pebbles of foreign rocks, granite, etc. On the other 
hand limestones and all rocks of red colours are lacking, even 
more consistently than in the Jurassic beds. 

Our most resultful investigations into the Tertiary beds of 
Greenland were carried out within the southern basalt-region. 
From here, from Cape Brewster, Scoresby had already brought 



191 

back brown-coal, but since the rock here is evidently made up 
tor the most part of basalt, the conclusion was drawn that his 
material was only composed of erratic pieces. Our landing at 
this spot has shown that this was not the case, in that the 
basalt here really, and richly, in particular in one horizon, 
contains pieces of charred or petrified wood, and, apart from 
that, of indurated sediment of probably Tertiary age. But no 
connected layers were come across in this spot. 

However, this was the case at a few more southerly places. 
Thus, for instance, at several spots on Turner Sound we could 
see far extended but not very broad intervening layers in the 
basalt of schists and light sandstone, in which, however, despite 
a careful search, we were unable to discover definite petrifac- 
tions, Hartz, op, cit, p. 162, has already given some account 
of these investigations. 

What I saw of these rocks was in general strongly meta- 
morphosed by basalt, yet the stratification seemed to me to 
point to an intervening layer contemporaneous with it. This 
applies still more obviously to the most important and largest 
of these southern occurrences which I found on a terrace-like 
plateau about 300 m. above the station at C. Dalton. Besides 
the plant remains, not very well preserved, which have not yet 
been described, but according to Hartz belong to the ordinary 
Arctic Tertiary flora, there occurred here numerous remains of 
Pelecypoda, Gastropoda and Crustacea, which have been de- 
scribed by J. P. J. Ravn ^); he classes these beds among Eocene, 
comparing them more exactly with the London Clay, Bagshot 
Beds and Sables de Cuise. 

The pétrographie types of rock are reported on in Ravn' s 
work. He distinguishes a coarse whitish sandstone, a brown 
argillaceous shale with numerous concretions, greenish sand- 
stone and dark calcareous sandstone, rich in fossils. 



') Medd. om Grenland XXIX, 95—140. 



192 



It is not easy to determine exactly the stratigraphie relation 
of these rock to the basalt. We do not get the impression of 
a normal layer between the eruptive sheets, but they are ob- 
viously not older than the lower basalt-banks. Should that 
have been the case the only possibility would have been that 
the whole sandstone area was a mighty fragment broken off 
by the basalt, but this theory cannot be supported by one who 
has visited the place ; moreover, it is evincibly wrong. Pro- 
fessor N. V. Ussing, in conjunction with Ravn's work, has 
examined the different varieties of Tertiary rocks petrographic- 
ally, and has shown that certain of them are wholly or partly 
formed of basaltic material, which must consequently be older 
than these sedimentary rocks ^). 

In two respects the investigatioa of this locality is of con- 
siderable importance for our understanding of the geology of 
the Arctic North Atlantic region. In the first place for a more 
exact knowledge of the age of the Arctic Tertiary flora; as this 
will be dealt with by Hartz, I will not enter into the question 
here. Secondly, because here for the first time it has been 
conclusively shown that volcanic activity in this large basalt 
area was in full swing already in the Eocene time, while it has 
usually been assigned to the xMiocene period. I shall return 
to this question when I come to describe the basalts of this 
territory. 

Retrospect of the Sedimentary Rocks of 
E. Greenland. 
Our knowledge of the geological conditions on the E. coast 
of Greenland is not yet sufficiently extensive for it to be pos- 
sible to show the exact sequence of the formations there in 
sections. If, despite this, I have ventured to draw up and here 
present a few strictly schematized sections ^), I have done so 
chiefly in order to make clear the opinion I myself hold to be 



') Cfr. the description in Ravn's paper. 

'^) On the geological map accompanying this paper. 



193 



the most likely. A general survey of the district lies behind 
us ; we now come to the point when detailed stratigraphie ob- 
servations should be made. For those who will in the future 
devote themselves to this work it will probably be an advantage 
to set out from the view presented here as a working hypothesis. 

Perhaps the most interesting feature about the sedimentary 
rocks of the district is the very considerable dissimilarity in 
appearance between the older, pre-Jurassic and the more recent 
rocks. This is most marked in the occurrence of huge, inten- 
sively red strata in the former series, but also in its scarcity 
of fossil remains and the common occurrence of limestones 
iprobably dolomitic); possibly also in the character of the in- 
cluded conglomerates. 

For the present I can ofîer no satisfactory explanation of 
these decided differences and the subject is too specialistic for 
me to enter into it here. It does not seem as if it were bound 
up with a formation of the rocks at different depths of the sea 
during different periods. As to the red colour, its presence in 
the older strata could be attributed to the formation of latérite 
in the polar areas only being able to take place during these 
periods. It would be interesting if something of the sort could 
be proved, but the conditions seem to point rather to the cause 
of the differences being of a more local nature. 

What is said here applies, of course, in the first place 
only to the strata whose age has been determined with cer- 
tainty. Yet it seems to me that there is no great doubt 
that the non-fossiliferous series here described, those at least 
examined by me, really belong in any case to the main division 
in which I have placed them. As to their reciprocal ages, I 
refer to the detailed account. 

As far as the stratigraphie conditions are concerned, it is 

difficult to be more precise about the area N. of Davy Sund. 

Nathorst himself lays stress on the possible occurrence at 

Traill I. of more recent (and perhaps also older) strata than 

XXVIII. 13 



194 

those given in the map^). It is not until we reach the districts 
examined by the Danish Expedition that the facts relating to 
the eastern frontiers grow clearer, though still a good deal is 
left to be done. In the extreme E. we have Archaean rock. 
On this, at C. Fletcher, rest Paleozoic strata. Then, if we follow 
the boundary southward, we shall find that in the contact to 
the Archaean rock more and more recent rocks appear. This 
may partly be connected with faults and with the erosion which 
was at work in connection with the origin of Hurry Inlet; be- 
sides, this circumstance depends on a general though very slight 
inclination of the rock towards the S. It looks as if the same 
dip should assert itself on the W. frontier towards the Archaean 
rocks of the central mass, since even here furthest south the 
older formations seem to be lacking on the boundary between 
Jurassic and Archaean rocks. But here the real facts are too 
little known to allow of any conclusion being drawn. 

Above the С Fletcher formation, at Fleming Inlet, lie 
strata of the Triassic system, and between the two the forma- 
tion at Cape Brown, which in age should be nearest the latter. 
How the Triassic strata appear to the west, we do not know, 
no observations having been made; possibly they are covered 
by Jurassic, but still farther west we should most probably come 
to older and older strata, dipping to the E., as Nathorst' s 
map also shows. In the interior of Hurry Inlet, between Jur- 
assic and Archaean, we find formations which should correspond 
to the strata at C. Brown and Fleming Inlet, which were classed 
as Triassic. 



III. Post-Archaean Eruptive Rocks. 

Scoresby's investigations already intimate the occurrence 
in the coast-belt of both basalt and acid porphyries. The former 

') Op. cit. p. 295. 



195 

rock has since had its distribution and its character made 
known through Kolde wey's and Ryder's Expeditions. As 
to the occurrence here of other eruptive rocks, it was the 
Swedish Expedition under Nathorst that first enlarged our 
knowledge. The material collected during this expedition and 
afterwards described by Back s trom, consists partly of a rhyolitic 
quartz-porphyry from C. Broer Ruys, partly of quartziferous 
aegirine syenite and a tinguaite from C. Parry, partly of an 
alnöitic rock of the monchiquite group, a block of which was 
found on the Fame Is. 

The discovery of the last series of rocks was of great 
interest, but the material collected did not suffice to give a 
survey of their appearance in this area. The Danish Expedition 
collected a fairly extensive material both of these as also of 
the basalt rocks, though not so extensive as the interest in 
these rocks advocated. As we shall see, formations are not 
altogether lacking which seem to connect the basalts with the 
remaining rocks, but in the main these two groups must be 
regarded as essentially separate, since, at least in their bulk, 
the former must be considered much younger than the other. 

A. Older Eruptive Rocks. 

(Age presumably Paleozoic.) 

With the material before him Bäckström felt justified in 
connecting the monchiquite, found on the Fame Is., with the 
rocks from C. Parry, bringing forward as a possibility that the 
block in question had been carried by the ice from the more 
northerly area. Since then I have succeeded in coming across 
the rock in situ on Liverpool Land. I do not know the rocks 
from C. Parry except from Bäckströms description, but, in 
return, I found a new occurrence at C. Fletcher, from where 
an extensive series of samples was brought back. These rocks 
differ from those at С Parry in that plutonic rocks with a 
granitoid structure are entirely wauling, but otherwise there 

13' 



196 



can be no doubt that they belong to the same eruptive series 
of rocks rich in alkali. 

On the other hand, I do not dare to express an opinion 
as to the connection with the rock from Liverpool Land. A 
certain relationship is undeniably present, but when we see, 
for instance, in Scandinavia how the eruptions of alkaliferous 
magma have taken place during different periods, and that it 
is not possible to directly compare with regard to their age 
the various occurrences in, let us say, the area of Christiania, 
Alnön, Ragunda, etc., I, for my part, prefer to describe these 
groups of occurrences apart from each other. 

1. The Ëruptifes of the €. Hetcher Series. Canning Peninsula 
is only known to us through the short landing that the Ex- 
pedition made at C. Fletcher. The series of probably paleozoic 
sedimentary rocks that we have here has already been de- 
scribed by me. Down by the shore we can see how these are 
interspersed with several broad dikes, consisting for the most 
part of a grey granite-porphyry with large, red orthoclase eyes 
and smaller, porphyritic phenocrysts of green plagioclase. Very 
closely connected with this rock — as far as I could see, passing 
over into it in the same dike — is a red porphyry, obviously 
more basic than the former, with which we may connect the 
fact that it is rich in dark, basic enclosures of varying appearance 
and texture, which point to a strong differentiation in the 
original magma. 

Somewhat further from our landing-place the rocky wall 
rises steeply to a height of about 600 m. Already from a 
distance can be seen, some way up the cliff, a huge, lenticular 
mass in the shape of an intervening layer of porphyritic eruptive 
rocks, which have undoubtedly intruded into the sedimentary 
beds. I had no time to make the ascents that would have 
been necessary in order to closely examine this mass in place 
and at its contacts, but i managed to collect a large material 



197 



м^]^^ y 5l^^.J w ц ' M!/ .i ' . ' -.v — л > } и ■ 




198 

of undoubtedly local blocks, which, petrographically, should 
represent all the most important varieties. The appearance 
varies very considerably, even if the main mass consists of 
moderately acid porphyries. As for the many divergent forms, 
it is, unfortunately, impossible as a rule to decide whether they 
are formed as a kind of endogenous magmatic precipitations, 
or whether in this case there have been several different epochs 
of eruptions. 

That to some extent at least, the latter has been the case, 
is indicated by some dikes of dark rock which were observed 
to penetrate the sedimentary beds. I shall describe them 
below; at least one of them, a true basalt, is presumably much 
more recent than the remaining rocks. 

We will pass on to a description of the various main types 
that I saw on the spot. 

a. Coarsely crystalline, syenite-like rocks. In the material 
collected, we come across a single specimen of a plutonic 
rock, macroscopically a deep-red granite without anything espe- 
cially peculiar in its appearance. Microscopically, however, one 
can see that the quartz occurs exclusively as rounded, sharply 
defined aggregates, often surrounded by or in close connection 
with areas rich in chlorite and of an appearance that is foreign 
to the ordinary mass of the rock. It is not easy to decide if we 
are in the presence of remains of an older rock, destroyed by fusion, 
or secondary secretions in a kind of miarolitic cavities. For 
the rest, the rock consists of large individuals of strongly red- 
dened orthoclase, which embraces small fresh crystal individuals 
of plagioclase. However this rock may have originated, it is 
evidently no normal plutonic rock; undoubtedly it must be re- 
garded as a local type, closely related to the following sur- 
face rocks. 

b. Acid orthoclase-b earing porphyries. The specimens in 
this case derive to a large extent from the above-named dikes 
in situ, which, already macroscopically however, show great 



199 

variation in colour and appearance, and contain both endogenous 
and exogenous inclusions. We can distinguish quartziferous 
forms and forms devoid of quartz, which again can be more 
or less rich in orthoclase, plagioclase and ferromagnesian 
minerals. 

First among these may be mentioned a variety, collected 
as a block, of brick-red colour, with small, inconspicuous por- 
phyritic crystals, among which felspar is predominant; yet, 
especially in certain areas, a larger quantity of quartz stands 
out. Microscopically we can see numerous little dihexahedra 
of quartz, while the larger individuals are composed of felspar, 
predominantly of plagioclase^ which is strongly weathered and 
kaolinized. The ground-mass is microgranitic, yet it is quite 
possible that what seems to be individuals consists really of 
intimate intergrowths between quartz and feldspar. 

This variety has been analyzed by Miss Naima Sahl- 
bom, B. A., and the following is the result of her analysis: 

SiO^ 75*14 per cent 

ГгОз 016 — 

Ah_0^ 12-50 — 

Fe^O^ 1-20 — 

FeO 0-87 — 

MnO traces 

CaO 0-83 — 

MgO 0-43 — 

K.^0 3-50 — 

l^a^O 3-00 — 

Loss at ignition 2*ô5 — 

100-18 per cent 
Thus, in its chemical constitution the rock reveals nothing 
especially striking. The considerable loss at ignition seems to 
stand in connection with a radical decomposition of the felspars. 
The proportion of soda is high, just as seems to be the case 
with the more basic formations of the series. 



200 



The remaining varieties examined by me contain, at least 
somewhat more abundantly, ferro-magnesian minerals. As a 
type I should choose the main rock in the large dike already 
spoken of. It is a grey or, further inside the dike, a ruddy por- 
phyry, with large reddish orthoclase crystals and numerous little 
individuals of greenish-white plagioclase together with a dark 
green mineral. The ground-mass itself rather retires, but the dike 
in several places contains sections which are indistinguishable 
from the main rock, except in that here the porphyritic cry- 
stals recede, and possibly in their somewhat more basic con- 
stitution. Under the microscope we see that both orthoclase 
and plagioclase are considerably kaolinized; the orthoclase occurs 
in large, not very numerous individuals, often as Carlsbad twins. 
Phenocrysts of quartz, much corroded, only occur subordinately. 
Sometimes we come across irregularly bordered areas of cal- 
cite, which seem to fill up miarolitie cavities. Small crystals 
of iron ore abound. The green mineral is entirely composed 
of chlorite, and its appearance here seems to indicate that it 
is pseudomorphous from biotite. The ground-mass is a not 
especially well developed granophyre. 

From the same dike 1 examined a specimen of a divergent 
appearance taken at the line of contact. Porphyritic felspar 
(probably orthoclase, but strongly weathered) occurs only very 
subordinately; the ground-mass is very compact and stands 
midway between granophyre and felsophyre. In it occur nu- 
merous thin laminae of chlorite, pseudo-morphs from biotite, 
while on the other hand other large porphyritic individuals 
consist of a serpentinic mass. They usually show rounded 
outlines, at other times we find laths or vestiges of hexahedral 
borders. The original mineral cannot have been mica; most 
likely it was an amphibole mineral. 

While these contact facies occur rather isolated, we find, 
among the blocks collected, many that correspond to the main 
type. Orthoclase is never predominant, but always occurs in 



201 

rather large individuals. It is lacking altogether at times, even 
where quartz occurs. Remarkable is, that fresh mica so rarely 
occurs and that more hornblende or augite is not to be found; 
it is often difficult to decide from what mineral the chloritic 
pseudomorphs, often associated with carbonaceous mineral, 
derive, though biotite seems here to have been the predominant 
mineral. Calcite of very primary appearance is common in 
many types, through which they ally themselves with the well- 
known Swedish calcite-granites. The ground-mass is some- 
times very compact, but never vitreous ; in fact, it is rather of 
such a kind that in polarized light it resolves itself into sec- 
lions which themselves seem to constitute cryptopegmatitic 
quartz-felspar intergrowths, as is the case with certain of the 
Swedish porphyries from Elfdalen. 

But in the main these types are not specially noticeable 
petrographically. They are quartz-porphyries, which, however, 
in their abundance of alkalies and — among the minerals — 
biotite, show that they correspond to the basic rocks described 
below. We find more curious developments especially in strongly 
differentiated varieties, a few of which may be mentioned here. 

On the one hand, then, we have varieties whose main mass 
consists of the same type of rock as has just been described. 
One of them is a splendid, somewhat orthoclasiferous mica- 
porphyrite, almost the freshest of the varieties I saw. The 
ground-mass is plainly holocrystalline, with a tendency to pass 
over into micropegmatite. The porphyritic plagioclase crystals 
seem to have a moderately basic constitution corresponding 
roughly to labradorite or andesine. This rock contains a frag- 
ment of a black porphyritic rock with phenocrysts of quartz, 
plagioclase, biotite and green chloritized pseudomorphs, which 
must have originated from pyroxene or hornblende. The ground 
mass is extremely compact and entirely interspersed with a fine, 
black powder which, curiously enough, shows a pretty fluidal 
arrangement. That the rocks are, however, closely related to 



202 



one another is obvious, but in the light rock, where it borders 
on the dark, lies what seems to be a fragment of a foreign 
gabbro-like rock. A mass enclosed in another sample must 
derive from some almost completely assimilated fragment of a 
foreign rock; in it we find several large grains of garnet to- 
gether with large felspar individuals. The surrounding mass 
is curious, partly micropegmatitic, partly consisting of large 
individuals which are perfoliated, with a certain regularity, by 
a fine powder and, moreover, embrace thin needles or scales 
which appear to consist of chlorite. 

A curious enclosure, met with in another slide, consists 
of a single individual, some centimetres in length, of a colour- 
less mineral, entirely intergrown with biotite, yet without cry- 
stallographic orientation. Nepheline it is not, and I can only 
class this mineral as orthoclase, though with uncertainty. 

Of a somewhat different type is another of the samples 
collected. The main mass looks more basic and externally forms 
a transition to the group of rocks immediately following. In it 
lie numerous, rounded balls or pebbles of red porphyry, but also 
of other rocks, among which are such as recall in appearance 
clay-slate. One is inclined to call the rock a volcanic con- 
glomerate. Microscopically, the main mass shows nothing 
remarkable, save that it is more disintegrated than usual; 
this holds good especially of the felspar phenocrysts, which 
are usually entirely transformed. There are moreover mica, 
generally converted into chlorite, and a little quartz. The por- 
phyry "pebbles" are of several types: some contain quartz, 
some do not; biotite, more or less well preserved, is almost 
always present, and the felspar is strongly disintegrated. In 
one piece there are some peculiar pseudomorphs, forming in 
the transverse section very pointed rhombohedra; I cannot 
recall any certain interpretation, but possibly these were am- 
phiboles that appeared in an unusual crystalline form. Interesting 
is the ground-mass, which must have been very compact, but 



203 

is now very strongly polarizing, and in the transformation 
seems to have gone over into a carbonaceous mass. Obviously 
these rocks when fresh had an unusual chemical constitution, 
showing their affinity with the more divergent types, to which 
I will now pass on. 

c. Basic rocks of lamprophyric type. The group of rocks 
to which 1 have now come is closely connected by means of 
intermediate links with the last-named group. Yet its consti- 
tution is throughout more basic: most of the rocks contain 
normally neither orthoclase nor quartz, and in some varieties 
no Porphyrie felspar occurs at all. As the samples were 
mostly collected as blocks it is possible that some of the 
varieties do not appear as independent forms but as subordinate 
transition forms or small differentiated sections in the main 
mass. However, it is impossible to give a certain proof of 
this; I shall therefore describe the most interesting forms without 
expressing an opinion about their reciprocal connection. 

One of these rocks shows macroscopically large — up to 
a centimetre in length — isolated crystals of felspar (orthoclase) 
and of green chloritic mass, as well as numerous irregular 
miarolitic cavities filled with calcite, surrounded by a ring 
of small red quartz individuals; elsewhere, too, quartz occurs 
as the last product of crystallization. Under the microscope 
can be seen, moreover, of large individuals only chlorite, whose 
origin I could not determine; the rock also contains a good 
deal of apatite. The ground-mass itself consists to a great 
extent of irregular lath-shaped felspar and of minute scales of 
chlorite which in thin sections vividly recall the aegirine needles 
in certain tinguaites. It is possible that this rock should be 
referred to bostonite. 

Here belongs another variety with solitary felspar crystals, 
completely transformed, with numerous areas in which calcite 
and often idiomorphic individuals of quartz occur together in a 
way that suggests an origin associated with the last period of 



204 



the solidification of the rock; with phenocrysts of altered biotite 
and also large green individuals that are secondary either after 
amphibole or pyroxene, and with a compact ground-mass per- 
foliated with calcite, chlorite and fine micaceous scales. 

A somewhat dissimilar appearance is presented by two 
other varieties of rock. Of large felspar crystals only plagio- 
clase occurs; then we find a light-coloured serpentinized mineral, 
surrounded by dark grains of iron-ore, which mineral either 
represents an old rhombic pyroxene or possibly sprang from 
an amphibole mineral; in one of the rocks biolite is also 
present. We may also mention pseudomorphs which now al- 
most entirely consist of carbonate. In addition to this, the 
rock is altogether traversed by irregular, amygdaloid, light-green 
secretions which seem to consist of serpentine and some thin 
needles (zeolite?). The .ground-mass is extremely compact and 
strongly altered, but it looks as if it had originally been formed 
of large sections which possibly consisted of intimately inter- 
grown individuals. 

Furthermore, we must mention a greenish basic rock, 
which is interesting because the felspar or any corresponding- 
mineral is almost completely absent among the porphyritic cry- 
stals. On the other hand it is rich in large biotite crystals, partly 
transformed into chlorite, and also in green serpentinized masses 
mostly devoid of regular crystal shape; I can express no opinion 
about their origin. The ground-mass is closely perfoliated with 
the same serpentinized substance; for the rest it is quite cry- 
stalline and seems to consist mostly of a comparatively fresh 
(new-formed?) felspar-mass. 

Lastly we can add to this series another, more divergent, 
rock which in certain respects forms a transition to the group 
following. It contains some large individuals of rounded hexa- 
hedral form, which now consist of serpentine and a carbonate 
mineral, but otherwise it consists mainly of biotite and lath- 
shaped felspar; in addition to this quartz (secondary?) occurs as 



205 



a last product of crystallization, the whole mass of rock being 
densely penetrated by calcite. The biotite is interesting because 
it shows, especially in large individuals, a marginal zone of the 
usual brown colour, while the core is very light, almost colour- 
less. The felspar seldom shows twin formation, but often a zonal 
extinction; the borders, too, often consist of fresher substance 
than the middle zone. Of the rocks I have seen this one 
reminds me most of some forms of bostonite, but I presume 
that its constitution is more basic. 

d. Dike rocks of nepJieline-tephritic type. Besides the al- 
ready described lenticular or boss-shaped rocky mass with its 
various types, and the red or grey porphyry dikes that belong 
to the same, the sedimentary rock at C. Fletcher is interspersed 
with some darker dikes of a different appearance, and of which 
one proved to consist of ordinary basalt and is therefore men- 
tioned among the basalt rocks. Two other, fairly narrow dikes, 
belong, on the other hand, to another and interesting type, 
which is described herewith ^). 

Two of the specimens, in spite of their macroscopically 
divergent appearance, form such an obvious transition to the 
one last described that they ought certainly to be classed with 
it. We find, porphyritically, now biotite partly discoloured 
and bleached, and rich in inclusions of regularly arranged fine 
needles, now light pseudomorphs, entirely transformed into 
serpentine and carbonate, from a mineral which I hesitatingly 
hold to have been amphibole. In addition there are areas that 
can very well have been composed of olivine. True felspar 
phenocrysts seems to be lacking. The ground-mass consists chiefly 
of lath-shaped, strongly altered felspar, while it is interwoven 
with a carbonate mass; ore (titanic iron ore?), apatite, and fine 
micaceous scales also occur. To what extent a pyroxene or am- 

*) The samples examined are, it is true, not taken from the dikes in situ, 
but were found in such a position that their origin from them can 
scarcely be called in question. 



206 



phibole mineral has originally entered into the composition 
cannot be determined. 

Finally we come to what is perhaps the most interesting 
of all these types ^), and which was the object of detailed ex- 
amination, though even now its nature cannot be quite deter- 
mined. Macroscopically it is a grey, compact, almost hornstone- 
like rock, with numerous porphyritic crystalline agglomerations 
of a hght, bronze-coloured mica; other phenocrysts, whether 
lighter or darker, only appear on the polished surface. 

Under the microscope we can distinguish now biotite of 
the ordinary appearance, often in the form of hexagonal scales, 
now a yellowish green, not especially pleocroitic, fresh horn- 
blende with maximal extinction of 16°, then furthermore one 
or two light, much transformed minerals, the nature of which 
is more difficult to determine. Some of them are individuals 
with idiomorphic outlines of approximately hexagonal form and 
consisting partly of a carbonate mineral, partly of an almost 
isotropic, serpentinic mass. I do not think it possible that 
here a felspar was originally present. However, it looks as if 
this mineral were connected by transitions with others which 
by their weak, flamy, varying double refraction indicate that 
they consist of sub-microscopic intergrowths; as a rule they 
do not contain carbonate, but they contain other inclusions or 
decomposition products, which in part make them almost iso- 
tropic. The shape is often rectangular or rectangular with 
blunt truncations on two sides. The double refraction recalls, 
in the purest sections, felspar, and as felspar we should class 

'^) While on a visit to Heidelberg I had an opportunity of showing a few 
of the specimens here described to Professor H. Rosenbusch, and 
in the main he confirmed the opinions I had myself arrived at. I was 
especially interested in hearing from a scientist of such ripe experience 
an opinion about these particular rocks; he compared them to certain 
trachy-dolerites and tephrites, and especially to nepheline-tephrites from 
the area of the large East-African depressions. I seize this opportunity 
of expressing my sincere thanks to Professor Rosenbusch for so 
kindly placing his time at my disposal. 



207 



lath-shaped individuals which are plentifully scattered about in 
the mass and sometimes show twinning. The extinction forms 
an angle of some few degrees on the length of the laths. 

The minerals just described belong most nearly to the 
ground-mass against which they only stand out in polarized light. 
This is, moreover, very weakly doubly refractive; I am inclined 
to think that also the main mass of it is formed of the minerals 
mentioned, which only appear, however, when unusually pure 
and free from inclusions. Whether, and to what extent nephe- 
line occurs in the rock I have not been able to ascertain with 
certainty. An attempt to etch the rock with cold hydrochloric 
acid showed, unexpectedly enough, little effect; no strong gelatine 
formation could be observed. 

Miss Naima Sahlbom, who has analyzed this rock, found 
it to be constituted as follows: 

SiO.^ 4443 per cent 

TiO. 1-40 — 

AKO^ 17-89 — 

Fe,0^ 4-00 — 

FeO 4-94 — 

MnO traces 

CaO 12-601) — 

MgO 2-40 — 

K^O 3-02 — 

Na^O 2-55 — 

Loss at ignition 6-25^) — 

99-48 per cent 



') I have not had an opportunity of comparing these flgures with the 
original analysis journal. In the copy I made myself the flgures run 
CaO 2-40 "\>, and MgO 12G0 "/o. But it seems very probable that 
there is some mistake in the latter figures and that the result should 
be as given above. 

-) From this Яз*^. determined according to Penfield's method, 5" 16 "lo, 
remainder 109 "/<•, presumably COg. 



208 

It cannot be concluded with any certainty that all the rocks 
here described are connected, but their appearance as well as 
their character makes it highly probable. We have then a 
peculiar series, intimately connected by transitions, alternating 
between very acid up to ultrabasic formations, but all distinguished 
by certain minéralogie peculiarities — among other things the 
common occurrence of biotite, often as large phenocrysts, com- 
pletely transformed into chlorite — and by chemical analogies, 
in that all are evidently rocks that are rich in alkali. We have 
here probably a strongly differentiated effusive analogy to the 
aegirine-syenite from C. Parry ^) described by Bäckström. 

As to the age of the rocks we only know that, as has 
already been shown, the conglomerate at G. Brown, which is 
presumably of paleozoic age or belongs to the oldest triassic, 
contains boulders which seem to correspond to the medium 
acid forms described above. On the other hand, they are 
younger than the С Fletcher beds, which must, hov^'ever, also 
derive from the paleozoic age. During what epoch of that 
period the eruption took place cannot be determined at present. 

2. Alnoitic rocks from the Hurry Inlet coast of Liverpool Land. 

As has been already mentioned. Bäckström, from a block 
found on the Fame Islands, described as monchiquite a dark 
rock with large porphyritic hexagonal biotite slabs, brown horn- 
blende and violet-red augite, together with a ground-mass of 
the same minerals embedded in a colourless, almost isotropic 
mass which has been interpreted as nepheline. He also calls 
attention to the really striking resemblance to the alnöite from 
Alnö, from which, however, the specimen examined differs in 
that melilite, olivine and perowskite are wanting. 

I came across the same rock in situ right opposite the 

') A block of a grey aegirine-syenite rock was found by me on the shore 
of Jameson Land a good way inside Scoresby Sund. Similar rocks, 
consequently, seem to occur in several areas along this coast. 



209 

Fame Islands, a few km from the coast, inside a little valley, 
the topography of which will be described later in this paper. 
The rock occnrs here in close connection with the limestone 
referred to the archaean formation and already described, partly 
as dikes, partly — at least in one place — as a smallish 
lenticular mass bordering on a somewhat disintegrated, light 
granite, from which it is separated by a curious mixed breccia. 
The granite itself has already been mentioned (p. 169). It is red 
or reddish yellow, fairly rich in quartz, with considerably wea- 
thered orthoclase, and moreover it has been subjected to strong 
pressure. Nearer the line of contact, as far as I could see 
without any sharp border against the typical breccia, the rock 
is still more altered, traversed by zones that consist of com- 
pletely recrystallized crushed mass, which abundantly contains 
beautiful little rhombohedra, strongly refractive and doubly re- 
fractive, evidently a carbonate mineral. The felspar, here too, 
is strongly disintegrated; besides orthoclase there occurs much 
plagioclase, partly as perthitic intergrowths. 

It is not easy to explain how these changes in the ap- 
pearance of the granite stand in connection with the basaltic erup- 
tions. It is not precluded that, connected with these, disloca- 
tions have taken place. However, that the rocks are not directly 
divided by a line of dislocation is clear from the two quite dissimilar 
transition forms which are herewith described. The one is a 
true fusion rock, acid and fairly rich in quartz; in its mass 
can be observed numerous angular fragments of green- 
coloured rocks. Under the microscope one can see that the 
rock chiefly consists of large crushed quartz and felspar indi- 
viduals, which show by their appearance that they derive from 
the surrounding granite; between them there is often a mass 
which to a great extent consists of needle-shaped felspar indi- 
viduals and resembles the products of re-fusion and solidification 
often found at magmatic contacts. In other places a similar, 
curious mass of limited and local origin is perfoliated by thin 
-XXVIII. 14 



210 



biotite scales, and biotite with iron-ore and apatite seem also 
to be abundant in the dark, irregular masses and veins 
with which the rock is interwoven, and which, in my 
opinion, derive from basalt mass that has penetrated into 
the granite. 

It appears to me almost as if the rock just described 
passed over into the true breccia which is extensively met 
with on the border between granite and the alnöitic basalt rock. 
In it we find everywhere numerous angular fragments which 
presumably derive from the latter, besides which there is a 
more or less abundant mass of a lighter colour, which evidently 
consists to a great extent of the granite minerals. In the only 
one of these varities that I examined closely this mass retires; 
that it is not a normal granite can be seen from this, among 
other things, that it now and then contains large crystallized 
biotite individuals of the same appearance as in the alnöite. On 
the other hand, granite occurs as well as basalt in the form of 
angular fragments. A small piece of this kind, which was 
examined microscopically, was almost destitute of quartz and 
very violently crushed. For the rest, one can see, under the 
microscope, that the matrix consists of a really new formation 
and is largely composed of a compact mass rich in carbonate, 
in which lie a number of fragments of crystals and rocks, which 
must mostly come from the granite, but to a great extent also 
from the basalt or rocks closely allied to it. The larger frag- 
ments of basic rock show no specially remarkable qualities and 
are described along with the main type. 

This however does not yet exhaust the breccia rocks of the 
district. The alnöitic rock itself in the little mass, whose 
contact I have described here in the first place, forms a true 
breccia, in that it contains exceedingly numerous pieces of 
varying size and character, belonging to the most varied types 
of rock: granite, gneiss, basic rocks, qnartzitic forms, and, 



211 



from notes I took at the time, also limestone. All these forms 
of rock appear, when seen under the microscope, greatly 
metamorphosed by contact: the granites are surrounded by a 
fusion zone of new-formed rock with felspar in the shape of 
thin needles, such as has already been mentioned from another 
contact-rock. Interesting are the basic rock forms which must 
originally have consisted of lath-shaped plagioclase and augite, 
ore and some large crystals, now perfectly transformed, and 
which must consequently have had a diabasic appearance. 

Remarkable is a new-formed mineral which occurred at the 
contact with a large fragment of gneiss. It recalls titanite, but 
seems to have stronger interference colours than that mineral, 
and in comparison with material from Alnön it is impossible 
not to be struck by the likeness with the curious mineral 
baddeleyite, which occurs there. Yet it is scarcely conceivable 
that this should be met with at the contact with an acid rock, 
and I have been unable to decide what mineral it is that we 
are in presence of. 

We will pass on to the description of the pure eruptive 
rock, which is best revealed in the two dikes. Its appearance 
is somewhat variable. The ground-mass is dark, basaltic, and 
in it we come across large crystals, up to an inch in length, 
of augite and brown mica. But these are somewhat irregularly 
distributed, now forming the main part of the rock, now solitary, 
and in the one dike both forms of large crystals are rare, 
while especially thin scales of mica give rise to a fine por- 
phyry structure, somewhat recalling the lamprophyric minette 
rocks from С Fletcher. In the little mass, too, the very large 
crystals play a minor part, the whole rock here looking more 
compact. 

It is the last described dike that was the object of the 
most detailed study, and of which Miss Naima Sahlbom 
has made an analysis that resulted as follows: 

14' 



212 

SiO^ 36-29 per cent 

TiO^ 4-60 — 

AU^O^ 10-91 — 

Fe^O^ 7-5Ô — 

FeO 5-52 — 

MnO 0-23 — 

CaO 13-48 — 

MgO 9-29 — 

K^O 1-40 - 

Na^O 3-42 — 

H^O^) 3-65 — 

Further loss at ignition (Probably CO^) 3-85 — 

100-19 per cent 
Microscopically this rock corresponds closely to the one 
already described by Вас к s trom. The phenocrysts consist of 
a dark-brown, strongly pleochroitic mica, which was not closely 
examined, and may be partly an anomite, and also brownish 
pyroxene, the extinction on (010) being about 38°, absorption 
colour II a brownish, || Ь yellowish-green. At times a contrast 
can be noticed between a light core and a darker outer border. 
In contrast to these larger individuals we see a ground-mass 
consisting of stalk-like pyroxene, abundance of ore and also 
apatite; furthermore a not insignificant quantity of calcite, 
sometimes occurring with primary appearance, but usually pseu- 
domorphically replacing some other mineral ; finally there is a 
compact, brownish, almost isotropic mass, which may very well 
be rich in nepheline, though no proof of it can be adduced. 
By cold diluted hydrochloric acid it is only slowly decomposed. 
Olivine seems to be lacking in the slide examined; melilite has 
not been proved to be present, though it by no means follows 
that it could not be met with in fresh parts of the rock; a few 
almost opaque crystal individuals might possibly be perowskile. 

^) Determined according to Penfield's method. 



213 

Already the somewhat strong decomposition of the material 
before us makes it difficult to decide how to class this rock. 
However, so much seems to be certain, that it is closely related 
to the true alnöite, though we cannot give it this name as long 
as melilite is not proved to occur. Of all the rocks known to me 
from literature it seems to me to stand closest to the ouachitite 
from Arkansas, described by Williams and Kemp. The ana- 
lysis also recalls Kejmp's, the higher percentage of soda here 
only showing a still closer relationship with alnöite. 

The rock in the other dike is somewhat more hoiocry- 
stalline, but in other respects shows really only the difference 
that it is rich in small îserpentinized crystals which are un- 
doubtedly secondary after olivine. Round these individuals there 
are accumulated brown mica-scales. The ground-mass itself 
consists chiefly of elongated individuals of pyroxene, together 
with ore and some biotite; besides this there is a brownish, 
strongly polarizing mass, but it was impossible to prove with 
any certainty the presence of any felspathic mineral whatever. 
The rock evidently belongs to the monchiquite group; whether 
it should be regarded as olivine-ouachitite or receive another 
appellation is a question that can only be decided when more 
abundant material has been collected and examined. 

Also the volcanic breccia in the little mass of rock is closely 
allied to the preceding types. I could not point out olivine 
with any certainty: fine grains of ore perfoliate the mass still 
more abundantly, and the real, compact ground-mass, presumably 
rich in calcite, is so weakly double refractive that one is in- 
clined to think it to be partly vitreous. Large isolated rounded 
grains of felspar probably derive from melted abyssal rocks. — 
In this connection may be mentioned the large round grains 
of brown mica that occur here and there: here it is evidently 
the rock's own large crystals which have afterwards been partly 
melted or corroded. 

It is impossible to say anything more precise about the 



214 



age of these rocks or about their relationship to some others in 
the same district. But I think we may assume with great pro- 
bability that they are connected in some way with the rocks 
at С Parry and C. Fletcher, and, consequently, like the latter 
are of paleozoic age. In any case it must have afforded some 
interest to have given a somewhat more detailed account of 
this curious group of rocks than has been offered before. It 
was of interest to observe that it not only occurs in dikes, but 
also in greater masses, and that like the rocks at Alnön, it 
occurs in combination with limestone and, to a very great 
extent, constitutes a true breccia. A more exact geological 
examination of this district will undoubtedly lead to very in- 
teresting results^). 

B. Tertiary Basalts. 

Around the NW. parts of the Atlantic basin, as has long 
been known, a monotonous series of basaltic surface rocks 
present themselves within an immense area. They have their 
greatest distribution on Iceland, the 100,000 km^ of which 
rest, as far as we know, throughout on these rocks. The Faroes, 
too, though much smaller, are built up entirely of basalts. 
Along the W. coast of Scotland and the N. coast of Ireland 
we again find the same rock predominant in extensive tracts, 
and if we go in the opposite direction it has already been 
pointed out by Scoresby that within the most projecting and 
accessible parts of E. Greenland basalt is almost the pre- 
dominant rock in the coast-belt. 

The three first of these areas have been made known by 
numerous researches, in the first place by James Geikie's 



') Professor A. G. Hogbom in Uppsala has most kindly placed at my 
disposal, for purposes of comparison, the rich material of alnöitic and 
nepheline-syenitic rocks which he collected from Sweden and elsewhere ; 
moreover, he has examined and expressed an opinion about several of 
the most interesting rocks described above. For this kindness I beg to 
express to him in this place my warmest thanks. 



215 

classic investigations M. This is not the place to enter into the 
many questions, among others the history of the origin of the 
sheeted lava rocks, which are dealt with there. We will simply 
recall that all these areas are generally considered, if not at 
one time united, at least to have been much more extensive 
than now, and that consequently the question of the origin of 
the northern part of the Atlantic Ocean is most closely bound 
up with the study of these basalts. As to the time of the for- 
mation of the rock-mass itself, we know it was spread over a 
long period; on Iceland the volcanic activity and formation of 
basaltic rocks continues to this very day. But generally 
speaking, the supposition is accepted that the bulk came into 
existence during the Miocene period, the same epoch as that 
from which, as we have seen, it has been assumed that the 
bulk of the Arctic Tertiary plants derives. Our discovery at 
C. Dalton of marine Tertiary formations of the Eocene age 
(probably corresponding to the London clay and Bagshot Beds), 
younger than a part of the true basalt formation, is thus not 
less important for the question of the age of the basalts than 
for that of the plant fossils. In this area at least the basaltic 
eruption was in full swing already in Eocene times, an inter- 
esting result, the application of which will be of the highest im- 
portance for many geological questions touching the latest geo- 
logical periods. However, 1 will not dwell on these points here, 
but pass on to a short pétrographie description of the rocks 
and the different localities. 

As we already know, the basalt occurs in two large areas 
in E. Greenland, divided by Davy Sund and Scoresby Sund 
and the gneiss mass of Liverpool Land lying between the two. 
Both areas, as far as we know, are confined exclusively to the 
coast, which they follow, put together, for a distance of at least 
ten degrees of latitude. The southern area takes in a widely 



') J. Geikle: The Ancient Volcanoes of Great Britain. 



216 



extended peninsula, and thus stretches further inland than the 
northern, which latter I will now describe. 

The Northern Basalt Area is only known to me per- 
sonally from our visit to Sabine I. and from a short landing 
at C. Borlase Warren. Up to now our knowledge of this 
area is chiefly indebted to the second German Polar Exp., 
which wintered there; since that Nathorst has also published 
a number of notes about it. I shall therefore confine myself to 
a few observations. Sabine I. is characterized chiefly by the 
huge and extensive stratifications of Tertiary sandstone found 
in the basalt; nowhere in the basaltic area of E. Greenland 
south of Hochstetters Land are they so extensive as here. 
That the basalt is in part more recent than the Tertiary strata, 
whose age is not exactly fixed, is proved by the dikes that 
intersperse it, as also by the traces of contact metamorphism 
I spoke of before. , Still, the basalt itself is the prevailing rock, 
and round Germania Harbour it can be seen in its typical 
development, formed of apparently horizontal sheets piled on 
each other. Towards the interior of the island numerous dikes 
appear, and in Hasenberg, built up for a good part of schists and 
sandstone, we find also intervening layers of tufaceous rocks and 
volcanic scoriae. Microscopically viewed, the forms I examined 
are only noteworthy in their being considerably better preserved 
and more thoroughly crystalline than the sheeted rocks in the 
southern area, but I do not know whether this can be said of 
such forms as, for instance, those around Germania Harbour, 
which are of similar appearance as in the region mentioned. 

Also the rocks at C. Borlase Warren are coarsely crystalline, 
doleritic, and slightly porphyritic. No fresh olivine is to be 
found in them at the present moment. 

The Southern Basalt Area. This has never before 
been the object of detailed observation. From the southern 
side of Scoresby Sund to Kangerdlugsuak, where the coast 
makes its bend to the south, and where its southern boundary 



217 



has been fixed by Amdrup, basalt is everywhere predominant; 
to the west it appears as far as the "South Glacier" (Syd 
Bræi, directly S. of Danmark I., after which its substratum, 
gneiss, rises higher and higher. Around the whole of Gaase 
Fjord, however, according to Bay, this rock is covered by 
basalt. More detailed observations as to the course of the 
boundary line between these two rocks do not seem to have 
been taken, and yet an investigation 'into the matter in this 
area, where the boundary for stretches of many miles lies ex- 
posed, would be extremely valuable and might contribute to the 
solution of a number of important questions of geological and 
early topographical interest. Dikes may also occur at greater 
distances from the true basaltic mass, thus, for instance, 
occasional ones on Liverpool Land and on Jameson Land, in 
the N. part of which we even find basaltic rocks in large 
masses and of different appearance (see below), while the most 
northerly dikes I saw were at С Fletcher and could be looked 
upon just as well as belonging to the N. area as to the one 
in question^). Whether the sheets of porphyrites from Fame 
J. and Fleming Inlet can really be classed among this series, 
is a question that cannot be answered at the moment. In the 
W. dikes, still from the innermost part of West Fjord, have 
been described by Bay, in the NW. dikes from the NE. part 
of Milnes Land, but not from North-West Fjord. In the South, 
Amdrup has described similar conditions: basalt as a covering, 
and at the contact an Archaean rock, interspersed with ex- 
ceedingly numerous basalt dikes ^'). As to the presence of basaltic 

') The S. part of the N. basalt area is moreover little known, and it looks 
as If certain divergences from the usual types should occur here, so 
for instance at С Broer Rays, described by Toula and Nathorst. 

*) An excellent idea of the great contrast between the Archæan rocks, 
rounded by the erosion by water and ice, and tlie steep and rugged 
basalt clifFs, is civen by figures 4 and 5, reproduced from photographs 
taken by Amdrup not far from one another, near the southern boundary 
between the two formations. 



218 



dikes further S. on the same coast, I may refer to my former 
description of these rocks ^). 

Within this mighty area — the district where basalt 
forms the rock bed, in the S. area alone, can be estimated 
at 40,000 km^ — the basalts, in splendid development, show 
the marked stratiform alternation of variously constituted sheets 
which have so often been described from other places. My 
investigation have not been extensive enough for me to con- 
tribute anything to the problem the origin of similar basalt 




Fig. 4. Rounded gneiss hills (the first seen on the way southward from 

Scovesbv Sund) on the E. side of Kangerdlugsuak. 

G. Amdrup phot. 8: 8; 1900. 

plateaus. Nowhere did I come across transitions to the true 
volcanic type. While dikes of basalt are very common, 
even in the basalt itself, 1 could never with certainty point to 
one so connected with a superposed sheet of basalt that one 
could be sure that it had served as an eruptive canal for 
the same. On the other hand in the dikes themselves there 
often occur irregularities that point to the lava not having 



M Medd. om Grønland. XXVIII, 1 — 16. 



219 



flowed evenly but having lumped itself in some places. In the 
hope of being able to contribute to the question of the fjord 
formation, and possibly to that of the occurrence of faults in 
these districts, 1 made several attempts to follow a connected 
sheet in the basalt throughout its length. When I had to do 
with stretches up to several kilometres, there were always great 
difficulties, as either the sheets pinch out, or they are cut off 
by smallish faults, which are evidently not rare, though I never 
saw that they were connected with the formation of the fjord. 




Fig. 0. Steep basalt cliffs at the entrance of Jensens Fjord, 
G. Amdrup phot. 6: 8: 1900. 

Of foreign rocks within the basalt area there occur, as far 
as we know, only Tertiary sandstones, and even these very sub- 
ordinated. I have already dealt previously with their origin 
and appearance: they remind us, generally speaking, mostly of 
enclosed fragments ; only at С Dalton is there a real inter- 
vening layer. Enclosed fragments of other foreign rocks were 
not noticed by me anywhere. 

In a few places 1 took vertical sections at accessible parts 
of the sequence of rock varieties, in order to be able to compare 



220 



the different sheets with one another. Macroscopicaliy, the 
following main types can be distinguished: 

1) Compact, aphanitic, dense, black basalts, often showing 
columnar structure, while spheroidal structure and weathering 
are to be looked for rather in diabasic forms that are transitions 
to the next type. 

2) Coarse crystalline, doleritic forms. 

3) Porphyrites, which however seem to play only a small 
part among the sheet-like basalts. 

4) Red basalts, coloured by iron ochre, often of slaggy 
structure. 

5) True amygdaloids, perhaps the commonest form of all, 
very varied in appearance. 

To give a more exact account of any of these vertical 
sections would scarcely be of interest. However, the rock at 
C. Brewster is remarkable. It looks, as if we had here two 
main divisions in the basalt series. The lower consists mostly 
of a rather dense, even grained, somewhat yellowish grey mass, 
with indistinct amygdaloidal structure. Above it lies a real tufa, 
with black scoriae in a yellow vitreous mass. Above this, at the 
point of contact with the upper division, there is a grey, dense 
basalt, a red burnt amygdaloid, and an intensively red, sandstone- 
like rock. Whether it is to this middle zone that we can also 
assign the numerous fragments of foreign, presumably Tertiary, 
sandstone, metamorphosed by contact, and also the different-sized 
pieces of petrified wood-trunks, which characterize this locality, 
is not certain, but seems to me probable. 

On this follows a huge upper zone, which at the line of 
contact and in its lower part is made up of a dense, greyish 
yellow rock. Further W. this zone sinks more and more, until 
finally it reaches down to the shore. The rock here is a fine, 
thoroughly crystalline, normal basalt, without prominent surface 
structures. 

To whîit extent the sequence of rocks observed here is a 



I 



221 



local phenomenon, or is be continued over a large district, I 
could not decide from a single landing. Anyhow, the volcanic 
zone with tuffs and scoriae is very conspicuous. 

Volcanic surface forms in the basalt are also to be found 
in other places, for instance, on Dunholm, a little further S., 
where the lava sheets show splendid flow-forms. 

Interesting is also a locality on the S. of Henry Peninsula. 
Here lies a very fine series of varying, partly very irregular 
sheets of basalt, mostly amygdaloidal. Avery prominent, yellowish 
zone proved to be a crushed breccia, cemented together mainly 
by zeolites, especially laumontite (see below). In the breccia 
are also to be found veins of a lighter, presumably silicious 
mass, also green efflorescences, which are perhaps coloured 
by a copper-salt. Under it lies a compact basalt without 
visible scoriaceous structure. I was much interested to find, 
at the boundary between both these forms of rock , a hot 
spring containing sulphuretted hydrogen and with a temperature 
of 38° C, jutting out of the perpendicular mountain wall, ex- 
pelling a quantity of vapours, and strongly marked also by the 
rich green algous vegetation, which thrives in the warmish 
water running down to the shore in the form of a little brook ^). 

.Microscopically examined, it turns out that all these varieties 
are very closely related. All, without exception, are basalts, 
composed of augite and lath-shaped plagioclase, often with 
some ore, the minerals contained showing great variation in 
quantity when compared with one another. Already macros- 
copically one is struck by the rarity of fresh, doleritic or 
coarsely crystalline forms, andithis is confirmed microscopically; 
in none of the samples of the basalt sheets that I examined did 
I find fresh olivine, althougt green transformations show that 



M The only warm spring hitherto known in Greenland is situated on the 
Island of Unartok in SW. Greenland; its temperature is about 40° C. 



222 



it existed, nor glass. Really porphyritic structure is rare, but 
both augite and plagioclase often appear in an older generation 
of large individuals ; possibly the rock tried to assume doleritic 
structure in an intratelluric epoch. The rocks are traversed and 
coloured in a very variable degree by a red ferric oxide mass. 

It cannot be denied that, though this is true to some 
extent also of other districts with fine sheeted basalts, it is 
very curious that a rocky mass of such immense extent, formed, 
in all probability, during a very long period and during numerous 
separate eruptive epochs, can show, mineralogically viewed, such 
great uniformity. Whether this is equally great chemically, is 
a question that in any case demands closer investigation. 

Strongly divergent rocks are very rarely to be met with. 
On the other hand, considerable variations in the same basalt- 
sheet often appear. It can frequently be noticed that the lower 
part of a well developed sheet is plainly crystalline, while the 
structure upwards becomes ever compacter and more aphanitic, 
until the mass finally passes over into amygdaloid or scoria. The 
upper part of a bank not rarely shows red colouring, and once 
at least I noticed a bank of this kind pass over at the top into 
an intensive red, jaspidean, compact rock. 

Worth mentioning are also the minerals which in great 
variety fill the amygdaloidal spaces. I myself have only observed 
them in so far as I collected specimens of them wherever they 
were fine enough to seem suited to a mineralogicai analysis. 
Nowhere are they so finely developed as in the famous localities 
on Iceland and the Faroes, but at a few spots really well 
developed crystals were found, and a mineralogist with plenty 
of time at his disposal would probably reap a good harvest 
there. The most important of these places are Henry Land 
with environs up to Bartholins Glacier^) and С Brewster. The 

') Also called Henry Glacier in Boggilds work. 



223 



samples collected have been described by Böggild^), following 
whom I add the following list: 

Henry Land: Quartz, Chalcedony, Thaumasite, Chabazite, 
Levynite, Desmine, Scolecite, Analcite, Heulandite, Laumontite '^). 

Turners Island: Quartz, Chalcedony, Thaumasite, Des- 
mine, Scolecite, Natrolite, Mesolite, Analcite. 

С Brewster: Chalcedony, Desmine, Natrolite, Mesolite, 
Analcite, Apophyllite, Heulandite. 

Moreover, we may mention that on Sabine I. within the N. 
basalt area, Scolecite and Desmine were found. 

It still remains for me to deal with the qualities of the 
basalts when they appear as dikes or in contact with other 
rocks. Such dikes within the gneiss are in many places ex- 
ceedingly common, for instance, in certain parts inside Scoresby 
Sund, and also, according to Amdrup, at the S. boundary of 
the basalt area. These dike basalts are, to judge from the 
samples [ saw of them, fresh, clearly crystalline, typically 
developed plagioclase-augite rocks, and it is especially charac- 
teristic that, in contrast to the sheeted basalts, fresh olivine 
almost always was observed here. 

From Danmark I. Bay^) brought back a specimen of the 
contact itself between gneiss and a basalt dike. The former 
at the point of contact is almost irrecognizibly transformed 
and forms a mass that reminds one somewhat of a porphyry 
breccia; the "matrix", probably through fusion of basaltic 
material, has received a basic composition, while the irregular 
"fragments" lying in it are composed of the strongly changed 
remains of the original rock: quartz in individuals strongly 
corroded bv fusion and showing sinuous outlines (the bottle- 



') Medd. om Grønland, Vol. XXXII. 

-) Laumontlte, which is by no means common in Greenland, and was 
not seen before on the E. coast, occurs very plentifully in the breccia 
in the hanging wall of the hot spring mentioned above. 

^1 Medd om Grønland, XIX, p. \ö2. 



224 



shaped curves characteristic of the corroded phenocrysts of quartz- 
porphyries do not occur) surrounded by rings of thin, strongly 
refractive prisms, and felspar interspersed with a compact, fine 
pigment, and in spots quite transformed through new mineral for- 
mation. The basalt dike itself at the point of contact is a true 
olivine-bearing augite-porphyrite, with a hyalopilitic ground-mass. 

In the isolated gneiss area of Liverpool Land, out by the 
coast, the basalt dikes seem, curiously enough, to be very 
scarce, which seems to indicate that the two large basalt areas 
were not connected earlier. The dikes I saw showed nothing 
remarkable. 

In the sedimentary formations basalt dikes occur both in 
the Rode Ö conglomerate and the G. Leslie sandstone, according 
to Bay, and also in the Jurassic strata of Jameson Land. 
Here, however, it is almost exclusively in the shore cliffs at 
Hurry Inlet that one has a chance of noticing them; we find 
both dikes, and stratified, not lens-like, banks, so splendidly 
regular that one is tempted to look upon them as volcanic 
sheets contemporaneous with the surrounding Jurassic strata. 
This, however, is not the case: occasionally one can observe 
how they suddenly cut off the sandstone strata, or even that two 
basalt strata cross over each other (cf. the fig. PI. XIV). A finer 
example of typically intrusive sheets would be hard to find 
elsewhere^). A specimen which I examined microscopically was 
remarkable in that the augite, to an even greater extent than 
usually, forms a kind of matrix, in which the lath-shaped 
felspar-individuals swim, as it were. Fresh grains of olivine 
were still visible^). 



^) The circumstances must have been observed already by Bay; cf. the 
figure in Medd. om Grønland, XIX, p. 166. 

-) The interior of Jameson Land is so completely covered by post-tertiary 
strata that one rarely has an opportunity of observing the basalt dikes. 
On the other hand, I found in the N. part, as dikes and even small 
masses in the Jurassic sandstone, curious alternatingly light and dark, 
compact rocks recalling basalt; similar types are also found as blocks 



225 

Lastly, as has already been mentioned, a basalt dike of 
normal appearance^), macroscopically as well as microscopically, 
was round interspersing the sedimentary rocks and the curious 
eruptive series at C. Fletcher. At C. Brown, too, basalt seems 
to occur. Here, however, we are already nearer the N. basalt 
area. 



Topographical Description. 

As has been hinted above, two main types, topographically, 
can be distinguished in the parts of Greenland under con- 
sideration, viz. an inner central mass, to which only the 
larger fjords with their deeper forks extend, and which can be 
characterized as a kind of plateau-land in which distinct ridges 
and for the inner regions also peaks may be lacking or un- 
obtrusive, and an outer, more or less sharply broken up coast 
border. This latter, in its turn, may be divided into two main 



in the river inside Fleming Inlet, and thus seem to be charactistic of 
this area. The few specimens I could bring along from these remote 
parts belong to a curious type, characterized by the mineral combination 
of piagioclase-augile-biotite with iron ore and a green chloritic or ser- 
penlinoid mass, derived perhaps from olivine. One specimen (block) 
contains phenocrysts of plagioclase, augite and ore, while the ground- 
mass has an almost granophyric appearance and contains, besides 
biolite, felspar and the green decomposition products just men- 
tioned, a good deal of quartz and hornblende. Another slide shows a 
light, placioclase-augile mass with the former mineral dominating, a 
somewhat disintegrated diabase, but also dense dark fragmentary patches, 
which consist chiefly of the flrst mentioned, characteristic minerals. 
These rocks cannot be older than Jurassic, but it seems difficult to 
group them together with the usually monotonous basalts; nor is there 
any reason to class them with the syenite and monchiquite series 
which have already been described. Perhaps they fall under the class 
of the curious porphyrite rock from the interior of Hurry Intet (Fame 
Islands). 
'i but with large prominent plagioclase phenocrysts. 

XXVIII. 15 



226 



divisions, viz. an inner part, including chiefly the surroundings 
of the fjords, and an outer, the real coast with its islands. 
While the central mass, presumably quite independent of the 
generally very monotonous nature of the rock, is rather uniform 
in its configuration, the districts that are occupied by the two 
latter divisions vary very much topographically, in which re- 
spect, as we shall see, they show that they are largely dependent 
on the variations of the rock. 

In consideration of this variation, we can set out in our 
description from a somewhat divergent and more detailed classi- 
fication, and herewith distinguish the following types: 
The coast-border: Liverpool Land Type (Archaean rock). 

Basalt Territories. 

Type of sedimentary rocks. 

Jameson Land Type (Quaternary). 
The central mass. 

1. Liverpool Land^). We will begin with the description 
of the part, the topography of which shows the strongest con- 
trasts, a type which, in these districts, recurs especially in Liver- 
pool Land or the large "island" of Archaean rock that forms 
the stretch of coast between Scoresby Sund and Davy Sund. 
This tract, discovered and described by Scoresby, has since 
been visited by Nathorst, who gives a characteristic picture 
of its external coast^), which is also seen on the picture op- 
posite, from a sketch by Ditlevsen (F^ig, 6), as well as on the 
attached painting PI. XIF. 

No words could describe the wonderful wildness of this coast 
as it first strikes the eye as you approach it from the sea, and in this 
respect it is scarcely excelled by any other stretch of coast, and that 



') In all previous descriptions this tract has been called by the name 
given by Scoresby, Liverpool Coast. This designation, however, is 
evidently inappropriate for the whole peninsula, and should be changed 
to Liverpool Land. 

-) In his "Tvâ somrar i norra ishafvet", II, 194. 



227 



despite the fact that the mountains do not exceed 1000 — 1200 metres 
in height. The dip to the sea is usually very sheer, often impossible 
to climb, but not very high. At about at right angles to the 
coast-line a number of valleys intrude, rather short but com- 
paratively very deep and broad, and often filled with huge 
glaciers. Islands outside the coast only occur in small num- 
ber; the tendency to develop longitudinal valleys has obviously 
been very weak M. The highest peaks lie somewhat inland, but 








iJ3SiSj&«äi^^ 



-^-^«ш 



Fig. 6. Liverpool Land, JEastern coast, a little i\. of G. Greg. Typical 

appearance of the steep, pointed, archæan mountains. 

(From a sketch by E. Ditlevsen.) 

only at a short distance from the shore, and rise in strange 
wildness, often almost perpendicularly, as, for instance, the 
Church Mountain mentioned by Scoresby. They are separated 
from one another by deep corries and giddy, bold ridges. The 
ice-covering is very extensive but not prevalent even inland. 

it is plain that we have here a particularly fine example 
of the type of pointed mountains which, in their contrast to 
other, usually lowish districts with rounded hills, are described by 

') Even C.Greg is situated on u peninsula; Scoresby's map is then correct 
also in this point. 



228 




Nansen from SE. Greenland, and 
which are adduced by him as a proof 
that the parts have never been covered 
by inland ice. Whether this inter- 
pretation is right, or whether we 
must be content to assume that the 
period that has passed since a pre- 
sumable ice-cover retired was suffi- 
ciently long for the tops to be chis- 
elled out, is a question to which I 
may possibly return elsewhere. 

In contrast to the parts here 
described stands the type of land- 
scape which one finds on the S. side 
of the same Liverpool Peninsula. 
Here the whole country is lower 
and at the same time all the hills 
are rounded, approximating to the 
other Nansen type, just mentioned. 
Already on the SE. coast we have 
an interesting configuration in the 
contrast between the level, rounded 
plateau land and a very steep dip 
towards the sea, quite typically mar- 
ked, pretty much as is common in 
the fjord districts of the W. coast 
of Greenland as described by v. 
Drygalski^). Where any peaks 
rise above the average level, they 
are gentle, much as those in the 
N. , in the sandstone territory. A 
few large, broad corries descend 
right down to the sea-level, filled 
*) Grönland-Expedition, I, 45. 



229 



with a beautifully stratified, typical névé ice (as seen from the ship); 
their steep, parabolically curved walls form a contrast to the 
abrupt, steep dips to the sea, and also to the rounded hillocks 
of the plateau. 

Before returning to the S. coast, I will first describe the 
W. slope of the land forming the coast of the fjord-like but 
probably shallow longitudinal valley. Hurry Inlet. That this 
stretch of coast differs materially from not only the E. coast, 
but also from most fjord coasts is obvious at once in its utter 




Fig. 8 Western slope of the foreland hills of Liverpool Land, seen from 
the shore of Hurry Inlet. (Nordenskjold phot.) 

lack of harbours, as already Ryder showed. Topographically 
we may distinguish here three different longitudinal zones, that 
may be seen on fig. 7, viz. 1) the Nunataks, situated furthest 
in, steep and often very pointed, surrounded by masses of ice, 
and presumably all situated rather far E. and mostly identical 
with the peaks already spoken of as visible from the E. coast; 
2) a long sloping foreland, beginning at a height of about 
600 metres, quite devoid of all peaks and from a distance giving 
the impression of a plateau, while in detail the slopes appear 



230 



with the rounded forms of "roches moutonnées", with typical 
lee-side to the W., and partly covered with débris formed by 
disintegration of the rock in place, partly with true, somewhat 
washedJ|out moraine-débris, whose connection with the ice- 
masses soon to be met with in the E. is apparent. The "hillocks" 
themselves attain a height of 50 m or more above the level of 
the plateau. 

The foreland that is shown on fig. 8 and which may also be seen 




Fig. 9. The coast of Liverpool Land opposite tlie Fame 1. Young deposits 

of clay and sand, in the middle of the bluff shell-bearing. 

(Nordenskjold phot.) 

on the painting PI. X, passes over gradually to the W. into 3) the 
true shore-land, a zone of a breadth of up to a few km, where 
solid rock either does not appear at all or only in the deeper cuttings, 
while for the rest the ground is chiefly composed of rounded 
gravel and sand. The latter sometimes forms perpendicular walls 
facing the sea, rising to 25 m in height; in this sand, at a 
height of 10 m and right opposite Fame Islands, Hartz found 
clayey intervening layers with shells of Mya and other genera 
(cfr. fig. 9). Beginning on the precipice we come across an 



231 



even gravel terrace, 20 — 40 m above the sea. Above this ter- 
race there rise in many places, especially as one proceeds in- 
land, numerous more or less irregular, often steep ridges or 
banks, rising to a height of 30—40 m or more above their 
surroundings. These long banks, which occur especially at the 
NE. corner of Hurry Inlet, often misleadingly recall moraines; 
however, they consist of gravel composed of local rocks, and 
large blocks are lacking. They are presumably a kind of river 
terraces; at the same time it must be observed that real mo- 
raine ridges seem to occur under similar conditions, especially 
further south. A characteristic view of the surface of this 
shore-land is given on the picture pi. XIII. 

That harbours and bays are lacking on this coast depends 
exclusively on the presence of this area of deposition, the 
reverse of the usual denudation areas on such coasts. For the 
highland itself is interspersed with transverse valleys, vvhose 
fjord-type is unmistakable, and which are clearly distinguished 
from the usual steeply sloping valleys of river erosion, which 
latter are numerous here also. I have visited two of these 
valleys, viz. one opposite Fame Islands ("Kalkdalen", or "Lime- 
stone Valley", the same valley in which the dikes and masses 
of monchiquile rocks were found), and the southernmore of 
the two valleys situated about half way up the fjord, the glacier 
valleys that are plainly marked on the maps. The former^) 
continues about ô km in a N. 40° E. direction, the same 
direction in which one of the here prominent systems of joints 
runs; broadly speaking, however, it is more or less "S" shaped. 
At the mouth itself, where it meets the shore terrace, the 
valley is shut off by a rocky wall, through which the river has 
made its way in a narrow canyon, over 10 metres in depth. 
We have here an exceptionally fine example of a barrier of a 
true rock-basin, now changed into a supra-marine fjord valley, 

') Koch's map, which shows the mouth of the river, unfortunately gives 
us no idea of the topography of this area in detail. 



232 

and situated just at the spot of the former mouth of the fjord^ 
where, theoretically, one would expect to find it. Above this 
rock barrier the valley opens out abruptly, and the river runs 
in many shallow branches over a broad sandy level plain, 
probably a deep, now fllled-up hollow. Above this again the 
side walls approach each other, whereupon the real river valley 
begins, closed farther inland by a not inconsiderable glacier 
which with a broad tongue shoots down into a hollow between 
higher mountain masses (cfr. fig. 32). The walls of the valley 
here are steep, though scarcely insurmountable, and practically 
free from weathering débris; they show the characteristic form 
of valleys that have got their shape independent of the activity 
of running water (cirques, glacier valleys and fjords), and which 
has been called the U-form, though a better comparison would 
perhaps be with the parabolic. Especially fine here is the 
contrast between these valley-walls and the flat rounded table- 
land on the heights of the hills, and it seems curious that 
both should have arisen through the same kind of ice-erosion. 
To explain this we must assume that the valley in its origin is 
older than the ice-erosion, and the contrast must be ascribed to 
the great difference in the activity of the ice in a narrow cleft 
or on an open plateau-land and on the top of the hills. 

The southern valley in general shows great resemblance 
with the one described, but does not offer the same interest^). 

On the other hand the tops of the lower, western Nunataks, 
surrounded by glaciers and masses of ice, which I had an op- 
portunity of examining more closely in the heart of these val- 
leys, are quite interesting. As far as i could push forward 1 
found that they still contained traces of a plateau shape, which 
however when viewed from a height showed itself to be con- 
siderably affected by an incipient corrie formation, which has 



') On Koch's map one can see in this valley, as well as in another im- 
mediately N. of it, a broad lake-area, corresponding to the wide plain, 
filtered by the numerous river-branches that 1 described above. 



233 



changed the whole surface of the plateau into rounded crest- 
walls, alternating with broad deep valleys, which serve as col- 
lecting areas for the masses of ice (cfr. the description of the 
glaciers on p. 269, and also fig. 32). 

A specially interesting view of a part of this territory I 
got from the heights at С Brewster on the S. side of Scoresby 
Sund. The S. coast of Liverpool Land is highly cut up by 
rounded bays, in which respect it is distinguished from both 
the coasts we considered above. The land rises slowly from 
the shore, with a shallow inclination. The distant mountains 
in the E. are quite high and wild, with deep valleys of 
all the types that are usual in such mountainous districts. 
Towards the W. this mountainous landscape passes over gra- 
dually into the level plateau-like foreland, which from a con- 
siderable height slowly sinks towards the W. The slope to the 
S. is fairly steep; the valleys short, steep and deep, ending in 
comparatively gentle, deep chasms. Down against the lowland 
at the coast extend ridges with gentle, rounded crest; between 
these must lie. or must have lain, glaciers. — Furthest to the 
SE. the land gets lower, flat and covered by a huge, dome- 
like mass of ice. The low foreland at the extreme headlands 
was fairly free of snow at this time of year, and was decked 
by a mighty cover of weathering débris, almost entirely devoid 
of vegetation, and lying practically in situ. 

Among the most interesting phenomena in this area are 
the small indentations in the coast line that I came across in 
the district of С Tobin. From the wide, rounded bays which 
alone appear on the older maps, several fjord-like inlets with 
steep sides penetrate into the low land. One of these I made 
a special object of study: it is situated to the NW. of С Tobin, 
and in the event of a wintering would probably offer a service- 
able harbour, it is connected with the outer bay by means of 
a narrow channel, but opens out suddenly further in to a little, 
almost circular, bowl-shaped valley, surrounded by steep walls. 



234 

On the N. side of the fjord, at a height of 50 — 80 metres, 
there is a level terrace with some fine rocky lake-basins; from 
these the land rises in short, steep terraces. On the S. side 
there is a low terrace-land, only 15 — 30 m in height. It is 
this boundary line, which must represent a fissure, but probably 
not a fault, thai determines the direction of the fjord. The 
inner basin-wall is about 50 m high and very sheer. Above 
this there is a narrow terrace; then again a steep wall, and 
then a more gentle sloping valley, which continues to run in 
the direction of the fjord, and. like the whole of this inner 
part, is surrounded by high, steep walls. This valley ended at 
a large field of snow, which descends from a low depression, 
probably direct from the great highland ice mentioned above. 
At its foot there is a small lake, from which a little river runs 
into the fjord, in a small though evident canyon. As usual, 
one can see here how the river erosion has had nothing to do 
with the actual shape of the large valley, whose shape it 
rather seeks to deface. 

2. The Basalt Areas. Essentially unlike the districts 
described above are the areas where the rock consists of basalt. 
As has been already mentioned, this is the case in the most 
northerly part of the coast region visited by the Expedition, 
and also in all the large territory south of Scoresby Sund. 
Though the character in each case is very similar, we will 
describe these territories separately. 

Within the northern basalt area I visited practically only 
Sabine 1., while a short landing was also made at C. Borlase 
Warren. In comparison with the southern area, this one offers 
a certain interest by reason of the comparatively narrow distri- 
bution of the basalt in the direction from E. to W. and of the 
abundant variation of archaean and later sedimentary rocks in 
its neighbourhovd. A view from, let us say, Hasenberg on 
Sabine I., as in the picture fig. 10, clearly shows the varied 
character of the landscape accompanying each of these rocks. 



235 



If, in this place, we only touch on the basalt type itself, it 
appears to he very une on Pendulum I., which forms a gently 
dipping, monotonous plateau. Sabine 1., too, is similarly rather 
monotonous, although the numerous intercalated beds of Tertiary 
sandstone in the basalt make its contours softer, and in any 
case it never assumes the appearance of a true plateau. There 
are various steep walls and ridges, both towards the sea and to- 
wards some rather deep valleys, which, however, are not typical 




Fig. 10. Scenery from HaseiiLerg, Sabine 1., to the West (Basalt; Archæan 
and Jurassic Rocks). (Nordensiijöld phot. 12: 7: 1900.) 



cirques. On the other hand, pointed peaks are entirely lacking; 
the highest tops only form gently rounded eminences, which 
rise from the upper part of the mean level wich is always 
about the same height, whether it be situated in plateaus or 
ridges. The coast line is tolerably uniform, and Germania 
Harbour, known from the German wintering, is only a rounded 
creek, surrounded by low, steep walls, in a low gravel covered 
basalt plateau , closely recalling a peneplain resulting from 
supramarine erosion. The picture on fig. 11, also from a pho- 



236 





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287 



tograph taken on Hasenberg, gives us a fairly good view of 
tliis landscape. 

That the whole stretch of the coast is rather cut about 
and rich in islands, may be attributed to the great variety of 
rock, rather than to any peculiar qualities in the basalt. 

We now pass on to the S. area, which is particularly 
interesting and typical; here too, I have had a far better op- 
portunity of closely examining its coast-line. We have here, 
as far as we know, the largest and most uniform basalt area 
in Greenland — the area can be calculated to more than 
40,000 km^ or somewhat less than the half of Iceland — and 
it therefore offers a good opportunity for the study of the topo- 
graphic phenomena of a glaciated region of comparatively recent 
and uniform rocks. No other rocks than basalt were known, prior 
to our visit, to exist here; the Danish Expedition certainly 
came across small intervening layers and enclosed fragments 
of Tertiary sediments in several places, but wilh the exception 
of the occurrence at C. Dalton, which is not very extensive 
either, they do not affect the topography. 

A fine view over this area is obtained from the N. side of 
Scoresby Sund. (Cf. the description and drawings of Scoresby's, 
and fig. 12 from Ditlev sen' s sketch, also plate V in Ryder's 
work). As appears from the [map. this transversal coast is very 
uniform, without indentations or islands. The mountains form 
a fairly connected wall, wilh very few deep valleys, and those 
filled with ice. The shape of the mountains is the one charac- 
teristic of basalt rocks, i. е., wilh pyramid shaped peaks and 
fine stratification, especially prominent when snow covers the 
otherwise scarcely noticeable terraces. The peaks are often 
extended into ridges, but extensive plateaus rarely occur here 
on the coast border. The valleys that divide the ridges are 
certainly not typical corries, but are evidently due to ice erosion. 
On a small scale we lind, as often in basalt mountains, a very 
sharp splitting up into small summits and pinnacles. 



238 



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(В - 

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5 г* 

PD CD 



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The extreme penin- 
sula at С. Brewster is 
comparatively low and 
plateau-shaped with steep 
walls towards the sea. 
The E. coast of Brewster 
Land (the NE. peninsula 
of Christian IX Land) 
shows a great variation 
in appearance compared 
with the one described 
above. However I did not 
succed in getting a com- 
plete survey of the land. 
Islands are not so nume- 
rous as the old maps make 
out; in the work of the 
Expedition only Turner L 
remains as such; while 
other large tracts, looked 
upon as islands, proved 
to be connected with the 
mainland, though at times 
only by very low necks 
of land. Still, the coast 
is much cut up by nu- 
merous fjords, which, even 
if they never attain a 
greater length than 10 — 
15 miles, are in any case 
very typical examples of 
fjords in their every cha- 
racter. In both these re- 
spects they recall the 



239 



generality of the Icelandic fjords, though they are probably a 
good deal deeper. Especially fine is Römers Fjord, where we 
sounded a depth of 128 fathoms, while at the mouth we found 
1 1 1 fathoms, though neither figure^) can claim to be a maximum. 
The average height of the surrounding mountain walls is about 
800 metres, and they vary but slightly; nor is there here any 
plateau landscape, but rather an interchange of ridges and 
peaks, separated by valleys, to be described later on. The 
inclination towards the fjord is almost perpendicular and the 
banking of the rocks may be well seen in the walls. The 
Henry Peninsula, too, is bordered by such sheer walls that it 
can only be scaled with great difficulty at a few spots from the 
ravines of small rivers. 

I obtained a view over the interior of the land mainly 
during a short tour across the ice on the so-called Bartholins 
Glacier, which lies in a fjord-like, deeply eroded valley with 
steep walls; it is a huge glacier, about 3 km broad at its 
front. At first these mountains are broken up by cleft valleys, 
and, when viewed in detail, split up into irregular summits and 
peaks; but further in, everything closes in and seems to pass 
over into broad plateaus, covered by but small masses of snow 
icf. also fig. 30 on p. 268). I received the impression that the 
land, already at a short distance from the coast, converges into 
a few similar, level plateaus, as is the case in Iceland (NW. 
Land), though possibly here, under the protection of the snow 
and ice, of far greater extent and uniformity than there. 

Characteristic of the basalt area, in contrast with the area 
of Archaean rock, is consequently, in the first place the absence 
of Qords of any length, and then the wall-like even if some- 
what echinate boundary of the mountains, without any large, 
pointed masses rising above the mean level. In this respect it 
recalls the sedimentary areas described below, though these, 

*) Quoted from the corrected figures on Kochs map. 



240 



by reason of the variation of the rock, show far greater 
irregularities and variations in detail, at least in the outer 
coast land. 

Of particular interest within this area are the valleys: in the 
same kind of rock, under the same natural conditions I have 
not seen a finer variety, save only in Iceland, where on the 
other hand the ice-cover is actually more retired. Of least 
interest are the large valleys ending in glaciers, which end up 
a number of fjords (for instance, the NW. bay from Turner 
Sund) and evidently owe their origin to the combined effect of 
ice and water. Otherwise the fjords end up (for instance, the 
bay N. of C. Dalton) in true cirque walls where the rock bed, 
as it was exposed after the retirement of the eroding glacier, 
is visible everywhere, while a river flowing through in some 
canyon-like crevice tries to form a lower valley level. 

A splendid opportunity of studying these types of valleys 
occurs in the interior of Turner Sund. Between the very 
steep, slightly defined, but typically V-shaped river chasms, 
and the long, often magnificent cirques with their sheer sides 
and gentle slope outwards, there is a vast difference, and yet 
the former probably only represent an early stage in the deve- 
lopment that results in the latter, and the transition is marked 
by the insignificant "niche" depressions, which at the top so 
often end up the valleys of the former class, where snow and 
ice have begun their work of first forming a corrie with its semi- 
circular, steep border, and then incessantly depressing and 
elongating the same. 

Especially on Turner Island, on the E. side of the sound 
in question, there are some very fine examples of such cirques, 
which, divided only by narrow walls, run out at right angles 

') ill Iceland, in the same kind of basalt rock, one finds similar finely 
developed fjords, ending in cirques, for instance, in Dyrefjord, in the 
inner wall of which one can easily see that the fjord is not continued 
by any fault-line. 



241 



to the sound from E. to W. (cf. fig. 13). I had an opportunity 
of examining a lew of them. In all these the bottom at the 
entrance lies at about the same height, about 200 m, and in front 
of this level there is a slope towards the sea, which only forms 
a continuation of the normal fjord wall. Possibly the sea stood 
at about this level when the main formation of the cirques took 
place. Through this slope the river IVom the cirque has cut 
its way down in a deep chasm, and in front of at least one of 




Fig 13. Cirque л alley in basalt mountains on the SE. shore of Turner 

Sund. To the left is seen the river chasm ending another similar 

cirque valley. (Nordenskjold phot. July 1900.) 

the valleys we find a kind of delta formed by the masses of 
-'ravel that the river has carried down and discharged. In all 
ihe valleys we find a tendency to turn ofï from the SE. direction 
towards the S. Supervening side-valleys, also cirque shaped, 
only occur subordinately; one of the valleys is split up into 
two digital arms by a long projecting spur. 

The length of the valleys seems to vary between 3 and 8 km; 
in the valley I examined most closely it was 5 km. while the 

IIVIIL 16 



242 

breadth reached about I km. The river gorge, which at the 
mouth must have had a depth of about 50 m, becomes shall- 
ower and shallower at the top and finally the river runs over 
a couple of not insignificant falls, but the rise is comparatively 
little until one reaches the inner ice-mass and its terminal 
moraine, the foot of which hes about 100, and the upper sur- 
face about 200 metres above the level of the valley bottom at 
the opening of the valley. The walls of the valley are very 
steep, even if not always quite unsurmountable, and have the 
"parabolic" shape characteristic of these valleys; there is no 
difference in this respect between the side-walls and the front- 
wall. The ice-mass, which is now inconsiderable in proportion to 
the extent of the valley, but which was probably once the cause 
of its formation, was not examined. Against the front wall 
itself lie some very steep masses of snow, probably consisting 
of ice in the interior. To these is attached, at the bottom of 
the valley, a mass of ice which was now covered by snow that, 
even at this time of year (July 22), was quite clean and free 
from gravel, while on the other hand the ice itself, where it 
appeared, was covered with masses of foreign substance. It is 
interspersed with fissures in two directions, partly narrow, sharp 
ones (magnetic E.-W.), partly hook-Hke ones, corresponding 
most closely to structure bands ("Blaubänder"). 

I climbed the front wall in a little river cleft and found 
there that only a narrow crest, very steep and as sharp as a 
knife, separated the valley here described from another of similar 
type, running in the opposite direction. This crest must ne- 
cessarily break down gradually and then give rise to an "eid", 
arising exactly in conformity with Heilands well-known ex- 
planation. The whole of Turner I. seems in this way to be 
divided up into similar corries separated by narrow ridges. It 
is interesting to note that nothing similar occurs on the corre- 
sponding mainland, where the mountains are far more closely 
joined and plateau-shaped. 



243 



Since corries of such typical development rarely occur in 
a rock with such evident alternation of strata as this, i took 
particular trouble to follow some characteristic basalt banks 
round the front wall in order to see whether any faults had 
contributed to the formation of the valley. It turned out that 
really a few small irregularities occurred, pointing to some 
minor dislocations such as are common everywhere in these 
basalts. But it seems to be equally certain that no large faults 
occur here, and while the first foundation of the valley as 
usual must have stood in connection with the weakness of the 
rock along a dislocation line, the possibility of the whole actual 
valley originating in connection with a depression or a large 
fault seems to be entirely excluded. 

To deduce from this any direct conclusions as to the 
problem of the formation of the fjords is scarcely justifiable, 
since no real analogy with the rock barriers at the entrance 
of the fjords occurs here, but on the other hand it can scarcely 
be doubted that numerous typical fjords, occurring in the same 
kind of rock, have assumed an analogous stage during their 
formation, for which reason every contribution to the history 
of their origin is of great moment M. 

3. The Region of the Sedimentary Rocks. Between 
Scoresby Sund (W. of Hurry Inlet) and about 74° N. lat. appears a 
broad zone of sedimentary rocks of an age, as far as we know, 
varying between Silurian and Jurassic, and which was made known 
by Scoresby, Roldewey, Ryder and Nathorst. These 



h In this paper I can unfortunately not enter further into the question of 
the formation of fjords and corries, but must content myself with re- 
ferring to an earlier paper of my own in the Bull, of the Geol. Instit. 
of Lppsala, Vol. IV (18У9), and to Richter, Geomorpholog. Untersuch, 
in den Hochalpen, Peterm. MiU , lirg.-Heft 132 (1900). — Sunk below the 
sea, these cirque-valleys seem to me to correspond to certain typical 
lateral fjords without entrance barriers (sills). On the other hand most 
fjords are true basins and must have originated from the direct erosion 
of moving ice, be it with or without discharge of loose material. 

in» 



244 



rocks give rise to a particularly interesting and varied topo- 
graphy. In our description we will, for the present, omit Ja- 
meson Land with its Jurassic formations covered with Quaternary 
strata, and proceed to deal with these parts that were visited 
by the Expedition, viz. Fleming Inlet, Davy Sund and its south- 
ernmost fork (Forsblads Fjord). The variation in the age of 
the rocks is thus reduced; all the rocks may now be classed 
as Paleozoic or Triassic. 

All the interior of this part of Greenland, at and inside 
the inmost fjords, is made up of a more or less connected 
plateau. To encounter these plateau types one must retire a 
long way from the coast line in the Archaean rock areas, while 
the more pronounced the horizontal stratification or banking of 
the rock is, the sooner we come across them: thus, in the 
inmost parts of Fleming Inlet with its Mesozoic strata, and 
still more plainly in Jameson Land, which already forms a true 
plateau near Hurry Inlet. 

Along the extreme outer] strip of coast, however, it is just 
these loose sedimentary rocks, on a large as on a small scale, 
that show an exceptionally rich variation and strong splitting 
up in a topographical respect. To understand the connection 
between these two extreme types it is best to start from some 
of the intermediate forms that stamp the character along the 
main extension of the shores of the fjords. 

In this case we can find two types. In Fleming Inlet there 
is a series of gentle mountains, rising in terrace-like plateaus 
according to the hardness of the various banks of rock; through 
the often considerable thickness of these banks the type is 
well distinguished from the basalt rocks. The peaks that rise 
above the mean level are, as a rule, flat pyramid shaped. The 
valleys here are not entirely fjord-like, not even the very con- 
siderable Örsted Valley, which however I did not get a chance 
of examining closely. They are certainly often eroded down 
deep, but are short and broad, probably emptied glacier valleys, 



245 

with lateral valleys which end somewhat abruptly, but so that 
the innermost gorges are more angular and relatively more 
broad at the top than usual in the corries. If there were really 
corries here once, their shape has been partly destroyed. The 
numerous minor valleys are wild and deep, with sheer slopes 
and end in narrow clefts, of the true mountain river type. A 
dissimilarity to the tjords in harder rocks arises in territories 
such as these already by reason of the sides of the valleys not 
being rounded off, but being either more gently sloping, or, owing 
to breaking up through erosion and abrasion, angular or even 
precipitous, which is easily explained by the nature of the rock 
itself. A very narrow foreland outside the coast-steep is usu- 
ally present; before every river it widens considerably owing 
to the masses of gravel carried down. 

The gentle impression made by this coast is most closely 
connected with the uniform nature of the rock, which is without 
any specially hard or divergent strata. We come across a very 
different character at Davy Sund. On the S. side rise the high 
Pietet Mountains; the country in front of them is comparatively 
low and gentle. In the N., on Trail 1. the country is similarly 
soft, though the shores are steep and somewhat wall-like, and 
also the smaller crevices are deep, while the larger valleys are 
broad and end in gently sloping cirques. Not until we ap- 
proach "Drömbukten" do the valleys become more and more 
important and at the same time closer to one another; they 
almost go down to the base-level, and the crest tliat distinguishes 
them from their closest matches is often low. What once existed 
of a plateau-form is now quite destroyed. 

In this region four different areas may be distinguished, 
which we will briefly characterize. 

Traill Island consists of isolated rounded masses divided 
by deep valleys and themselves cut up by numerous small 
valleys and chasms. Heal peaks are generally lacking except 
perhaps furthest out towards C. Simpson. 



246 




Fig. 14. Southern shore of Davy Sund, W. from C.Biol (Strata possibly 
triassic). (C. Kruuse phot. 24: 8: 1900.) 




Fig. 15. G. Brown, seen from N. (Nordenskjold phot. 24:8:1900.) 

The exact nature of the rock on this island is unluckily 
not yet known. Fig. 19, on p. 250, from a sketch by Ditlevsen, 
gives us an idea of the scenery of the east coast of the island. 

The south coast of Davy Sund, towards С Biot, pic- 



I 



24' 



tured on üg. 14, is more connected, soft and low, without pro- 
minent peaks, but sometimes broken up into crest-shaped hills. 
Also here it will be necessary to verify the nature of the rock, 
which is on the map pictured as belonging to the Triassic, 
though older rocks may occur, especially farthest out towards 
C. Biot. Here, in fact, the topography reminds one somewhat of 
the peninsula E. of Fleming Inlet, the region of C. Brown (see 
fig. 15), forming with its harder rocks (cf. p. 178) a real transition to 




Fig. 16. Mountains at the interior of Fleming Inlet (Triassic strata). 
(Nordenskjôid phot. 25:8:1900.). 

the Canning Land type mentioned below. What is seen on the 
picture is evidendly a narrow crest, not gentle in any place, 
but without any prominent peaks and broken up by the for- 
mation of transverse valleys. Connected with the almost hori- 
zontal stratification is a partition in narrow terraces, which from 
a distance almost recalls a basalt coast. 

Somewhat different is the scenery around P'leming Inlet. 
The nature of the generally soft, triassic rock has already been 
described. On the NW. the fjord is bounded by an almost 
plateau-shaped wall, the isolated peaks everywhere showing a 



248 




strong tendency to 
assume pyramidal 
shape, as shown on 
fig. 16 and also on 
the typical fig. 17. 

Canning Land 
(formerly "Canning 
Island") presents in 
the extremeSE. near- 
est Liverpool Land 
a very different ap- 
pearance and at 
least in details al- 
most vies with Li- 
verpool Land in its 
wild and broken to- 
pography. The whole 
peninsula consists 
of a number of nar- 
row, isolated ridges 
and cones, not of 
true peaks, divided 
by deep and very 
typical corries, and 
also by ordinary 
crevices. The slope 
towards the sea is 
very steep, and in 
detail all the heights 
are sharply moulded 
out in peaks and 
ridges (cfr. also fig. 3). 
This topography is 
connected with the 



249 



rich variety of rocks, in the formation of which huge, almost massive 
banks of calcareous sandstone enter, as also not inconsiderable 
quantities of the surface-eruptives that have already been described. 
The beds dip rather abruptly and the emanating strata-tops of 
harder beds produce peaked points projecting from the ridges, 
as is beautifully shown on fig. 18, while ûg. 20 gives us a 
general idea of the aspect of the country, seen from a distance. 
The landscape character of the areas just described is 




Fig. 18. NW. Peninsula of Canning Land, seen Irom .\. 
(C. Kruuse phot. 24: 8: 1900.) 



typical of the comparatively low, violently broken up districts 
nearest the coast-line. Further inland, at some distance from 
the forks of Kong Oscar Fjord, we find very high mountains, 
which, however, were seen only at a distance. The character of 
this mountainous landscape is best seen in the series of good 
pictures that Nathorst reproduced in his work "Två somrar 
i norra ishafvet". Where the mountains consist of horizontal 
sedimentary beds, they have most often a tendency to a plateau- 
shape. The wildest mountains I had an opportunity of seeing 
are the so-called "Syltopparne" (reproduced on p. 300 of op. 



250 



••'«\ 



Ш 



В " 
2- п 

s ел 
га СП 

in 

— о 




251 



cit.), whose topography recalls what I described from Canning 
Land, the sharp, characteristic peaks probably owing their- 
origin to the same phenomena, the resistance to erosion in 
certain hard banks of the folded sedimentary rocks. Ber- 
zelius Mountain , situated right opposite , with an almost 
horizontal stratification, is pronouncedly plateau-shaped; the 
same is splendidly reproduced, together with the vivid colours 
of the rock, on the attached picture PI. XI, from a painting by 
Ditlevsen. 




Fig. 21. Neill's Cliffs, tiie E. border of Jameson Land. 
(C. Kruuse phot. 12: S: 1900.) 

The large, deep valleys that are met with here probably 
stand in connection at times with irregularities in the rock, 
but 1 noticed no true dislocation valleys; not even has Polhem 
Valley, which follows so near to tlie boundary between archaean 
and sedimentary rocks, originated in that manner. 

4. Jameson Land (Jurassic and Quaternary Type). 
This name indicates the territory to the N. of Scoresby Sund, 
and situated between Liverpool Land, from which the greater part 
is separated by Hurry Itilet, .uid the ice-covered interior N. 
of Nordvestfjord: in its configuration it differs strongly from 



252 



both these areas. It is low, even and free from ice, especially 
in the southern part. It is known to me partly from a lengthy 
excursion I made towards the INW. from the inmost part of 
Hurry Inlet, partly from studies made along the whole of its 
coast on Hurry Inlet and Scoresby Sund. As far as I could 
see, all the rocky bed of the territory consists of Jurassic de- 
posits^), which in the N. rise to peaks of 1000 metres and 




Fig. 22. South coast of Jameson Land, near C. Hooker, with a large 
stranded iceberg. (G. Kruuse phot. 15: 8: 1900.) 

more, and on Hurry Inlet form a steep wall of up to 600 metres 
in height, (cfr, the typical picture in fig. 21 and the painting 
PI. XII), while towards the SW. they grow lower and lower, so 
that they only exceptionally emerge, the whole country down 
to the sea-level being formed of Quaternary deposits. 

Both from a geological and a topographic point of view 
the territory may therefore be divided into three main divisions. 



') Cfr. also the remarii on p. 188. 



253 



viz. the N. liiirhlantl area, the coast land on Hurry Inlet and 
the lowlands in the S. and W. 

The N. highlands consist mainly of isolated rocky mountain- 
hills, separated by deep valleys with rather steep sides, though 
not by real canyons. These mountains are also sometimes 
covered by ice. But already a little further south these elevations 
close up, so that one can speak of a true plateau, which slowly 
rises from Ryders Dale from 150 to about 900 metres, and is 
only interrupted here and there by shallow river-valleys. In 
these valleys the rocky bed, mostly of light non-fossiliferous 
quartz sandstone, is often visible. The slope, too, reveals nothing 
remarkable, but the more interesting are the real plateau- 
elevations of a mean height of about 800 metres. These are 
covered everywhere by a large, level, connected cap, usually of 
some metres in depth, of coarse, very well rounded and washed 
out gravel, consisting of the greatest variety of rocks: granite, 
syenite, pegmatite, quartzite, etc. I did not notice any basalt. 
Already the variation in the blocks shows that they undoubtedly 
derive from the W. Large blocks, of more than about 2 metres 
in length, are exceedingly rare. Up here the gravel is evenly 
distributed; further south, however, one can often observe an 
arrangement according to the type of shore-gravel, in that the 
coarser material is gathered up into low hillocks, which are 
surrounded by a ring of larger blocks, of which one measured 
as much as 5 metres in length. Here are also huge layers of 
fine sand, which are lacking in the upper plateau. Sometimes 
there even occur extensive fields of blocks of well rounded 
-tones, mostly covering lower districts. Finally, we may mention 
some curious ridges (in several places, though not numerous) 
of 4 — 5 m in height and 10 — 30 m in length, formed of well 
washed pebbles, up to the size of nuts, with numerous blocks, 
up to half a metre in length, scattered. around, at least on the 
surface. These formations recall estuary terraces of glacial 
rivers, or "osar" in the making. A general view of this re- 



254 



markable country, as seen from the northern hills, is shown 
on fig. 23. 

The same well rounded gravel, though in less quantity, 
occurs up on the plateau heights right down to Cape Stewart, 
and exceptionally I found even here on one of the highest 
points, about 540 metres above the sea, a number of the same, 
large, exceedingly well rounded and almost smooth polished 
gravel-stones, so numerous in the N. 



WS^^ 





Fig. 23. Jameson Land, seen from the northern hills, in the direction 
facing Scoresby Sund. (Nordenskjold phot. August 1900.) 

How this most peculiar formation, spread over so large an 
area, came about, is not an easy question to answer. But it 
shows such a remarkable resemblance to another, well-known 
formation, the Patagonian gravel-formation, that we can scarcely 
get away from the idea of an at least similar origin. In another 
place ^) I have dealt with the question of this probably quater- 
nary gravel in detail, and proposed the theory that it was de- 
posited by large glacier-rivers. In the present case, it is true, 



^) Über die posttertiären Ablagerungen der Magellansländer; Svenska Exp. 
till Magellansländerna Vol. I, no: 2, p. 43. 






255 



the facts, and especially the tiistribiition of the gravel itself, 
seem to speak with far greater emphasis in favour of a sub- 
marine formation. But, on the other hand, one hesitates to 
assume that the sea can so recently have stood nearly 1000 
metres higher than now, and in any case it is difficult to ex- 
plain the absence of correspondingly huge, fossiliferous deep 
sea formations. As matters now stand, we may very well 
imagine that there was here a large inland sea basin, though 
this interpretation scarcely holds good of Patagonia. A few 
small finds of sand that were examined for micro-organisms 
proved to be sterile. 

The conditions along the coast at Hurry Inlet have partly 
been touched on above, and it only remains for us to speak 
of the coast profile itself. The Jurassic beds here usually 
form a steep, often unsurmountable rocky wall, at the foot of 
which are terraces and often extensive moraine-like formations 
deserving of closer study than I could give them. It is most 
probable that here under the lee of the high, perpendicular 
wall, huge abruptly dipping drifts of snow and ice have lodged 
for certain periods of time. Under the influence of wind and 
thaw water, gravel and dust have been carried out onto their 
surface, and then, when the snow melted, collected at the foot, 
where they still lie, like embankments. The same phenomenon 
can often be observed in full activity in the Polar regions. — The 
interior of the territory forms part of the large plateau described 
above, and, just as the beds dip, it gently sinks towards the S. 

Of some interest are the river valleys one comes across 
here, and whose type is common in bolh the areas described. 



M Far in the interior of Jameson Land, at a height of at least 300 — 400 m 
above the sea, I made an interesting find, viz.. a large piece of drift- 
wood; according to Hartz, probably from a pine-tree. This undoubtedly 
endorses the opinion that the sea in a late time readied so high, since 
no other agent, even human, seems possible. As well known, driftwood 
has been found at still greater heights, on Kllesmere Land, by Ihe 
.Nar es Expedition. 



256 

Nearest the shore of Hurry Inlet there is a number of very 
short and deep, steep chasms, which, as one gets higher up 
to the verge of the plateau itself, widen out and are continued 
in gentle, not conspicuous depressions. The large valleys, too, 
belong to the same type, and in their lower part form wild, often 
impassable chasms. Up country these suddenly come to an end, like 
a sack, against a steep wall which is often roofed by a mass of 
ice, usually in an almost "dead" condition. These are the only 
occurrences of glaciers to be found in these parts. And should 
there be any continuation at all of the valley further inland, it 
only forms a shallow, flat depression in the plateau, usually 
filled with snow; nothing analogous to the canyon-like chasm 
valleys of the coastal area is to be found in this part of the 
interior of the country. 

What we see here is evidently a polar type of valley in 
a plateau area. On a lower level, rivers of thaw water have a 
very erosive effect in the summer, whereas higher up, where 
the snow does not melt, but only evaporates, almost every erosive 
activity somewhat suddenly ceases. 

Not less peculiar and interesting than these districts is 
the SW. lowland territory. A foundation of solid sandstone 
rock, of the kind already described, is only visible in a few deep 
river valleys in the S. part of this territory. Here, on the 
coast in the neighbourhood of C. Hooker we find, as a rule, 
over this sandstone a clay with numerous stones, which at 
times forcibly recalls a morainic boulder clay, but undoubtedly 
consists of a stratified formation, having originated in a water 
where at the same time blocks of ice had drifted about. I did not 
come across it on a higher level than about 60 m above the 
sea. Above the clay one usually finds moderately fine sand, 
and above this a cover of coarse gravel similar to that just 
described from the mountain plateau. Further towards the NW., 
on the other hand, the soil is formed exclusively of sand and 
fine gravel, only exceptionally with narrow intervening layers 



257 



of clay, in which are sometimes found marine shells; these, 
however, have not yet been classed. Along the coast, for- 
mations of dune-sand are extensive. Foreign boulders occur 
here and there, but are rather subordinate. Further inland, 
10 km and more from the coast, they seem to be wanting 
altogether. Noteworthy was a very large boulder lying near 
the shore, 15 m long, 10 m broad, and 5 m high in the part 
above the ground (fig. 24, "vandreblok" on the map). 




Fig. 21 Big boulder on the W с о i "\ .laim-^on Land, probably trans- 
ported by an iceberg. (G. Kruuse phot. 17: 8: 1900.) 

The topography here is as simple as it is interesting. 
Outside the coast-line lies a broad plateau, which is so shallow 
and shelving that a landing is only possible at high water. 
At the shore itself there is usually a 6 to 15 m declination, 
consisting of sand. This type of coast is very conspicuous on 
fig. 25. Within this embankment there is now and again a 
depression, or else a terrace plateau begins at once, rising 
\ery slowly, scarcely 100 m in 5 to 10 kilometres. This terrace, 
save furthest in towards the NE. bay, where the land is lower 
and more connected, is cut up nearest the coast by innumerable 
'horl, deep, sheer river valleys, which — at least at that season 
XXVIII. 17 



258 



of the year (August) — were usually almost empty of water. 
Several of these valleys are very short, some only a few hundred 
metres in length; others are widely forked and reach far in- 
land; but all show a strong tendency to come to an abrupt 
termination against a steep wall. This is the same peculiar 
type of valleys that has often been described from certain desert 
regions. Here the explanation I offered just now for the valleys 
at the E. plateau precipice, does not hold good; it seems to 




Fig. 25. The quaternary coast on the W. side of Jameson Land. 
(C. Kruuse phot. 17: 8: 1900.) 

me most likely that here the streamlets that we now see in 
the valleys rise from springs which have gradually succeeded 
in carrying away the masses of earth lying before and over them. 

But few watercourses reach the interior of the land. Their 
valleys are usually broad, not specially marked, and show no 
unusual characteristics. 

Already in Scoresby's time Jameson Land hadf attracted 
attention because of its freedom from snow and ice, and nev- 
ertheless it lies between the inland ice and Liverpool 'Land, 
which — at least in part — is so rich in glaciers and ice. 
That permanent ice is not altogether wanting has already been 



259 

pointed out, but it only occurs in the more pronounced moun- 
tains in the N., in the highest parts of the land, close upon 
1000 m above the sea, and in some deep chasm valleys. The 
plateau itself is in the summer, even at a height of 800 — 900 m, 
almost free from snow. A good picture of this remarkable 
country is shown in Og. 23. A satisfactory explanation of the 
absence of snow has not yet been offered. Very probably the 
plateau character has been unfavourable to the formation of 
ice, both because it discourages atmospheric precipitation, and 
because the snow that falls here is easily carried away by the 
wind; and it is possible that the precipitation at the level that 
the plateau reaches here within the fjord is, apart from this, 
less than out by the coast. But this does not seem to be a 
sufficient explanation. Polar explorations have now shown us 
that in different regions tracts of land, whose rocky bed consists 
of horizontally lying, loose sedimentary rocks, are unfavourable 
to ice formation, even if they lie on an open coast. A short 
resumé of the observations connected with this has been 
furnished by J. G. Andersson^), who has promised to return 
to the question. Without, therefore, going into the matter 
here. I will merely suggest as a possibility — applicable to 
the present case — that the freedom from snow is directly 
attributable to the loose nature of the soil, to its porosity. 
On projecting rocks of sandstone specks of snow can still be 
found, though not nearly to the same extent as in the areas 
of primary rock; on a soil of gravel or sand there is not a 
trace of ice, save a few snow-drifts down in the valleys, which 
probably melt before the arrival of winter. Why the nature 
of this soil should have this effect is harder to explain. Per- 
haps, by letting the thawed water from the snow above sink 
down, it prevents the formation of a crust of ice on the ground, 
or in some other way prevents the snow turning into ice, which, 

M Bull. Geo). Inst. IJpsala, Vol. VII, p. 24. 

IT 



260 



if allowed to remain some years — the easier as the ice is 
better able to resist melting than the snow — can form the 
basis of a general glaciation. 

It seems as if the same peculiar state prevailed in Jameson 
Land even in earlier periods. I had expected, in this territory 
covered by loose post-tertiary deposits and situated so close 
to the inland ice, to find what has never yet been met with, 
a district with a mighty ground-moraine corresponding to that 
which we find, for instance, in Denmark or other South-Baltic 
lowland tracts, but in direct connection with formations de- 
posited by recent ice before our eyes. In this, however, I was 
deceived: I saw no true ground-moraine anywhere in this 
territory, nor, indeed, any proof that it had ever been covered 
by land-ice even in conjunction with the widest extension of 
the ice. Nevertheless, this territory is of considerable interest 
for the study of the quaternary history of Greenland through 
its masses — just described — of gravel and, nearer the shore, 
of sand and clay which, in parts to a thickness of at least 100 m, 
form its soil. That these loose masses are to some extent 
marine is certain, and hence they point to a late upheaval of 
the land, but how great it was is not yet known. Samples of 
clay from highish levels have, unfortunately, all turned out to 
be sterile ; only up to a height of about 30 m above sea-level 
did I find indisputable marine shell remains. Neither could 
typical shore lines be detected in the region on a higher leveP). 

However, strong arguments, above all, the very nature of 
the deposits, speak in favour of their having been deposited 
in the sea up to a far greater height. But, as I have just said, 
I do not venture to extend this hypothesis to the gravel and 
boulders of the highest plateaus. These are most easily ex- 



'^) Compare what was said above about the conditions on the west coast 
of Liverpool Land, where Hartz, as we are informed, has made un- 
expected and interesting observations which speak in favour of a higher 
water-level. 



261 



plained by discharge from glacier rivers which, like those we 
know from the south of Iceland, have often changed their bed, 
and, undoubtedly, large portions of the district were once covered 
by lagoons, where icebergs laden with blocks of stones floated 
about. These lagoons must have been shut off partly by the 
ice itself, partly, perhaps, by the mountain mass of Liverpool 
Land. Still, it is striking that with the present climate of these 
altitudes it is impossible to imagine either higoons or well 
watered streams. Either the land once lay much lower, which, 
as we have seen, is probable for other reasons^), or we here 
have traces of some interglacial period with a warmer climate 
than the present. 

A more detailed study of this .interesting district and its 
loose deposits, as well as of its temperature and atmospheric 
precipitation, is strongly to be recommended to every expedition 
that finds its way to these parts. 

5. The Inner Central Mass of ArchaicRocks. There 
is, of course, no detailed description of the topography of the 
surface of the land in the interior of Greenland, since the whole 
territory is covered with ice. It is, however, probable that the 
territory forms a mountainous country intersected by valleys, 
which may be inferred from observations taken at the borders. 
At the same time, already Nansen has expressed the opinion 
that it is "indisputable that the topography in the interior of 
Greenland is at least as cut up and varied as in the Norway 
of to-day". I can scarcely subscribe to this opinion, and the 



') I have also come across deposits at other places at a considerable 
elevation, which recalled old gravel beaches, as for instance at Cape 
Borlase Warren in an open position out towards the sea at close upon 
300 m in height. The rocky bed here consists of basalt and also 
some sandstone of presumably Tertiary Age. On the slope there are 
numerous boulders of chiefly archæan rocks; to assume that these have 
been transported by the activity of running water is not easy. However, 
the district is too little known for a definite explanation to be given; 
one possibility is that these stones derive from conglomerates that might 
be found in the tertiary sandstone. 



262 



observations taken in the interior of the fjords here described 
point to a different conclusion. For, irrespective of the rocky 
bed, which may consist either of primary rock, basalt or sedi- 
mentary rocks, all the highlands here tend to assume a pro- 
nounced plateau shape. This appears already very characteri- 
stically in the central parts of Scoresby Sund (Renland and 
Milne Land, cfr. fig. 26), and still more plainly in the interior 
of Forsblad Fjord. The same observations can be made at 
other parts of East Greenland, e. g. on the reproductions in 




Fig. 26. Renland and the entrance to Nordvestfjord, filled with icebergs, 
seen from Jameson Land. (C. Kruuse phot. 15: 8: 1900.) 

the already cited work of Nathorst's, "Två somrar i Norra Is- 
hafvet". Vol. П, pp. 257, 264, 268, 326, etc. Some isolated 
masses of mountains may of course assume bolder outlines, 
but in the main the phenomenon is striking. Naturally, in the 
neighbourhood of the fjords it nowhere reaches the development 
of a continuous plateau; the innermost point of the whole territory 
known to us is the interior of Franz Joseph Fjord, of the nature 
of which we can get a conception from the picture on p. 246 
of Nathorst's work. The phenomenon appears much less 



263 



distinctly, without doubt, in landscape pictures from the W. 
coast, yet indications of it are not wanting even here, though 
I have not had an opportunity of seeing any pictures from the 
innermost parts of the Qords in a sufficient number for entering 
nearer into the question. Now it is true that the same phe- 
nomenon is very evident also in the inner parts of the Norwegian 
fjords, and, broadly speaking, Norway is, as we know, itself a 
plateau land, whose peaks and mountain masses often show, 
within the same district, a striking correspondence in their 
height. So far a comparison between Greenland and Norway 
may be justified. But Greenland forms a far broader mass 
than either Norway or the whole Scandinavian peninsula, while 
again erosion and valley-forming forces, following on the re- 
tirement of the land ice, have, at least in the coastal districts 
of W. Scandinavia, contributed greatly to render the contrast 
still greater between mountains and valleys. With the impression 
I received of the topography of Greenland, with respect to the 
quick transitions from the peaks of the coast strip and the 
plateau shaped mountain masses of the territory within the fjords, 
it seems to me most probable that the country still further 
inland rather forms a fairly continuous high plateau, though it 
must in any case be imagined as cut up by a number of deep 
main valleys. For various reasons I think we may assume that 
this plateau type is here even more widely extended than in 
other similar stretches of old mountainous country, which were 
once covered with land ice, as, for instance, Labrador and 
Scandinavia. 

This brings us to the question of the origin of such high 
plateaus and of the effects of the land ice in the interior of 
an extensive mountainous district. — If the valley systems 
were not strongly developed before the advance of the ice, and 
the ice-cover therefore from the beginning embraced large parts 
of the land, while only the higher peaks stuck out as nunataks, 
such land ice should have a great levelling tendency on the 



264 



topography. A strong erosion can only take place at the 
districts at the edge, where in this way deep lakes and 
fjords are formed. On the other hand, frost weathering 
soon attacks the higher peaks, which are not protected by 
any ice-cover, and the pieces that break away are carried off 
with the moraines of the ice. Such a mountain plateau differs 
entirely from a peneplain resulting from river erosion, in that 
deep valleys are by no means lacking, and have certainly been 




Fig. 27. The inner part of Forsblad's Fjord, seen from the W. slope of 

Poihem Dale. Gneiss mountains, approaching the table shape. 

(Nordenskjold phot. 28: 8: 1900.) 

present at every phase. Taking them all round these plateaus 
form a special type among the land forms, probably limited to 
areas that are or have been covered with ice. On the other 
hand, to explain them as a direct result of the erosion of the 
ice, does not seem to me to be possible. In real mountain- 
chains, formed by late folding and upheaval, corresponding 
plateau-areas do not seem to occur. 

The pictures flg. 27 and 28, though not very good, will 
give us an idea about the scenery of those plateau-shaped 
mountains in the inner fjord-regions. 



265 



The present ice and its effects on the nature of 
the region. 
Glaciers and inland ice. I had but little opportunity, 
during the expedition, of studying the present ice, and have, in 
consequence, only a few observations to make on this score. 

That the central ice reaches the innermost branches of 
Scoresby Sund, was already known through Ryder's Expedition, 
but some doubts have been raised as to whether this ice fully 




Fig. 28. View towards the interior of Polhem Dale. Mountains of 

horizontal Silurian strata, covered by highland ice. 

{Nordenskjold phot. 28: 8: 1900.) 

tallies with the inland ice of W. Greenland^). Our expedition 
did not penetrate so far that any decisive observations bearing 
on this could be taken, but I believe it is indisputable that it 
is true inland ice that debouches into the interior of the NW. 
fjord. At the entrance of this fjord, and in the NE. bay 
our ship was surrounded by hundreds of large icebergs, of 
which several must have been many hundred metres in length, 



') E. V. Üryqalski, Grönland-Expedition, Vol.1, 164. 



266 




Fig. 29. Hanging glacier coming down from the highland ice on the 

southern side of Forsblad Fjord. Height of the wall about 1500 m. 

(C. Kruuse phot. 29: 8: 1900.) 



267 

and by their comparatively regular shape (cf. fig. 26) showed 
that they derived from a large ice-stream. Even if we agree 
with Drygalski in confining the appelation "inland ice" to 
such masses of ice as force their way in a mass into a — to 
them — new district, it can be open to no doubt that that is 
the case here, such large ice-streams being of necessity derived 
from a very extensive collecting-area. 

On the plateau-shaped mountains at the shore of the fjords, 
and also on the basalt masses on the peninsula to the S. of 
Scoresby Sund, we find, as a rule, local caps of highland ice, 
which are often spread over the mountain plateaus like even 
and comparatively thin coverlets, as is shown in the photograph 
fig. 28 from the environs of Polhem Dale, and also on fig. 29. 
Such highland ice often sends down towards the deep valleys 
narrow ice-belts which incline so abruptly that it is hard to 
understand how a glacier under such conditions can retain its 
continuity. Fine examples of this can be seen, for instance, in 
Forsblad Fjord, of which the same fig. 29 gives us a picture; 
the ice cap is here at least 1500 m above the sea. 

Of the larger coast glaciers 1 only visited one, namely 
Bartholin Glacier, somewhat to the S. of Scoresby Sund (cfr. 
fig. 30). According to Koch's measurements, the glacier at its 
front has a breadth of some 3^/2 km and its perpendicular wall 
rises from 15 — 20 m above the sea. its surface is even, almost 
without fissures, at least on its eastern side, on which I walked; 
towards the interior of the land it rises very slowly to begin with. 
Further inland it seems to branch into two arms that appear to 
rise more steeply in order to converge with the highland ice that 
covers this district. A dark, central moraine wall, formed by pieces 
of a scoriaceous basalt, whose cavities are filled by fine zeolite 
crystals, runs inland as far as the eye can reach. Still larger is 
the E. side-moraine, which forms a whole broad zone with 
ridges and valleys and real small ice-lakes (fig. 31), and runs 
along Henry Land right uf» to the valley which here debouches 



268 



с- 




I 



269 



from the norlh. A large block of ice, evidently detached from 
the glacier and showing a part of its central moraine, lay, 
probably on the ground, in front of the ice^), but the movement 
of the glacier can scarcely be rapid. 

The Steno Glacier, which bears an evident resemblance to 
the one described, and which lies somewhat further north, has 
been briefly described by Koch-). 

Liverpool Land, as has often been pointed ont, is largely 




Fig. 31. Small hole in the ice of the N. lateral moraine, Bartholin glacier. 
(Nordenskjold phot. 20: 7: 1900.) 



covered with ice, but it is impossible to speak of real highland 
caps here, as the country is too much intersected by valleys, 
and the ice may be said to be mainly collected in these and 
in depressions between the high peaks — not unlike the 



^) This piece of ice is also visible on the left of the annexed photograph, 
which was taken from the outer edge of the N. side-moraine at a place, 
the situation of which is shown on a photopraph specially taken. 

') Medd. om Grønland. XXVII, p. 277. 



270 



Alpine ice-masses. Here too, again, I only reached the ice in 
one spot, viz. in the already described (p. 231) valley opposite the 
Fame Islands ("Limestone Л'^аПеу" or Kalkdalen). A considerable 
glacier here descends in a narrow passage from the inner highland 
district, widening out into a broad, fan-shaped tongue (see fig. 32) 
from which a river takes its rise. Conspicuous moraine embank- 
ments are not to be seen in front of the ice, but the glacier evidently 




Fig. 32. Glacier tongue, at the upper end of Kalkdalen, Liverpool Land. 
(Nordenskjold phot. Aug. 1900.) 



filled the whole valley at an earlier epoch, in any case as far 
as the remarkable "sill" at its entrance, already described. 

The adjoining picture also shows us that plateau-shaped 
mountains are not lacking either in the interior of Liverpool 
Land, although they may only appear to the W. of the 
ice-divide. 

The influence of the ice on iji.e configuration of the country. 
I can curtail the remarks 1 have to make on this head, and 
need only refer to the descriptions already given. In this district, 
as presumably in the whole of Greenland, we can distinguish 3 



271 



dilïerent types of surface-features of the solid rock, viz., the upper 
mountain-plateau, the mountainous country with sharp peaks 
and ridges and, finally, the lower, rounded, and gently rolling 
stretches of country. A description has just been given of the 
first-named plateau; its existence, since the withdrawal of the ice, 
depends on the fact that at this height, where the temperature 
seldom rises above the freezing point, the erosive power of the 
water is reduced to a minimum. Between these and the lowland 
regions round the coast the intermediate type, the Alpine region 
with its pointed peaks, inserts itself. Here ice and water have 
combined to excavate deep valleys, and under the influence of 
frost weathering the tops, which in the ice appeared as nunataks, 
have assumed bolder shapes, without, however, suffering destruc- 
tion. However, in other districts, with a very broken topo- 
graphy and with lower summits, this has sometimes been the 
case, and then we get the regions of the third type — a low 
rolling country that gently slopes outwards, and from which 
rounded hillocks rise. If from this level some isolated rocky 
mass rises to any height, it shows angular, rugged contours 
of the second type, and consequently appears as an ancient 
nunatak that has been left undestroyed by the acting forces. Of 
this the often described and reproduced^) Umanak Rock in West 
Greenland is a fine example. 

Within this district a higher plateau-land reaches almost 
out to the sea in the basalt territory on the S. side of Scoresby 
Sund. In general the region nearest the sea is a cut-up 
Alpine country, while the district where the third type appears 
best in its contrast to it is the S. or S. W. part of Liverpool 
Land. 

In sharp contrast to all these types, cutting through them with' 
steep mountain walls, without very much altering their character 
at the variations of country, are the fjords and the deep valleys 



M Drygalski, Grönland Expedition, I, PI.3; also Medd. om Grønland, IV, Pi. 7. 



272 

that correspond to them on land. They show here an extra- 
ordinary development, and few places on earth, should their origin 
be made a subject of special investigation, are better suited to 
the purpose; the opportunities are especially fine for observing 
to what extent the character of the fjords is changed hand in 
hand with the variations of the rocky bed. It is only a pity 
that at present hardly anything is known about their submarine 
relief. That sills occur at the entrance of several of the fjords 
seems to be certain; at the inner arms, such as NW. fjord, that 
is evident from the number of icebergs stranded at their mouth. 
On the other hand it looks as if the larger fjords, at least 
Franz Joseph Fjord and Davy Sund, were continued some way 
into the sea by deepish channels. 

Theoretically very interesting are the considerable longi- 
tudinal valleys, or "channels" (in the terminology applied to 
other coasts), connected with the fjords and apparently showing 
that they are not exclusively indebted for their origin to the 
erosion of ice. It is at least hard to imagine that this should 
have moved forward with any force in the inner connecting 
branches of Scoresby Sund (Rodefjord, Rypefjord, and others) 
while it is easier to understand why Kong Oscar Fjord, in spite 
of its direction, should have succeeded in forming the outlet 
channel for a huge glacier. 

That dislocations in the crust of the earth have here played 
a certain part is beyond doubt. Smallish faults can often be 
observed along the shores of the fjords, but to what extent these 
have been of any importance in the formation of the valleys 
cannot be shown. Both the outer, broad part of Scoresby Sund, 
and Hurry Inlet owe their shape — which differs, especially in 
the former case, from that usual to fjords — as well as their 
position, to the boundary between the loose, Mesozoic rocks 
within the Jameson territory and the adjacent, hard basalts and 
archaic rocks. 

With reference to the details in the topography of the 



273 



district, we liave already made acquaintance with the imposing 
formation of corries that sometimes occur, especially within 
the basalt territory, where a whole district may be so cut up 
that only narrow ridges remain. Where these corries, as 
is the case at Turner Sund, all have their mouths at the 
same level — about 20Ü m above the sea — one would be 
inclined to think that they were formed at a period when the 
sea-level was considerably higher than to-day. To prove this, 
however, observations would have to be extended to a far wider 
area than I was able to survey. 

"Striate land". Although this phenomenon is not di- 
rectly caused by the ice, we will, however, speak of it here. 
Statements M occur in old works to the effect that observations 
in polar regions have shown that the loose gravel and clay 
sometimes are arranged in regular hexagons, without this ob- 
servation having been the object of detailed investigation. On 
the other hand, a similar but probably not identical phenomenon, 
"rutmark" or "chequered land", where the surface is broken by 
hexahedral Assures, has attracted the attention of the botanists. 

During his expedition to Beeren Island in 1899 J. G. An- 
dersson observed a phenomenon which he afterwards described 
under the name "solifluction"^) and which seems to be of great 
importance for the origin of certain details in the topography 
of such territories. By saturation with thaw-water, large masses 
of earth on a slope may assume a semi-migrant structure, and, 
under favourable conditions, start slowly moving down the slope. 
These '"mud-streams" may give the gravel on the hill-sides 
a band-like arrangement on a large scale ; at other times 
several streams may combine from various directions into a 
main furrow, like a river and its branches. 

in Greenland \ made several observations that seem to point 

') Th. Fries octi C. Nyström: Svenska Polarexpeditionen 1868. Stock- 
holm 1869, p. 30. 
») J. G. Andersson: Journ. of Geology, XXIV (1906): 91. 
xxviu. 18 



274 



to a combination of the two phenomena just mentioned. In 
several places, most distinctly in Turner Sund, at the loose 
layers on some of the slopes I noticed a fine striate arrangement 
on a small scale: coarse and fine gravel or even clay alternated 
in long, regular, narrow strips, sometimes covering extensive 
tracts. The steeper the slope was, the more regular were the 
strips, and while in general the clayey strips, at least, were 




Fig: 33. "Striate earth": sand and gravel arranged by solifluction in 

regular striæ. Turner Island, in the background Turner Sund and 

the mainland. (Nordenskjold phot. 26: 7: 1900.) 



moist, the phenomenon was also observed on dry ground. A 
somewhat indistinct picture of the appearance of this "striate 
land" is given in fig. 33. There was no further chance during 
the Greenland Expedition of taking other observations touching 
its origin, but I have since continued these observations in 
other places. Here 1 need only mention that 1 fully subscribe to 
Andersson's explanation of solifluction, but for the origin of 
the narrow regular strips described I consider it necessary for 



275 

the gliding to take place upon a layer of frozen ground near 
the surface M. 

On the nature of the sea-bottom oflf East Greenland and on 
the former extension of the ice. One of the most interesting 
questions to be solved inside the polar circle is to know what 
particular forces are active here in forming the marine sedi- 
ments and to what extent, moreover, under different circum- 
stances they differ in the polar regions from those of other 
regions. In his description of the samples of the sea-floor of 
our expedition, 0. B. Bøggild has given us some extremely 
valuable contributions to these enquiries^). The author shows 
us how the Coarse material in the sea-floor sediment near the 
shore shows an intimate dependence upon the rocks cropping 
out in the neighbourhood, which is not the case to the same 
extent further out to sea. I can only confirm this. When, in 
dredgings, considerable masses of loose material were often 
brought up, I examined hundreds of stones and pebbles, though 
without being able to make exact determinations or calculations. 
But the general impression is precisely the same as that arrived 
at by Bøggild after examining smaller but much more numerous 
samples. Near land at the basalt coast to the S. of Scoresby 
Sund, the stones consisted almost exclusively of basalt; in the 
sea off Sabine I. was found a rich alternation of rocks, among 
which grey gneiss was predominant. 

It is unnecessary to refer in detail to the contents of 
Bøggild' s work, and though I should like to touch upon 
several points, I must content myself with the following general 
remarks. On the whole the matter is perhaps more complicated 
than Bøggild supposes. There is no doubt that a large 
number of icebergs even now drift out from the inner arms of 



M A short account of some of the phenomena connected with this appears 
in my article, "Über die Natur der Polarländer"; Geogr. Zeitschr., 1907, 
p. 563. 

*) Medd. cm Grenland, XXVIII, 17, 

18* 



276 



the fjords and carry with them a considerable material of gravel 
and clay, although in order to pass the fjord-sills they have first 
to be somewhat reduced in size. But for all that, Bøggild' s 
investigations, as well as earher observations taken by Bay^), 
seem to show that this material does not, in the main, play 
an especially great part among the sea-sediment, though this 
may not hold good for all regions, and it is very hard to form 
a conception of what the districts are where such ice-berg 
sediments may be expected. So for instance it seems to me that 
it by no means follows that when the sea ice in one district, 
as in the "North Bay", is less compact, melting of icebergs 
cannot take place there on a large scale. Again, Bøggild, 
in my opinion, undervalues the carrying power of the shore-ice 
(bay-ice). In the polar regions it is easy to observe that the 
winter ice nearest the shore — at a distance of a hundred 
metres and even more — is dark coloured, and covered with 
a thick layer of fine dust as well as gravel and small stones 
which have been carried out by wind and streams of thaw 
water. Here no doubt is possible; though such ice, and especially 
the pieces on which a coarse gravel is found, is extremely 
rare out to sea and probably is mostly carried by the coast 
currents along the shore and soon melts, yet during geological 
periods it must in favourable places deposit considerable layers. 
— We may add that it scarcely seems probable that the coast 
between Gael Hamke Bay and Davy Sund consists of basalt to 
the same extent as Bøggild' s map indicates; it is possible 
that the sample of bottom-sediment from this region indicates 
better than he assumes the corresponding rocks of the outer 
coast-belt. 

It seems to follow from Bøggild' s investigations, as one 
of the most important general results, that the sea-bottom off 
this part of East-Greenland, over extensive tracts and up to a 



Meddelelser om Grønland, XIX, 186. Especially interesting is sample 
no. 3 from 69° 4Г N. and 19° 20' W., in which only basalt occurs. 



A 



277 



distance of over 100 km from land, is covered by moraine layers 
from an older period of much greater ice expansion than now; 
these moraines are even still in some places said to be deter- 
minative for the configuration of the sea-bottom, and the exi- 
stence of a true terminal moraine is said to have been proved 
by Ryder and Bay at li° 17' IN. and 15°20'W.M, from which 
it bends "inwards along Hudson's Land", while at Franz Joseph 
Fjord it again turns further seaward. If this view is correct, 
the whole district in the ice age must have been covered with 
a mighty mass of land-ice which, with a continuous front, as we 
know it to-day only from South Polar regions, forced its way 
far out to sea. The proof for these far-reaching conclusions 
is found by Bøggild mainly in the very nature of the bottom 
samples and in the just mentioned soundings of Ryder and 
Amdrup off С Borlase Warren. 

It is open to no doubt that during a period of the ice age 
the fjords were filled up to their mouths with tongues of ice 
that possibly extended some way out to sea, where they gave 
rise to icebergs which, as they melted, deposited their moraine 
material on the sea-bottom to quite a different extent from to- 
day. It is certainly surprising that this material has not been 
covered since that time by newer layers, but on this score В øg- 
gild s investigations seem to be conclusive. But from this it 
is a long step to assume that a land-ice which was rather in- 
dependent of the local topography of the country should have 
covered the whole district far out to the sea, a supposition that 
seems to me highly improbable from other points of view as well. 

From reasons I have just mentioned I consider it to 
be probable that the greater part of Jameson Land was not 
covered with ice even in the ice age. The topography of 
Liverpool Land proves that no huge land-ice forced itself across 



•) I.e. circa 120 km off С Borlase Warren. The depth is here 127 Danish 
fathoms, whereas Amdrup at 74° 18' N., 1,5° 25' \V , that is to say only 
2'/t km farther west, nearer to the land, came upon 162 Danish fathoms. 



278 

it from the west. The bulk of its primary rock evidently formed 
the centre of a particular ice-covering but it has not been 
overflowed by masses of ice from the west. Again, the surface 
features of the whole district are rather the reverse of any 
proof of an ice- covering of so general and comprehensive a 
nature. I do not, it is true, consider that the old maximum 
extent of the ice was necessarily determined by the boundary 
between the peaked outlines and the lower country with its 
rounded hillocks, but many of the more pointed peaks are of 
such a kind that one can scarcely doubt that if they were 
ever covered with ice such a long time has passed since then 
that the submarine moraine deposits of such a period should 
now as a matter of course be generally covered with younger 
layers. 

Now it is true that the observations to which I am now 
chiefly referring were taken in the district south of Franz Joseph 
Fjord, but it is scarcely imaginable that neighbouring tracts 
should be markedly dissimilar in this respect. Nor do I hold 
Bøggild' s proofs to be altogether convincing. From the dred- 
gings referred to outside C. Borlase Warren, no sure conclusions 
can be drawn, since they are derived from various expeditions: 
a week's journey amid drift-ice is always enough to make the 
ships position an uncertain quantity to a few nautical miles, and 
therewith the whole existence of the above-mentioned submarine 
wall (end-moraine) is uncertain. Nor is it possible to draw any 
farreaching conclusions if, in a single series of dredgings, at right 
angles to the coast, the bottom gravel proves to be coarser out 
to sea than off the coast. That can be explained in several 
ways, e. g. that once upon a time the ice-bergs within the 
former coast-belt discharged a more abundant material of coarse 
gravel somewhat further off the land, or that a covering of moraine 
gravel was during an ice-period deposited and rather evenly di- 
stributed upon the shallow coastal shelf by melting ice-bergs 
broken off from the glaciers that filled the fjords and which, 



279 



as a rule, could not get very far away from the place of their 
origin, but was later covered towards the shore by more recent, 
finer-grained sediment, which may perhaps derive to a large 
extent from coast-ice of a more or less local origin. 

In these complicated questions a clear result can only be- 
gained by studying a much more comprehensive material than 
that brought home by the last expedition, but every definitive 
elucidation must pay regard to the two factors I have just 
mentioned, viz. the coast ice, and the ice-bergs ; and as for 
the latter, to their utterly dissimilar natures in different periods. 
It cannot have been so very long ago, after all, when for instance 
the Nordvestljord of Scoresby Sund was filled with an arm of 
inland ice, and while nowadays only a small number of ice-bergs 
pass its sill, there is no doubt that during a by-gone period this 
glacier sent out numerous ice-bergs which in the open sea 
unloaded masses of moraine material which derived exclusively 
from primary rocks. 



Summary. 

The parts of East Greenland that were visited by the Ex- 
pedition of 1900 are of unique interest by reason of the variations 
in the formations that present themselves, and because of the 
excellent opportunities they offer for the study of the effects 
of the forces that give the polar scenery its characteristic 
features. 

The main part of Greenland — whether we regard it as 
a continuation of the American continent, or |as a territory that 
is to a certain extent independent — obviously consists of a 
very old mass, which since the earliest times has bounded 
the Atlantic depression. It is therefore probable that it is 
chiefly the coast-belt where we may expect occurrences of 
younger formations. And accordingly we find there from the 



280 



Paleozoic and from the older Triassic time a series of rocks 
over 2000 m thick, whose characteristic qualities have been 
described in the foregoing pages. Several formations can be 
distinguished, but it seems probable that more exact investiga- 
tions in this respect would take us much further, for though 
the fossils here are both scarce and badly preserved, experience 
teaches us that they are not so uncommon as was first as- 
sumed and special investigations carried out by an experienced 
paleontologist should render possible a good exposition of the 
stratigraphy of the district, especially as the formations in 
question to a great extent show but comparatively unimportant 
disturbances and irregularities. For the present, however, it 
is only possible in the main to distinguish local formations, 
whose mutual relations cannot be determined with certainty. 

The strong analogy that all these rocks show in their 
appearance, goes to prove that the physical conditions during 
all these periods were somewhat similar. To what extent al- 
ready then a shore was present could not be determined. 
Litoral deposits occur at several levels, but in addition there 
are formations that must have come into existence in fairly 
deep water. It is not proved and scarcely likely that any large 
fault divides the coast-belt from Ihe inner mass, but yet 1 
consider it probable that the occurrence here of these younger 
formations stands in connection with the appearance of a large 
fracture line that still marks the coast of E. Greenland. Large 
disturbances occur, as far as is known, only among the oldest 
strata, the Silurian formation, and only within certain parts of 
these. Fresh investigations are required to decide whether we 
are here in the presence of the traces of an old, folded moun- 
tain-chain, or of disturbances in the way of flexures induced 
by the subsidence of the strata. The sinking, during certain 
periods, has been accompanied by considerable volcanic erup- 
tions, among the products of which may be noted not only a 
series of porphyries, but also augite-syeniles with appendant 



281 

dike rocks, among them also alnöite-like eruptives, all forms 
that have their striking analogies among the eruptives of the 
Paleozoic epoch on the opposite side of the Atlantic Ocean. 

The rocks that date from the Rhaetic age or younger 
periods until the Eocene, possess quite another character than 
those just described (cf. p. 185). Throughout it clearly appears 
that all these rocks are shore formations, with which, too, the 
occurrence of plant remains at several levels should be con- 
nected. From the beginning of the Tertiary period a renewed 
epoch of volcanic activity entered, which as far as East Green- 
land is concerned, seems to have been confined to the coast- 
belt, and there chiefly to the broad mass which at its centre, 
S. of Scoresby Sund, projects towards the east, an outward 
bend that seems to owe its existence to just that same cause. 
Moreover, as is well known, traces of this volcanic activity are 
found along a broad strip straight across the North Atlantic 
Ocean. A last trace of the same is afforded in Greenland by 
the hot spring I came across at Henry Peninsula, in the course 
of the Expedition. 

It was specially interesting to be able, through finds of 
marine fossils and plant remains occuring together in Eocene 
beds, to settle not only that this volcanic activity, so important 
for the North Atlantic areas, was already in full swing at the 
period mentioned, but that the Tertiary (so-called Miocene) flora, 
known through numerous finds in different Polar regions, already 
existed at that time. 

It is probable that the land at that or about that period 
had a far greater extent than at the present time. The country 
has been subjected to a very extensive valley-formation. Several 
of the chief valleys can be proved to stand in connection with 
faults, viz. for instance Hurry Inlet, on the E. side of which 
friction breccias can be pointed out at several places. That 
the valleyformation is in part older than the eruption of the 



282 



basalt sheets is proved by the fact that the latter are not nearly 
so broken up as the older rocks. 

As to the development of the district in other respects 
during the latter part of the Tertiary age, we know nothing. 
At its close the ice, as in other areas, pushed forward and 
gradually covered at least the greater part of the laud; along 
the main valleys it even pushed its way beyond it. During this 
phase the fjords received their shape, and in the foregoing we 
have also tried to show to what extent the topography of the 
country bears traces of the activity of the ice. 

Very curious is the area occupied by the southern part 
of Jameson Land. I have described it in the foregoing (p. 251); 
it seems as if it had never been covered with connected 
masses of ice. 

During a phase of the post- tertiary period the land was 
sunk much below the present level. It can be shown that this 
submergence reached at least 50 to 70 metres^), but there is reason 
to believe that it was even considerably greater than this, in 
any case several hundred metres. But before we can be quite 
clear upon this point, fresh investigations are required. 

On the whole it cannot be doubted that very important 
geological and geographical results may be obtained in this 
territory, where we are now beginning to achieve a charto- 
graphic basis, and a general knowledge of the district that 
shows how many interesting questions here await their solution. 
It is to be hoped that the Danish expedition now sojourning 
in those parts may return with material contributions to our 
knowledge of a region surpassed by few in the interest it 
affords. 



^) It was already pointed out by Nathorst that the climate during a 
period of this submergence was milder than at present, since shells 
of the Mytilus edulis, now extinct in that part, are found at a height 
of 25 m and above. 



283 
Appendix. 

For a more detailed examination of the curious minerali- 
ferous limestones mentioned on pp. 167 and 170, I addressed 
myself to Dr. 0. B. Bøggild, from whose valuable exposition 
1 quote the following^): 

"Even the purest limestone of which samples were hrought 
back (from the southern valley) contains tremoiite and pale mica. 
As a rule the limestone is very rich in minerals: orthoclase, 
diopside, chondrodite, titanite, spinel, and possibly quartz, while 
furthermore biotite, hornblende, and a few minerals that could 
not be determined, occur. Sometimes the calcite retires and 
we get large masses consisting of hornblende, pyroxene, biotite 
and even quantities of scapolite. Pyroxene and hornblende 
sometimes occur in parallel intergrowths. 

In both occurrences the limestone is traversed by granitic 
veins which, however, have not given rise to any contact-meta- 
morphosis, though on the other hand the rock-mass is exceedingly 
varied and peculiar just in the neighbourhood of these. A vein 
of granite with strongly weathered plagioclase is surrounded 
on both sides by a narrow belt of similarly strongly disintegrated 
plagioclase, with its boundary lines well marked against the 
granite. In this plagioclase there are numerous grains of horn- 
blende, pyroxene, and titanite, and the whole passes over 
gradually into a mass of predominating pyroxene, though with 
traces of the other minerals mentioned. Still further out we 
come across a strip of hornblende, and finally a laminated mass 
of mica. Peculiar is especially this as it were symmetrically 
Gratified arrangement, which can scarcely be explained by 
contact-metamorphosis from the granite." 

I may add that I am by no means convinced from what 1 
>aw that we have to deal here with a young granite. However, 

Ч For this vnluable assistiince I here express to Dr. Bøggild my sin- 
cere thaniis. 



284 



in one place, in contact with the limestone, I came across what 
looks like a pyroxeniferoiis syenite of youngish appearance. 
Then too there were found veins that may possibly derive from 
a greatly transformed basic volcanic rock. 

unfortunately I had no opportunity of subjecting to a closer 
examination those peculiar rocks that I found during an ex- 
cursion far from the shore, at a place where my attention was 
greatly struck by the alnöitic dikes and their curious contact 
phenomena. Still, it may be of interest that attention has been 
called to these occurrences. 



'sa- от, ОгбтОстЛ, JOCMl 



■-Ж 



Generalized Geologic SectLonS а2аяа lines sliomn- on the ma/i- 
Scale 1:1,000,000 , DcrtLuol sadc ixaçaeratcd about- 20 iunzs. 



OFA PART OF THE EAST COAST OF GREENLAND 



From. the. work ofth^ б^лотгЛ, Goruian. Polar Esquidition, 
the ЕзерлаШолб of Ibiäer and Wathorst and. the., obser- 
vojUotls durbw iJije, Jm.drufb-JIciTiz. Grceidand. Expedition,. 

Comfiiled by Otto I^ordenstjöld . 

EXPL^^ATIOÎT 

lArchæaji Rocts. 

I I Gtwlss, ffomihndj^ruLss , GraJuU. ttc . 

Л. Olier SedLimentary Rods. 
FaJæowic Mods, 

I I Cojnbro -SllwÙUb. 

\ I Велотшиь. 

L , _. с Fletcher - Series. 

I . 1 C- BrowTb -Fwrv Fäxt-So-itj. (jwssiib/ TrùLssjx) 
Triads sic Rods. 

\ I Oidtr TruLSSTX Rocks. 

I \ Ifcte " " (Ihqier oftkt majt ofïïatJi^Tst 

Äödt- О Series. (a^& wiccrtaxTo) \ 

Ш. Later Sedimentary Roc]cs, 

Bkœtic (Uld JurrassCc 

C.ZeslxA SoTidstûTct . ^ 

Tertzmy. 

QwzteTnary De/wsits. 

IV! Postaxcliœaji Erxiptive Rocks 

ffoTi'Basadiic ЖтщШьь Hocks. 

(Si^emiiL^ ForjiJ^rics, Fe^iAeiuio -TejOiriic, ЛЬиШх. etc ) 

Basalt. 

SectioTb IzTus. 




VI. 

The former Eskimo settlements on 
the East coast of Grreenland 

between 

Scoresby Sund and the Angmagsalik District. 

By 

G. Amdrup. 

190 9. 



19 



One of the many interesting tasks that were allotted the 
«Carlsbergfondets Expedition til Øst-Grønland» ^) commanded 
by С Amdrup and carried out in the years 1898 — 1900, was 
that of completing our knowledge of the Eskimo habitation of 
the East coast of Greenland, and, if possible, gathering 
ethnological information and making ethnographical collections. 

Our knowledge of the Eskimo habitation of the East coast 
of Greenland is of comparatively recent date. It is true 
there are allusions in some of the Eskimo tales which might 
seem to indicate that some of the old Northeners came down 
to the coast by chance , but no reliable information as to the 
Eskimo can be obtained through this channel. 

The various ship expeditions which were despatched right 
from the year 1579 (James Allday) down to 1787 (Egede 
and Rothe) did not add one jot to our knowledge of the East 
coast of Greenland, inasmuch as none of them reached the coast. 

On the other hand the Dane, Peder Olsen Walløe, 
who went on an expedition in the years 1761 — 52, succeeded 
in making his way in an umiak^) from Godthaab round to 
the East coast and up along it to 60°56' latitude '^). 

Here Walløe came across Eskimo in several places, and 
so he is the first to give us any reliable information about 
the population of the East coast, just as he is the first white 
man whom we know for certain to have set foot on the East 
coast of Greenland. 



') Meddelelser om Grenland. Vol. XXVII. 
-) Eskimo skin boat. 

I Pingel: «iNyere Rejser til Grønland». Grønlands historiske Mindes- 
mærker. Vol. 3. P. 741-749. 

19* 



288 

Next in order comes the well-known English whaler- 
captain W i lliam Score sby-j un. ^). 

Almost everywhere where S с ore shy landed in 1822 on 
the stretch between Scoresby Sund (circa 70^/4°) and Кар 
Parry he came across indications that the coast either was, 
or had formerly been, inhabited by Eskimo. However, he did 
not come across any living Eskimo. 

But when the Enghshman Clavering^) in 1823 came 
across Eskimo in Clavering Ö (circa 74^4°), it was but a 
step to the assumption that the whole coast between Scoresby 
Sund and Clavering Ö, and probably also the parts to the 
north, must be inhabited by Eskimo. 

The second German North pole expedition ^) in 1869—70, 
one of whose vessels, the Germania, overwintered in 
Germania Hafen (74°30') in Sabine Ö did not meet any 
living Eskimo on the stretch between Kaiser Franz Joseph 
Fjord (73°10') and Кар Bismarck (77°00'). 

Thus when the Danish naval officer С Ryder in 1891^) 
set out to explore Scoresby Sund the chances were not 
much in favour of his meeting living Eskimo; and as a matter 
of fact he met none. But on the other hand in all parts of 
the vast nexus of fjords he came across numerous indications 
that these regions had once a fairly large Eskimo population. I 

And the same holds good of the large nexus of fjords 
around the Kaiser Franz Joseph Fjord which was care- 
fully explored in 1899 by the Swede Prof. A. G. Nathorst-^). 

As has already been mentioned, the second German North 



^) Journal of a voyage to the Northern-Whale-Fishery; including researches 
and discoveries on the Eastern coast of West-Greenland, made in the 
summer of 1822 in the ship "Baffin" of Liverpool, by William 
Scoresby-junior. 

-) Petermanns Mittheilungen. Vol. XVI. 1S70. P. ;)20. 

^) Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolari'ahrt. 

■•) Meddelelser om Grønland. Vol. XVJI. 

'') A. G. Nathorst. TvA Sonirar i Norra Ishafvet. Senare Delen. 



289 

pole expedition penetrated np to Кар Bismarck (77°00'). 
But in 1905 Duke Philippe of Orleans ^) with his ship 
"Bellica" succeeded in penetrating past Кар Bismarck 
and landing at Кар Philippe (77°36')- Here, like the other 
explorers, Duke Philippe found Eskimo house ruins etc. but 
no living Eskimo. 

It remains only to mention Mylius- Erichsen' s expe- 
dition, called: "The Dan mark-Expedition to the north-east 
coast of Greenland, 1906—1908". Myliu s-Erich sen 
succeeded in reaching the East coast and placing the »Dan- 
mark», the ship of the expedition, in winter harbour at 76°46' 
Lat. With the winter harbour as a starting-point sledging 
expeditions were with splendid audacity and indomitable courage 
undertaken northwards along the entirely unknown north-east 
coast. Koch's sledging party reached Кар Bridgeman 
(circa 83° 30'), while Mylius-E richse'n's sledging party 
entered Independence Bay at circa 81° 68' Lat. and 
32° 30' W. Long, three or four Danish miles NE. of Кар 
Glacier, thus forming a connection with Peary's journeys 
from the west. The last unknown stretch of coast of the whole 
extensive coast-line of Greenland had thus been explored, 
and the last stone laid to a work in which Denmark had 
taken a prominent part for centuries. But Myl ius-E richsen 
and his two faithful companions won the prize at the cost of 
their lives , for they perished on the sledging expedition of 
which we have already spoken. But the results — in part at 
least — were saved from destruction. And we thus know that 
My lius - E ri ch se n met with remains of former Eskimo settle- 
ments right up at Hagens Fjord (circa 82° 08'). 

Whereas previous expeditions had thus shown that living 
Eskimo were no longer to be found along the stretch of coast 
from Scoresby Sund and northward, quite different and 

M Zeitschrift der Gesellechaft für Erdkunde zu Berlin. 1905. P 563. 



290 



far more favourable results had been reached on the southern 
part of the East coast. 

Following in the wake of Peder Olsen Walløe the 
Danish naval officer W. A. Graah had in 1828—1831 made 
an expedition ^) from Nanortalik at the extreme south point 
of Greenland along the East coast to Dannebrog Ö 
(65° 15'). Along the whole coast he found a scattered Eskimo 
population, as to which he collected a great deal of interesting 
information. 

But the man who has done more than any other to en- 
large our knowledge of the East- Greenland Eskimo is the 
still living Captain G. F. Holm whose well-known expedition was 
made in the years 1883 — 1885^). — Like Walløe and Graah 
he made his way in an umiak up along the East coast to 
about 66° latitude, and here in the so-called Angmagsalik 
District he came across an Eskimo tribe numbering 400 or 
more souls which had never at any time come into contact 
with Europeans ^), Holm wintered amongst these Eskimo and 
he spent ten months together with them. He returned home 
with a magnificent ethnographic collection, and his ethnogra- 
phic and ethnological studies*) will always secure him a place 
in the front rank of Gre ein land explorers. 

It fell to our expedition to form the connecting link bet- 
ween Holm's and Ryder's researches, as the stretch of 
coast we were to explore, viz. between circa 66° latitude and 
Scoresby Sund, had never been trod by a white man. 

As regards the southern part of this stretch of coast, viz. 
right up to circa 68° lat. N. , a considerable amount of in- 



*) W. A. Graah. Undersøgelsesrejse til Østkysten af Grønland. 

2) Meddelelser om Grønland. Vol. IX P. 53. 

^) We find mentioned Cranz "Historie von Grønland" p. 342 g 10 that 
rumours about this tribe had spread as far back as the eighteenth century 
down the East coast. On the other hand it must be mentioned that 
no information whatever as to this tribe had been obtained by Graah. 

*) Meddelelser om Grønland. Vol. X. 



291 

formation had been collected by Holm while he wintered at 
Angmagsalik; for the Eskimo that lived here had in former 
times gone on hunting expeditions up along the coast. 

But the country from the 6Hth° of latitude to Scoresby 
Sund was a terra incognita, at least as far as the Eskimo 
population was concerned. It might be that the conformation 
of the coast here was such as to offer particularly favourable 
conditions for Eskimo existence. In this case it was possible 
that descendants of the Eskimo who had disappeared from the 
district north of Scoresby Sund were living here. But if, 
on the other hand, the coast was uninhabited, it was possible 
that indications might be found that the Eskimo had wandered 
down the coast until the attractions of the Angmagsalik 
District, which to an Eskimo must appear a perfect paradise, 
had caused them to settle here for good. 

However, as a matter of fact, we met no living Eskimo 
on the whole stretch between the Angmagsalik District 
and Scoresby Sund. But in many places along the coast 
we met in the form of ruins of houses, tent encampments, 
graves etc. indications that the Eskimo had been there. 

These ruins of houses, tent encampments, graves etc. now 
formed the objects of our research. We were fortunate enough 
at Nualik (67° 15' 32") to light upon a house the inhabitants 
of which were extinct, whereby a large collection of Eskimo 
implements etc. fell into our hands. And in Skaergaards 
Halvoen (68° 07' 20") we discovered some graves which 
yielded an uncommonly rich collection. Besides this, smaller 
discoveries were made in other isolated coast places, as e. g. 
in Dun holm (69° 54''9). Altogether the collection which 
we took home with us was, thanks to the piece of good 
fortune just spoken of, a fairly rich one, when due allowance 
is made for the short time the Expedition had at its disposal, 
the many other tasks allotted to it, and the mode of travelling 



292 



we were obliged by the nature of the country to adopt 
throughout the greater part of this stretch of coast. 

All the investigations from the Ângmagsalik District 
to Кар Dalton (69° 24'-6), which were carried out on the 
various boat excursions I made along this coast in 1898, 1899 
and 1900, were superintended by myself. The investigations 
from Кар Dalton to Scoresby Sund were undertaken by 
the ship Expedition, which, during my absence on boat excur- 
sions, was conducted by Dr. Hartz. 

In the following pages I shall proceed to give a detailed 
account of these investigations. 

Moreover, I shall give some account of a dwelling-place 
discovered and examined by lieutenant Koch at Кар Tobin 
(70° 24''6), as it presents several points of interest, augmenting, 
as it does, our stock of knowledge as to the settlements on 
Scoresby Sund with fresh facts, whereas the more nor- 
therly settlements at Кар Borlase Warren and in Sa- 
bine Ö did not furnish any new data, and therefore shall only 
receive a passing mention here. 



Now that the whole East coast from Кар Farvel to 
Кар Bridgeman has been examined, it is no longer a 
matter for wonder that a large Eskimo population is to be 
found in the Angmagsalik District, whereas it has 
completely disappeared from the stretch of coast to the north, 
and only a scattered population is found along the stretch of 
coast to the south. For the Angmagsalik District is 
unquestionably that part of the coast which presents the best 
conditions for the Eskimo in their difficult struggle for exist- 
ence '). Here we find the largest group of islands of the whole 



M See ..Meddelelser om Grønland". Vol. XXVII. P. 143. 



293 

East coast, leading to the formation of numerous straits and 
sounds, while large fiords cut deep into the land. The "inland- 
ice" is thereby forced away from the coast, and, though the 
large islands are pretty high and rocky, there are numerous 
points and many small islets which almost seem to call for 
Eskimo habitation. Moreover, the rushing stream which flows 
between the numerous islands and through the narrow sounds 
often keeps them open, even when the great ice lies frozen 
outside the coast. In this way natural air-holes are formed for 
the seals, thus facilitating hunting in a high degree, while the 
current which issues from the sounds and straits assists the 
"great-ice" to scatter outside the A ngmagsalik Fjord quicker 
than either north or south of it. 

Hence it is possible to conclude from the orographic 
nature of a stretch of coast whether or no it is adapted for 
Eskimo habitation. And, as a matter of fact, we shall see in the 
following description of the coast from Angmagsalik to 
Scoresby Sund that wherever along this line of coast we 
meet districts resembling that of Angmagsalik, we will 
And numerous proofs of a former Eskimo habitation, the more 
numerous, the greater the resemblance, while the proofs get 
scantier and scantier as the resemblance is smaller. 

The coast from Serm'iligak^) (the most northerly in- 
habited place) to Vahls Fj|ord resembles the Angmagsalik 
District in a number of ways. Here we have the great 
Qord Kangerdlu gsuatsiak, besides a number of smaller 
fiords, numerous islands off the coast, and the "inland-ice" 
does not reach out to sea. And as a matter of fact this 
stretch of coast has been thickly populated up to quite recent 
times. Between Vahls Fjord and Poulsens Fjord lies 
the great Steenstrup Bræ, and the stretch of coast 



'I For the description of the coast wliicli follows, consult the map in 
• Meddelelser om Grenland.. Vol. XXVII. Plaie.« IV, VI, VII and VIII. 



294 



between Кар G. Holm and Кар Jørgensen, sloping 
steeply down to the sea. Here we do not find any Eskimo 
remains. The stretch between Кар Jørgensen and Søndre- 
Aputitek again presents tolerably favourable conditions for 
Eskimo existence, and in fact we find here a number of ruins 
of houses, tent encampments, graves etc., yet by no means so 
numerous as further south. From Søndre-Aputitek right 
up to Kangerdlugsuak the «inland-ice» reaches right out 
to sea and we could conceive of Eskimo living only on the 
islands of Patuterajuit and Nordre-Aputitek; and we 
actually found ruins of houses in the latter island. On the 
other hand it is improbable that Eskimo have ever lived in 
the interior of the great fiord Kangerdlugs^uak. On the 
9th Aug. 1900 we made an attempt to penetrate into the fiord, 
but a little inside the mouth we were prevented from carrying out 
our enterprise by icebergs, calf ice, ice-floes and "small-ice". At 
the mouth of the fiord and outside it we found favourable con- 
ditions as regards ice ; hence we must assume that the fiord is 
as a rule filled with masses of ice. On the other hand, on the 
East side of the fiord close by the mouth we lighted upon quite 
a large Eskimo settlement on the so-called Skaergaards 
Halvö. On the stretch of coast from Kangerdlugsuak to 
Кар Dalton the coast as a whole presents very unfavour- 
able conditions for the Eskimo. The fiords here are as a rule 
not particularly deep. Many of them are filled with calf ice 
from the mighty glaciers which flow into them, proceeding, no 
doubt, from the "inland-ice". And along the whole stretch of 
coast there is only a single little island — and that inaccessible. 
Nor did we find during our travels along this coast a single 
vestige of the Eskimo having lived here or travelled along it. 
It ought, however, to be borne in mind that we had no op- 
portunity of making anything like a thorough investigation of 
the fiords, many of which looked by no means uninviting, as 
the short time at our disposal and the circumstances of the 



295 

case left us no alternative but to follow the outer line of coast. 
Thus it is by no means unthinkable that a more thorough 
investigation would have disclosed traces of Eskimo settle- 
ments. But, considering the nature of the coast, I am 
convinced that only very scattered traces, if any, would be 
discovered. The coast from Кар Dalton to Scoresby 
Sund presents rather more favourable conditions for Eskimo 
settlements, as it possesses several straits and islands. And 
in fact we discovered the isolated ruins of a house in 
Stewart Ö, and an entire little settlement in the island of 
Dunholm. 

The following table gives an exact conspectus of the 
house ruins, tent encampments, graves etc., discovered by us 
(see pag. 296). 

Before 1 now proceed to give a detailed description of the 
different settlements, [ must begin by stating that, at any rate 
as regards the settlements examined by myself in person, the 
time seldom permitted of a thorough-going excavation of the 
houses. As a rule, we had to confine ourselves to excavating 
round the place where the lamp had stood, this being the most 
likely spot for small objects to have got lost for good, men 
and women having been sitting round here at their work. And 
in houses where the inhabitants had not died out, we could 
only expect to dig up objects which had accidentally disap- 
peared. This part of the work fell, as a rule, to Søren 
Nielsen, as I myself was generally occupied in surveying. 
After the excavation we examined in common the objects that 
had been found and deliberated upon what to take and what 
to reject, considerations of space in the boat compelling us 
to be very particular in our selection. In this regard I received 
invaluable assistance from Søren Nielsen, who had lived 
three years among the Eskimo at Angmagsalik before he 
joined our expedition, and thus had an opportunity of becoming 
thoroughly acquainted with the life and ways of this tribe. 



296 



No. 



Place 



Approximate 



Lat 



Long 



Number of 



House 
ruins 



Tent 

rings 



Graves 



1 

II 
III 
IV 
V 
VI 
VII 
VIII 

IX 



X 

XI 
XII 



XIII 

XIV 

XV 

XVI 

XVII 

XVIII 



Jærno SE. side 

Smalsund SW. point 

Smalsund NW. point 

Point close north of Smalsund . . . 

Grusö NW. side 

Depotö SW. point 

Depotö N. point 

Eskimoö NE. side 

Storö NW. side 

Kangerdlugsuatsiak, East side of inlet 
Nord Fjord, West side of inlet . . . 
Nerd Fjord, East side of inlet. . . . 

Sarkarmiut 

Island just opposite Sarkarmiut . . 
Nigertusok North side of inlet. . . . 

Кар Wandel SW. side 

Point on the south side of the gulf 
north of Кар Jørgensen 

Kajarsak W. side 

Lilleö 

Кар Warming S. point 

East point of island between Кар 

Warming and Langöen 

Langöen W. point 

Nualik 

Nordre-Aputitek 

Skaergaards Halvöen 

Dunholm 

Stewart Ö 

Кар Tobin 



65°5Г-2 
65°59'-1 
65°59'-7 
65°59'-8 
66°01'-8 
66°06'-8 
66°07'-2 
66°14'-5 
66°15'-0 
66°18'-5 
66°18'-6 
66°18'-8 
66°18'-2 
66°1Г-6 
66°17-6 
66°18'-8 

66°47'-0 
66°48'-5 
66°5Г-8 
67^01'-1 

67°03'-4 
67°04'-0 
67°15'-5 
67°47'-5 
68°07'-3 
69°54'-9 
69°57'-2 
70°24'-6 



35°54'-0 
35°50'-9 
35°50'-6 
35°50'-6 
35°44'-5 
35°31'-7 
35°31'0 
35°15'-3 
35°22'-0 
35°27'-8 
35°23'-0 
35°19'-3 
35°17'-1 
35°18'-1 
34°52'-0 
34°47'-0 

33°48'-5 
33°42'-5 
33°40'-7 
33°33'-6 

33°26'-4 
33°25'-2 
33°15'-5 
32°06''0 
31°34'-0 
22°38'-5 
22°58'Ю 
21°57'-6 



II 


several 


1 


9 


several 


(/ 


several 


several 


2 


1 


II 


several 


2 


8 


several 


several 


2 


It 


3 


7 


3 


II 


3 


II 


2 


II 



2 à 3 
3 

2 

2 



4 


8 


3 


II 


8 


6 


7 


2 


several 


II 


7 


II 



Besides the above, the settlemenis on Rap Borlase Warren and tn Sabine Ö were 
inyesti^ated. See p. 292. 

Nor did time permit of an excavation of the kitchen- 
middens — except in a few instances. On the other hand we 
opened and examined almost all the graves we came across. 

I. The settlement on the SW. point of Depotö was 
built on a little point jutting out into the sea. Several small 
rocky islets lay olT this point at a distance of about 100 



297 

yards , and the point itself was cut off from the rest of the 
island by a ravine descending with precipitous sides to a 
depth of from three to six metres. The passage-way from 
one of the ruined houses came to an abrupt end just where 
the ravine lay, which shows that the ravine did not exist at 
the time when the house was inhabited. 

This circumstance, however, did not give us any clue to 
the age of the house , as the ground crumbles away with 
extraordinary rapidity along this coast ^). 

In the settlement there were four houses with the following 
dimensions. 



d 

as 


Inner 


length of 


Inner breadth 

from back 

wall to 

passage-way 


Length of 
passage-way 


Magnetic direction of 


e 

s 

О 

s 


Back 
wall 


1 

1 Front 

wall 


Back 

wall 


Passage- 
way seen 
from within 




m 


Ш 


m 


Ш 




1 


5-3 


4-7 


3-Ô 


5-3 


NNE-SSWj ENE 


2 


3-1 


2-2 


3-S 


5-3 


E— W S 


3 


4-7 


! 4-4 


3-5 


5-6 


E-W SSW 


4 




1 


2-2 


5-0 


NW— SE 


NE 



AU the houses wore the appearance of age, especially No. 
4, which was so dilapidated that the length of the front and 
back wall could not be measured. 

The house must at any rate have been very small. 
Amongst the houses we discovered a number of carved pieces 
of wood, but nothing of particular interest. House No. 1 was 
excavated, and yielded the following objects: an ellipsoid 
stone such as the Eskimo use as a hammer, a Dutch bead, a 
few pieces of a whalebone, and a few carved pieces of wood. 

The surrounding graves all consisted of a stone chamber. 
One of thnm, which was situated on a little high rock close 



'i C. Kruuse. «Nalurforlioldene p.in Østgrønlands Kyst mellem 06'^ og 
67° 22' Br.. GeograQsk Tidgkrifl. l.'i. Bd. 3-4. Hefte. Pag. G4. 



298 



by the point, was particularly neat. It was rectangular, and its 
dimensions were: 1'6 metres in length and 0*6 metres in 
breadth. The walls, which were built up of flat stones, had a 
height of 46 centimetres. The grave was covered over with 
flat stones, and one of its longitudinal walls was partially 
formed by a fall in the rock, in the grave there were four 
skeletons. In one corner there were two carved pieces of 
wood stuck into the ground. Opposite the end of one of the 
longitudinal walls and along it, there had been built a little 
square chamber with sides measuring 06 metres and with a 
height of 31 centimetres. At the bottom of the chamber lay a 
nondescript remnant of bone. 

П. The settlement on the North side of Depo to was 
situated on the point between Depot Fjord and the sound 
which separates Depo to from the mainland. We made only a 
brief landing here. Seal bones in a high state of decomposition 
and a few carved pieces of wood lay about the houses and in 
the immediate vicinity of the houses lay the graves. 

III. The island, Eskimoö, about 200 metres in height, 
on the NE. side sloped down towards a strip of low-lying and 
rather fertile ground , which shot a number of small , gently 
sloping, smooth points out into the water; better spots for 
hauling up umiaks and kaiaks could hardly be conceived. 
Thus the place was excellent for Eskimo settlements. However 
there were only three houses ; on the other hand, traces of 
numerous tent-rings indicated that the place must once have 
been a favourite summer resort. The dimensions of the house 
were as follows: 



6 
25 


Inner length of 


Inner breadth 

from back 

wall to 

passage-way 


Length 

of 
passage- 
way 


Magnetic 


direction of 


on 

9 
О 
К 


Back 
wall 


Front 
wall 


Back 
wall 


Passage-way 

seen from 

within 




m 


m 


m 


m 






1 


4-7 


4-1 


3-8 


6-0 


ESE— WNW 


NE 


2 


7-2 


6-3 


4-1 


4-4 


ENE-WSW 


N 


3 


3-H 




3-1 


4-7 


NE-SW 


E 



299 



All the houses were rather old, No. 3 being in fact of 
considerable age. An excavation of the houses yielded nothing 
but some mouldering woodwork. Outside one of them there 
lay remains of bones of whales. 

IV. The settlement on the NW. side of Storö lay at the 
end of a valley which extends across the island. There were 
no less than seven houses. Their dimensions were: 



6 

2S 


Inner length of 


Inner breadth 

from back 

wall to 

passage-way 


Length 

of 
passage- 
way 


Magnetic direction of 


« 
to 
a 
о 
= 


Back 

wall 


Front 
wall 


Back 
wall 


Passage-way 

seen from 

within 




m 


m 


m 


m 






1 


5-6 


5-3 


3-5 


5-6 


NNW— SSE 


SW 


2 


2-5 


2-5 


3-5 


5-6 


NNW— SSE 


sw 


3 


4-1 


4-1 


2-8 


4-1 


N-S 


w 


4 


31 


2-8 


3-5 


5-3 


E— W 


N 


5 


6-9 


6-6 


3-5 


6-6 


ENE -WSW 


ssw 


6 


2-8 


2-2 


3-5 


6-6 


ENE— WSW 


SSW 


7 






Impossible to 


measure 







AU the houses looked very old, though No. 5 and 6 did 
not appear to be so old as the others. House No. 2 was built 
within No. 1 and house No. 6 within No. 5. The way in which 
this was done was that two side-walls, almost parallel with 
the original side-wall, were built within the original house; 
while the old front and back wall and passage-way were used 
for the new house. House No. 7 was so old and tumble-down 
that it could not be measured. It looked as if it had been 
divided into two rooms; it seems to have been built in two 
stages, the larger room having been built first, and the smaller 
one subsequently built within it. Bones and pieces of wood 
lay scattered about among the houses. 

V. The ruined house on the east side of the mouth of 
the great Kangerdlugsuatsiak Fjord was built on a 
little rocky point. This house, too, looked to be of a con- 



300 



siderable age. Close by it there was a play-ground for 
children. The dimensions of the house were : 

Length of back wall 4-4 m 

— - front wall 3*8 - 

Breadth from back wall to front wall .... 3"8 - 

Length of passage-way 44 - 

Direction of back wall NW— SE 

— - passage-way seen from within SW. 

VI. On a narrow strip of ground at the foot of the high 
rocks on the peninsula between Kangerdlugsuatsiak and 
Nord Fjord there lay three houses close to the mouth of the 
fjord. On the hill slopes behind the houses and in the 
vicinity there was an unusually luxuriant vegetation. The di- 
mensions of the houses were: 



6 


Inner length of 


Inner breadth 
from back 


Length 
of 


Magnetic direction of 


ез 










CO 

Э 
О 


Back 
wall 


Front 
wall 


wall to 
passage-way 


passage- 
way 


Back 
wall 


Passage-way 

seen from 

within 




m 


m 


m 


m 






1 


2-8 


1-9 


2-8 


4-1 


ESE— WNW 


SSW 


2 


9-7 


8-1 


4-7 


7-2 


ESE-WNW 


SSW 


3 


2-8 


2-5 


2-8 


5-3 


ESE— WNW 


SSW 



The excavation of houses No. 1 and 2 brought to light a 
number of well-preserved pieces of wood and fragments of 
iron which had almost rusted away. As the soil was extremely 
damp from the water which poured down from the hill slopes, 
the presence of these fragments of iron show that the houses 
cannot be particularly old, as in fact is also indicated by their 
appearance. On the other hand house No. 3 looked to be of 
considerable age. In house No. 1 , there were remnants of a 
little toy pot made of a mica-slate and in house No. 2 the 
remnants of a |)ot and a few carved utensils of bone, none 
of them, however of particular interest. 



301 



VII. A little inward of the barren rocky point on the East 
side of the TS'ord F'jord there lay four ruined houses, the di- 
mensions of which were : 



6 


1 
Inner length of 


Inner breadth 
from back 

wall to 
passage-way 


Length 

of 
passage- 
way 


Magnetic direction of 


e 

OB 

Э 


ßack Front 
wall wall 


Back 
wall 


Passage-way 

seen from 

within 




m 


m 


m 


m 






1 ! 


3-8 


3-8 


4-1 


6-0 


ENE-WSW 


N 


2 i 


5-G 


5-6 


4-1 


5-6 


E-W 


N 


3 ; 


3-0 2-8 


3-1 


3-8 


ENE-WSW 


N 


4 


1-9 


1-6 


1-9 


41 


NE— SW 


N 



Houses Nos. 1 and 2 looked to be in extraordinarily good 
preservation, and yet they were undoubtedly of a considerable 
age, as the stones in the walls were everywhere covered with 
black lichens. House No. 3 looked to be very old, while No. 4 
had a fairly new appearance. Nos. 2 and 4 were of a peculiar 
construction: The passage-way did not start as usual from 
the middle of the front wall, but away from the East end of 
the house. 

Vni. The houses at Sarkarmiut were all very large, 
but were not measured. In one of the numerous surrounding 
graves was discovered a little wooden box with pieces of bone 
more or less roughly carved, and in another grave a little 
stone pot (child's toy). 

IX. The ruined house on the north side of Nigertusok 
close to the mouth of the fjord presented the appearance of 
considerable antiquity, but was not investigated in detail. 



X. In Liileö there was a house the building of which 
had evidently been abandoned, for some reason or other, soon 
after it was commenced. The walls, which were about half a 

XXVIII. 20 



302 



metre in height were constructed entirely of stone. The house 
was a verj' small one : 

Inner length of the back wall 19 m 

Breadth from back wall to passage-way. . . 2'2 - 
Length of passage-way 20 - 




.z:^ -„,-„...i. w,,,. ; :ь„,._»ь:ь^., 

Fig. 1. The house at Nualik, where the Eskimo became extinct. 
(Phot, by G. Amdrup.) 

XI. On the southernmost point of Кар Warming there 
were very well-preserved remains of an Eskimo house of un- 
usually large dimensions: 

Inner length of back wall И m 

— — - front wall 10 - 

Breadth from back wail to passage-way. . . 4"1 - 

Length of passage-way 5'6 - 

Longitudinal direction of back wall N— S. 

The house looked uncommonly new, and about the two 

blubber-tanks outside the house there were still some not 

entirely coagulated remains of blubber which had flowed out 
over the stones. 



303 

XII. On the other hand, the three houses on the East 
point of the island between Кар Warming and Langöen 
were undoubtedly of some antiquity. One of them was fairly 
large and the two others pretty small. One of the two tent- 
rings which we saw here was somewhat peculiar, as it was 
formed like a stone rampart. 

XIII. The settlement at Nualik is of unusual interest, 
as we here chanced upon an extinct Eskimo colony. Among 
the four houses which were found here, there was one which 
was in such a good state of preservation, that with a few slight 
repairs it might almost immediately have been used to live in 
(Fig. I). All the walls were completely preserved, and likewise 
the passage-way, except the first metre of it. Only the roof had 
partially fallen in. The house lay in a valley extending across 
the little narrow peninsula between the Kruuses and Solos 
Fjords. It was built up along an evenly sloping surface of 
rock, and the mode of construction was quite the same as 
that which is used in the Angmagsalik District^). The 
walls were of stone and sods. From one of the side-walls to 
the other there lay a heavy block of drift-timber resting on 
wooden supports in the interior of the house. Between this 
cross-beam and the front and hind walls there lay other 
beams of drift-timber. Above the whole rafter-work had been 
laid thick sods covered with skins. In the front walls there 
were three window openings. The passage-way struck out 
almost at right angles to the front wall, somewhat nearer to 
one of the side-walls than to the other. 

The entrance to the house lay through the passage-way, 
which was 7 metres in length and 1 metre in height and the 
bottom of which lay about half a metre below the floor of 
the house. 



M Meddelelser om Grønland. Vol. X. P. 66. 

20* 



304 



The inner dimensions of the house were : 

Length of back wall 8"1 m 

— - front wall 6"5 - 

Breadth from back wall to passage-way. . . 36 - 

Along the whole length of the back wall extended the 
wooden platform, divided into 7 compartments. On each side 
wall there was a little platform, and outside the window 
openings there were likewise platforms. 

The very appearance of the house struck us at once. 
But when among the big heap of bones outside the house 
amid the skulls of narwhals, bears and dogs we found also 
human skulls, it dawned upon us that this settlement must 
have been the scene of a terrible tragedy. All the inhabitants 
must undoubtedly have fallen victims to some awful catastrophe 
— famine or poisoning. When we entered the house our mis- 
givings received only too true a confirmation (Fig. 2 — 3). 

On the platform along the backwall there lay skeletons or 
parts of skeletons, and along the outer edge of it there were 
remains of the long black hair of the Eskimo's heads. There 
were still in several places so many remnants of skin that we 
were able to picture to ourselves how the inhabitants had 
once lain comfortably between two bearskins, the upper one 
with the hair downwards; for the bones lay between these skins. 

On the five lamp platforms stood the lamps and the stone 
pots. The drying -hatches above them had fallen down, but 
remains of bear-skin clothes still lay on them. Under the 
platform there were chip-boxes and square wooden cases, and 
on the stone-paved floor large urine and water tubs. In front 
of one of the small side platforms there was a blubber board, 
and a large well carved meat trough, and scattered about the 
floor there lay wooden dishes, blood-scoops, water-scoops, and 
large and small wooden cases. And besides this, there were 
specimens of practically all the bone and wooden utensils 
wliich belong to an Eskimo house. 



306 




I 



307 




309 

Near the house, sheltered by an perpendicular wall of 
rocks, two metres high, there stood four long heavy stones 
placed edge-wise. It was on top of these stones that the 
umiak had rested. Fragments of the wooden frame still lay 
round the props. Between these and the rock walls there lay 
the remains of at least three kaiak frames. Scattered among 
these there were bone mountings for kaiaks and for all kinds 
of hunting implements. Further there lay remains of sledges, 
parts of tent-frames etc. 

Round about, carefully covered up with stones, there lay 
wooden pieces, more or less carved, which were to have been 
parts of new kaiak frames, hunting implements, or other kinds 
of implements and utensils. 

Now, how many individuals did this colony number? 
Probably at least thirty, for inside the house there were at 
least eleven skeletons and outside it we found nine skulls, all 
of which appeared to belong to adults. And this number seems 
to agree with the size of the house. 

And how did they perish? Doubtless by poisoning. For 
when we excavated one of the surrounding blubber-tanks we 
discovered large pieces of still fairly fresh blubber and under 
one of the stone pots a dried ringed seal flipper. The 
poisoning may have been brought about by semi-putrid meat, 
which the Eskimo regard as a delicacy. Instances of such 
cases of poisoning with a fatal termination are well-known 
among the Eskimo at Angmagsalik. It is also conceivable 
that the inhabitants may have eaten poisonous things cast up 
by the sea. Thus inside the house there was an old conical 
tin box which had been opened at the narrow end, a proof 
that this had been done by hands unfamiliar with such objects. 
But it is by no means out of the question that they may have 
died of starvation. For famine often weakens and emaciates the 
people to such an extent that they die even if they still have 
some blubber left, and we know from G. Holm that in the 



310 



winter of 1881 — 82 and again in 1882 — 83 famine prevailed at 
the various places along the East coast of Greenland^). 

Another far more interesting question is: Where does this 
colony come from? Could they possibly be descendants of the 
Eskimo from the north who had met their death on their 
southward journey? In that case the discoveries would be of 
great interest. But the very appearance and arrangement of the 
house militated against this supposition. Moreover, all the utensils 
and implements that were found were exactly like those used 
in the Angmagsalik District. Far more probably they 
were the sad remains of the little group of about thirty souls, 
mentioned by G. Holm, who in 1882 had travelled north 
from Angmagsalik and had not been heard of since ^). This 
supposition received confirmation when we returned to Ang- 
magsalik after completing our boat-trip. For here there were 
still many surviving who had known the Eskimo who had set 
forth in 1882. We showed the ethnographic collection with 
which we had returned to four of them, and they each re- 
cognized several of the objects. There was particularly a 
blood-stopper, with a neatly cut man's head, which they all 
assigned to a particular person whom they all called by the 
same name. And yet I had given none of them a chance of 
conferring together before I cross-examined them. 

Although [ am thus quite convinced that the extinct 
colony was identical with the little band of Eskimos that 
started out from the Angmagsalik District in 1882, 1 
nevertheless consider it right that scientists who are interested 
in the question shall have a fair chance of judging themselves 
as to the ethnographic materials brought back from Nualik. 
The greater part of this collection will therefore be reproduced 
in illustrations in connection with the general description of 



1) Meddelelser om Grønland. VolX. P. 162— 164. 

2) do. do. Vol.X. P. 56. 



311 



the ethnography of the An gm a g sal i к District. It will 
then be possible to compare the representations of objects 
from '4he dead house" with the representations of G. Holm's 
excellent collection from Angmagsalik^). 

unfortunately the scanty space at our disposal in the boat 
did not allow of our returning with the whole rich collection 
which was to be found at Nualik. We had to confine our- 
selves to taking with us all the objects carved in bone , most 
of the smaller, and a few of the larger, objects carved in wood. 

XIV. Nordre- Aputitek is, according to G. Holm^), 
the northernmost place which the Angmagsalik Eskimo 
are known to have inhabited. Holm's informant was an 
Eskimo of the name of Kunak, who had lived three years in 
those parts as a boy. When I reached Angmagsalik in 
1900 after having visited Nordre-Aputitek, Kunak was 
still alive. He was then an old man, well over sixty, from 
which I was able to conclude that the ruined house in 
Nordre-Aputitek must be between fifty and sixty years 
old. For on the whole island there was only one ruined 
house, situated on a little fertile point on the SW, side of the 
island. Its size precluded the possibility of its having been 
inhabited after Kunak by Eskimo from the North. The 
appearance of this settlement has thus served me as a guide 
in estimating the age of other settlements. 

The ruined house itself lay on a site on which two other 
houses had previously stood, so that the island must have 
been successively occupied by different sets of inhabitants. A 
luxuriant coat of verdure mantled the whole ruin. Outside it 
there were a large number of bones of bears, seals, dogs and 
narwhals, pieces of wood lay strewn about, and one of the frag- 
ments of skin which we found had the hair still adhering to it. 



') Meddelelser om Grønland. Vol. X. Tavler. New edition in preparation. 
*) do. do. Vol. X. P. 222. 



312 



XV. The barren Skjærgaards Halvö, which is about 
125 metres in height, is connected by a rather narrow low 
tongue of land with the high mountanous country that lies 
behind it. Numerous small promontories jut out from the 
west side of the peninsula. Off it there lie a number of small 
skerries and islands. 

Here there were no less than eight ruined houses, six 
tent-rings, and numerous graves. The state of the houses 
showed clearly that they had not all been simultaneously in- 
habited. Four of them were so dilapidated that they could 
not even be measured. 

The dimensions of the remaining four were : 



d 
Z 


Inner length of 


Inner breadth 


Length 


Magnetic direction of 




from back 

wall to 
passage-way 


of 
passage- 
way 






аз 

Oi 

Э 
О 

33 


Back 
wall 


Front 
wall 


Back 
wall 


Passage-way 

seen from 

within 




m 




m 


m 






1 


3-1 




3-8 


6-6 




W 


2 


2-8 




31 


3-1 




W 


3 


3-6 




3-1 


5-0 




w 


4 


1-9 




2-8 


3-8 




w 



These four houses were constructed throughout of stones 
which the builders had fitted together as best they could. No. 1 
was in an unusually good state of preservation (Fig. 4). Here 
the platform along the back wall was built up of large flat stones: 
presumably they did not possess any great abundance of wood. 
Nos. 2 and 3 were built together, one of the side-walls being 
common to them both. 

The excavation of the houses yielded no result whatever. 
The graves, on the other hand, gave a rich harvest: we found 
a good many different implements in four different graves. In 
two of them the objects lay in a little chamber built outside 
the grave, but forming part of it, being joined to the side of 
the graves where the legs lay. In the third grave the objects 



313 



lay withiD the grave itself: at the fourth, which evidently was 
a child's grave , there lay a child's sledge on the top of 
the grave under some flat stones. Several of the graves 
were very neatly constructed. In one of the graves we 
examined, the corpses seem to have lain fully dressed. We 
found remains of hairv bear- and seal-skins and of dried 



.-л; , 




Fig. i. Ruins of an Eskimo house (No. 1) at Skjærgaards Halvö. 
(Phot, by G.Amdrup.) 



skins. To the heads, which in other respects were mere 
skeletons, long black hair still adhered. 

Round about the houses there lay bones in a high state 
of putrefaction, and a number of old pieces of wood, all of 
them of such an appearance as to leave no doubt that it must 
have been much longer since human beings hved in Skjær- 
gaards Halvö than in Nordre-Aputitek. 

XVI. On the little island of Dunholm, which was only 
about 30 metres high, there were on the top of the island 
not less than seven ruined houses, grouped in a ring about a 



114 



little water-wheel. Down by the shore there lay, besides, a 
couple of tent-rings. 

Two of the houses were excavated and yielded, considering 
the circumstances, a comparatively rich harvest. Measure- 
ments, however, were not taken ^).. 

XVil. At the spot where Stewart Ö pushes a spit of 
land into the glacier which shoots out from the mainland in 
the direction of the island, were observed on a little point 
some ruined houses almost right out by the glacier ^). 

XVIH. All the previously mentioned settlements lie on 
the stretch of coast explored by the expedition and hitherto 
unknown, while the settlements on Кар Tobin lie in the 
Scoresby Sund District, which had been visited on 
several previous occasions. The settlement itself, however, 
had never been visited before , and as it presents several 
points of interest which add considerably to our previous 
knowledge of Scoresby Sund, it shall, as was promised 
above, receive a particular notice here. 

As to this settlement Lieutenant Koch has furnished me 
with the following information: — 

"It had more or less the shape represented below (Fig. 5). 
About 200 metres north of the settlement there was an extensive 
burial-ground. The graves were not counted, but there were 
certainly over twenty of them. The measurements of one of 
the best preserved graves were: length 1"6 metres, breadth 
0*6 metres, depth 0"35 metres (inner measurements). The 
graves were built up of stones which fitted well together. The 
roof was formed of flat stones resting on two drift-timber 
logs. U contained a number of human l)ones scattered about 



1) Meddelelser om Grønland. Vol. XXVII. P. 164. 

2) do. do. Vol. XXVII. P. 280. 



315 



pell-mell, and a few animal bones, among them a bone of a 
whale. The bottom seems to have been covered with gravel. 

Out of the houses II and IV were particularly well preserved, 
while the two smallest houses V and VII looked to be the 
oldest. The roofs, however, had sunk in, while the walls 
remained throughout their whole length above the ground (the 
foundation granite). The passage-way in IV was completely 








П 



Fig. Ü. Sketch of the settlements on Кар Tobin. 
(Drawn by J. P. Koch.) 



preserved, in И only partially. In I and 111 the passage-ways 
curved towards the south (cf. Scoresby's sketch of the 
settlements at Кар Stewart^). 

Huts II and III were measured; in the accompanying sketch 
iFig. 6) the measurements are given in metres. The broken 
line ABC in HI is a well-built wall, which did not seem to 
give access to the interior of the house. In the corner D 
there was a distinct recess. 



') Journal of a vo>açe to the Northern Whale-fishery by William 
Scoreeby-junior. P. -MO. 



316 



An excavation of house И brought only a few trifles to 
light; on the other hand, more considerable discoveries were 
made in and near three kitchen-middens east of the settle- 
ment, viz : 2 human skulls, 2 almost intact three-legged chairs, 
1 wooden tub, 1 iron knife with a wooden haft, 1 iron harpoon 
point in a bone setting, various bone implements and 
harpoon points, 1 kaiak scraper, a number of carved pieces 



Is 



^^^ .ОяС 3.0 




1 

1,0 0,. 



Fig. 6. Sketch of house No. II and III on Кар Tobin. 
(Drawn by J. P. Koch.) 



of wood, and finally a few toys, such as a bear and a bird 
carved in wood, 1 walrus, 1 duck, seals, and a couple of toy 
harpoon points in bone. The kitchen-middens were filled with 
large quantities of reindeer hair; on the other hand the wool 
of musk-oxen and other remains of these animals were not 
to be seen. 

About 1 kilometer east of the settlement there were two 
cairn-like stone buildings (bee-hive shaped); (cf. Scoresby's 
observations at Кар Swains on^). In the best preserved of 



^) Journal of a voyage to the Northern Whale-fishery by William 
Scoresby-junior. P. 210. 



317 



these only the upper stone had fallen down and lay in the 

interior of the building. The inner dimensions of the whole 

cairn were : 

Diameter at the bottom lom 

— 1 metre over bottom IS - 

Height 1-9 - 

In the interior of the cairn there lay a few fragments of 
bone, probably animal bones. 

Dr. Norden skjold, who also landed at Кар Tobin, 
believed from Koch's description of the cairns that they were 
analogous with three others which he had found further 
north. 

In the vicinity of the two cairns close to the settlement 
there were ten fox-traps, about 1 metre in length and 15 cm 
in depth and width (inner measurement)." — 

It will be seen that house No. Ill presents the peculiar 
characteristic that there were two passage-ways, a short and a 
long one, and that a kind of little front chamber was formed 
by the wall ABC. Koch observes that this wall did not 
seem to lead to the interior of the house, but that an excava- 
tion might possibly have brought such a thoroughfare to 
light. 

My personal opinion, however, is that the house must 
originally have had only one passage-way, viz. the long one, 
while the short passage-way and the wall ABC must have been 
constructed after the house had ceased to be lived in. The little 
chamber that was thus formed was presumably used as a 
cache, or as a work-shop, and accordingly had no thoroughfare 
to the interior of the house. 

Thus at Nualik I found close to the "dead house" (men- 
tioned above) a small covered chamber built up the side of a 
perpendicular rocky wall, having about the same dimensions as 
the above. On the floor there lay a number of comparatively 
fre.sh and unbleached shavings of wood, as well as a few newly 
xxvni. 21 



318 

carved accessories for umiaks and kaiaks, so that the room 
probably was used as a kind of work-shop. 

Koch observes that the passage-way in houses I and III 
curved towards the south, and refers us to the settlement at 
Кар Stewart found and described by Score shy, where 
the passage-ways in three of the ten houses discovered curved 
towards the south, while that in the other seven houses faced 
south without curving. 

Sc ore shy's idea was that the Eskimo always made the 
passage-way face south in order to obtain the greatest possible 
amount of the sun's heat, and at the same time have it facing 
away from the direction of the prevailing wind. 

My experience, however, has been that the direction of 
the passage-way has nothing to do with the four points of 
the compass, but that the determining factor is the desire of 
having the easiest possible access to the sea, while at the same 
time consideration must be paid to the lie of the plateau on 
which the house is built. 

Thus, when the longitudinal wall in house I is built at 
right angles to the longitudinal wall in house III, this is 
probably due to the lie of the plateau, and the passage-way is 
curved in order to give ready access to the sea. 

The recess which Koch found in one of the corners of 
house III was probably a store-room in which meat and 
blubber were kept. In two of the houses examined by Ryder 
store-rooms of this kind were found under the stone pavement^). 

Another interesting discovery in this settlement were the 
bee-hive-shaped cairns, quite the same kind as those found by 
Scoresby at Кар Swainson. They were probably used as 
store-chambers. 

Finally a few there are among the ethnographical objects dis- 
covered which had not previously been found inScoresbySund. 



*) Meddelelser om Grenland. Vol XVII. P. 298. 



319 



Thus on the stretch between the Angmagsalik 
District and ScoresbySund we found about 60 winter 
houses. The following general description holds good of them 
all with a few exceptions. 

The houses are rectangular with parallel back and front 
walls. The front wall is almost always a little shorter than 
the back wall, which causes the side-walls to converge slightly. 
All the walls are perpendicular. The passage-way strikes out 
as a rule from the middle of the front wall, perpendicular or 
nearly perpendicular to it. The length of the passage-way 
given above for each house merely indicates that the passage- 
way must have had at least that length ; but in many of the 
houses we measured it must undoubtedly have been longer. 

The lie of house is never determined according to the 
four points of the compass ; the decisive factor for the in- 
habitants seems always to have been ready access to the sea. 
The building materials are stone and turf, in a few places only 
stones; in the latter case, however, the interstices have perhaps 
been bunged up with moss or snow. 

In the above particulars the construction of the houses is 
in complete accordance with that employed both at Angmag- 
salik^) and at Sc ore sb y Sund and to the north of it^). 

But if we consider the dimensions of the houses, we shall 
find that on the stretch of coast from Angmagsalik to 
Nordre-Aputitek there are houses of very varying size, 
ranging from the size employed in the Angmagsalik 
District to that employed at Scoresby Sund and to the 
north of it. Out of the fifty houses Ryder found at 
Scoresby Sund the largest was 2*7 x 3*8 metres, the 
smallest Г6 x 2*5 metres, being thus houses only intended for 



') Meddelelser om GiMnlaiid. Vol. X. P. 66— G9. 

-') -Meddelelser om Grønland. Vol. XVII. P. 296. — A. G. Nathorst. Två 

•Somrar i Norra Ishat'vet. Senare Delen. P. 342. — Die zweite Deutsche 

Nordpolarfahrt. Vol. I. P. .020. 

21* 



320 



one family, while Holm gives the length of the houses oc- 
cupied in 1884 as ranging between 7'5 and 15*7 metres, and 
the width between 3*8 and 5*0 metres, several famihes living 
in each of these houses. I must observe, however, that during 
my stay in the Angmagsalik District I have come 
across ruined houses of smaller dimensions than the above, 
though none of such small dimensions as in Scoresby 
Sund. 

Ryder believes that the Eskimo are not extinct in 
Scoresby Sund and the districts to the north of it, and 
he therefore upholds the theory that the population little by 
little have journeyed further south, and that these people or 
their descendants have reached Angmagsalik and the 
southern part of the East coast. We know from G. Holm 
that the inhabitants of Angmagsalik have made journeys 
right up to Nordre-Aputitek, whereby the occurrence of 
large houses on this stretch of coast receives a ready ex- 
planation. But it seems to me that the existence of the small 
houses right away from Scoresby Sund to the Angmag- 
salik District to some extent confirms Ryder's hypothesis, 
although it is possible that small bands of Eskimo may have 
died out in the district about Scoresby Sund. Thus, in 
the settlements at Кар Tobin the inhabitants have in all 
probability died out. In a kitchen-midden east of the settle- 
ment Koch found two human skulls and, in spite of the short 
time at his disposal, made a comparatively rich haul of ethno- 
graphic objects. 

It is necessary, however, to be very cautious in drawing 
conclusions from the size of the houses as to the peregrina- 
tions of the Eskimo; for the size of the houses is no doubt 
determined by local circumstances and not by any peculiarity 
of the different tribes. Everywhere where it is feasible we 
find several families living in one house. For it is evident to 
the practically-minded Eskimo that it is in every way best for 



321 



several families to live together in one house. The individual 
will not be so much subject to chance in the way of bad 
hunting luck, as the housemates go share and share alike, 
while it is also more economic as regards light and warmth. 
Again from a social point of view life is certainly more 
pleasant when several families are gathered together in one 
house. 

Thus among the Point Barrow Eskimo as a rule two 
families, and often more, live together in one house ^). 

Similarly, in the stone houses of the Central Eskimo 
there live two or three families together. In their snow- 
houses there always live two families, and two snow-houses 
have often the same passage-way, so that, properly speaking, 
four families live together ^j. 

\mong the Smith Sound Eskimo we frequently find that 
two stone huts are built so close to one another that by 
means of a wide opening in the common partition wall they 
are joined into one^). And finally the West Greenlanders 
used always to live several families in the same house ^), and 
the East Greenlanders do so to this very day. 

But in order that several families may be able to find 
room in one stone house, it must be fairly large. But in this 
case a comparatively large rafterwork will be required for the 
construction of the roof, whereas for a small house only a 
few rafters will be necessary; in fact rafters can be dispensed 
with altogether, and the house can be built entirely of stone. 
Examples of this latter are the old Eskimo stone houses on 
Lake Hazen in Grinnell Land''), the stone houses in 



') Ethnological results of the Point Barrow Expedition by John Murdoch. 

P. 72. 
*) The Central Eskimos by Dr. Franz Boas. P. 639. 
*) E. Astrup. Blandt Nordpolens .Naboer. P. 235. 
*) H. Egede. Det gamle Grønlands nye Perlustratlon. P. 63. 
*) Greely. Three years of Arctic Service. Vol. I. P. 379—380. 



322 



Northumberland Island^) off the Gulf of Inglefield 
and in К am a h on the same fjord ^), as well as several other 
places on Smith Sound. It is in fact the want of wood 
which has undoubtedly been the determining reason why the 
Eskimo in many places have had to resort to stone houses^). 

That the Eskimo in Scoresby Sund did not possess 
any great amount of drift-timber will be gathered, amongst 
other things , from the fact that the rafter-work in most 
of the houses examined by Ryder was partially composed of 
whale ribs and large whale bones. Moreover, it is patent that 
the longer the ice lies frozen in the fjord and along the coast, 
the less drift-timber will be washed ashore. This circumstance 
by itself is sufficient to account for the fact that the drift- 
timber will be found in larger quantities at such places as 
€. g. Angmagsalik than further north. Another important 
factor is that the main arm of the stream which flows from 
the Polar Sea runs in a curve a little west of Spitz- 
bergen down towards Jan Mayen, until just south of that 
island it is forced closer in to the East coast of Green- 
land^). It is a well-known fact that large quantities of drift- 
timber are to be found on the island of Jan Mayen, and 
when in the year 1900, we entered the ice-belt, at circa 74° 
lat. , we came across a great deal of drift-timber in the edge 
of the pack-ice, while only a small quantity was seen inside 
the ice-belt. 

Thus, if we imagine the present inhabitants of Angmag- 
salik to have migrated northwards, the houses must by the 
force of circumstances inevitably get smaller and smaller; but, 
on the other hand, we should hardly expect to ßnd the quite 



^) Robert E.Peary. Northward over the great ice. Vol.1 P. 108 and Vol.11 
P. 269—272, respectively. 

2) H. Rink. The Eskimo tribes. Meddelelser om Grønland. Vol. XI. P. 11. 

^) See the author's observations on this head in Meddelelser om Grøn- 
land. Vol. XXVII. P. 141. 



323 



small houses of the Sc о re shy Sund pattern right out at 
Angmagsalik. The occurrence of these houses seems to 
me, tlierefore, to furnish a proof, however slender, of the 
Scoresby Sund Eskimo having migrated south. Furthor 
we find an isolated indication that this movement went on 
little by little, in the fact that in the settlement on the NW 
side of Storö we find two of the small houses built within 
the sites of the larger houses. 

As to the motives for this movement, Ryder writes: "In 
spite of the fact that Scoresby Sund, and to some 
extent, its interior ramifications, during a great part of the year 
afford the Eskimo good opportunities of acquiring the means 
of subsistence, there will nevertheless be a long period, viz. 
from the time the ice gets thick and is covered up with snow 
till the seals begin to appear upon the ice, that is from De- 
cember to May, during which it will certainly be difficult for 
an Eskimo to procure the game necessary for the support of 
his family; and this circumstance, taken in conjunction with 
the Eskimo's innate love of travelling, may account for the fact 
of their having once more moved out to the outer coast and 
thence further south". 

If we add to this that the Angmagsalik District is 
unquestionably the best district for seal-hunting on the whole 
East coast, as the hunting can go on there practically the 
whole year round, and that the drift-timber which is of such 
vital importance to an Eskimo, is found here in far larger 
quantities than further north, and further that the climate is 
far milder here than in the stretch from Scoresby Sund 
(0 the north, it seems to me that it is almost a matter of 
course that a movement of the Eskimo from the north to the 
south must take place in the course of time, whereas a move- 
ment in the opposite direction would be far less conceivable. 

It might be added in further proof that the accounts 
which G. Holm received from the inhabitants of Angmag- 



324 



salik as to musk-oxen and reindeer having lived in the 
Angmagsalik District in former times^) must certainly 
be regarded as a tradition which has its origin in the fact 
that their forefathers had once lived in districts where these 
animals occurred^). It is true that the stone-wall at Kulusuk 
mentioned by G. Holm as being intended for the purpose of 
stalking reindeer, and subsequently photographed by W. Thal- 
bitzer, seems to make against this theory. But, for the 
present, I am inclined to doubt whether this wall was really 
used for stalking reindeer. For during the fifteen years 
during which the colony at Angmagsalik has existed, 
in the course of which time it has been visited by several 
expeditions, not the slightest trace has been found that might 
seem to indicate that these animals had lived in the Ang- 
magsalik District, whereas in practically all the kitchen- 
middens in the Scoresby Sund district, reindeer bones, 
pieces of reindeer horn etc. were discovered^). But if this 
view is correct, it likewise points to the conclusion that the 
forefathers of the Angmagsalik Eskimo must once have 
lived in the district from Scoresby Sund to the north. 

In conclusion I shall mention just one factor which may 
also be supposed to have been at work in the Eskimo's south- 
ward migration. As Ryder has pointed out, the musk-ox can 
hardly have occurred in very large numbers when the Eskimo 
were living at Scoresby Sund, whereas reindeer must at 
that time have been found in great multitudes. But as regards 
the reindeer it has been ascertained by the expeditions sent 
out during the last ninety years that there has been a con- 
siderable fluctuation in their numbers. And there are various 



Ч G. Holm. Meddelelser om Grønland. Vol. X. P. 53 og 84. 

'') This possibility has already been broached by Ryder in Meddelelser 

om Grønland. Vol. XVII P. 304 and later by H. Winge in the same 

work. Vol XXI P. 474. 
») Meddelelser om Grønland. Vol. XVII. P. 324. 



325 

circumstances which seem to indicate that the same fact holds 
good of the musk-oxen M. 

This fluctuation in the numbers of the reindeer took place 
at a period where at any rate the great mass of the Eskimo 
must have left these regions, and is thus not due to human 
pursuit. 

The cause of this fluctuation, as Winge points out, has 
not been fully elucidated. Nathorst^) believes that the de- 
crease in the numbers of reindeer which has taken place in 
recent times, is due to the appearance in these regions of the 
polar wolf from the North, who is practically exterminating 
them. S. Jensen, on the other hand, holds the view that 
though the decrease is certainly due to the polar wolf, the 
animals are not being exterminated, but merely driven into the 
mountain regions in the interior of the fjord. And in fact an 
actual extermination of them is hardly conceiveable, but we 
may imagine such a large decrease that the polar wolf 
gradually passes over to other districts for want of game, in 
order perhaps to return again when the numbers again begin 
to increase. An interaction of this nature is by no means 
unthinkable. 

But if we suppose that such an invasion of wolves took 
place while the Eskimo were living at Scoresby Sund, 
this fact, in conjunction with the chase, would soon cause the 
reindeer to become a rarity to the Eskimo, and the migration 
southwards to the far better sealing grounds would then be 
still more easily intelligible. 

And perhaps we do not need to have recourse to the 
polar wolf at all to explain the serious decrease in the numbers 
of the reindeer while the Eskimo were still living in these 
parts. For the mere hunting of them may perhaps have been 



') S. Jensen. Meddelelser om Grønland. Vol. XXIX. P. 24— 27 and 35. - 

H. Winge. .Same work. Vol. XX!. P. 4.58. 
•t Tvà Somrar i Norra Ishafvet. Senare Delen. P. 329. 



326 



sufficient to decimate them severely or drive them away, as 
has happened on the West coast. 

But whereas, according to what has been set forth above, 
everything goes to prove a movement of the East coast Eskimo 
from north to south, we are compelled to assume that the 
immigration to the East coast of Greenland must have taken 
place from the North, 

This view was originally tentatively put forth by Rink^), 
but has afterwards been backed up with several weighty proofs 
by G. Holm, С Ryder and W. Thalbitzer, all of whom, 
as is known, have visited both the East coast and the West 
coast. 

Thus Holm pointed out that the East Greenlanders 
{the An g mag sali к tribe) in artistic skill approach much 
more nearly to the West Eskimo than to the West 
Greenlander^). 

Ryder comes to the conclusion from an examination of 
the ethnographic objects discovered in 1891 — 92 that the 
former inhabitants of Scoresby Sund must have most in 
common with the north-west Eskimo tribes, the Eskimo of 
Point Barrow^). 

Finally W. Thalbitzer has shown by his admirable 
linguistic studies that the northernmost dialects on both sides of 
Greenland resemble one another more than they resemble 
the dialects on the West coast of Greenland between 71° 
and 60° lat. (or 7Г— 64° lat.)*). 

Among the authors who support the theory that the 



^) H.Rink. Oni Grønlands Indland og Muligheden at berejse samme. P. I. — 
do. Eskimoiske Eventyr og Sagn. P. 44. — do. Eskimoiske Eventyr 
og Sagn med Supplement. P. 153. 

2) Meddelelser om Grønland. Vol. X. P. 153. 

") — — Vol. XVII. P. 343. 

*) — — Vol. XXXI. P. 40-43 and 186. — W. Thal- 

bitzer. Eskimo dialects and wanderings. P. 109— 10 in XIV. Internatio- 
naler Amerikanisten-Kongres 1904. 



327 



immigration to the East coast of Greenland took place from 
the North may be mentioned Schultz Lorentzen^), H. Sim- 
mon s^) and A. Ham berg''), while Fridtjof Nansen main- 
tains the opposite view^). 

That neither Lockwood'') nor Pejary^), the only two 
explorers who have visited the North coast, have found traces 
of Eskimo habitation proves nothing, us both of them travelled 
on the sea-ice along the outer coast. For, if a journey 
was made in a similar manner, e. g. from Sabine-Ö to 
Scoresby Sund, a stretch which is quite as long as 
Peary's longest sledge-journey, no traces of Eskimo habitation 
would be found. And yet we know that in the fjords along 
this stretch a busy Eskimo life has prevailed. 

1 shall now conclude with a few words as to the tent-rings 
and graves which we found on the stretch between Angmag- 
salik and Scoresby Sund. 

The tent-rings did not present any points of interest. On 
a flat and even site there lay in a circle the stones which had 
once served as weights to keep down the part of the tent-skin 
which lay on the ground. Only one of the tent-rings on the 
East point of the island between Кар Warming and 
Langö formed an exception, being built in the form of a low 
rampart of earth and stones. G. Holm mentions that this form 
of tent-ring is occasionally used in the An gmagsalik District. 
It will thus be seen that the tent-rings we discovered were 
of exactly the same nature as those in the Angmagsalik 
District''! and Scoresby Sund^), as indeed might have 
been expected. 



») Meddelelser om Grenland. Vol. XXVI. P. 289. 

*) Ymer 1905. P. 186. 

3) Ymer 1907. P. 22. 

*) F.Nansen. Eskimoliv. P. 12. 

*) Greely. Three years of arctic service. Vol. I. P. 29.5—347. 

*) Bulletin of the geocraphical society of Philadelphia. January 1904. 

') Meddeleleer om Grenland. Vol. X. P. 71. 

•) — - Vol. XVII. P. 303. 



328 



The graves invariably lay in the immediate vicinity of the 
houses, and in no place did we find the graves lying some 
distance out towards the mountains, as is occasionally found 
on the West coast ^). 

The graves discovered by Ryder likewise lay hard by 
the houses. The graves were as a rule quite detached, so that 
they could easily be perceived. They were sometimes built up 
along a rock wail, or one of the walls were formed by a 
terraced ledge in the surface of the rock^). As a rule they 
were constructed with great care. 

In most cases several persons had been buried in the 
same grave. In several places we found utensils buried with 
the corpse. These lay either within the grave itself, between 
the stones which formed the covering of the grave, or in a 
little chamber in one of the sides of the grave. 

Finally there remains to be mentioned a highly remarkable 
stone construction in the Moræne ö. 

A rectangle, 7-5 metres long, and 4'4 metres broad, had 
been formed with 27 stones. The interstices between the stones 
were nearly of the same length. This construction lay in the 
extinct glacier bed on the NW. side of the island, not far 
from the coast line, and with its long side parallel to the 
coast. Could it be some Eskimo or other who had commenced 
building a house there but afterwards abandoned the project? 
Not far from it v/e found a number of putrefied seal bones. 
The stones were too large for the construction to have been 
erected by children. 



1) Meddelelser om Grønland. Vol. V. P. 21 — 25. 

2) — — Vol. XVII. P. 339. 



21— .5— 1909. 



VIL 
Ethnological description 

of 



The kk\] 



comprising objects found in 

Eskimo house-ruins and graves 

north of Angmagsalik between 68° and 75° lat. N. 



By 

W. Thalbitzer. 

1909. 



Table of Contents. 



1. Preface and Introduction. 

2. Harpoon heads. 

3. Other weapon heads made of bone. 

4. Stone implements. 

5. Finds from Skærgaardshalvo, 

southernmost part of North East Greenland. 

6. Finds from Dunholm and Cape Tobin, 

central part of North East Greenland. 

7. Finds from Cape Borlase Warren and Sabine island 

between 74°— 75° lat. N. on the East coast of Greenland. 

8. List of objects collected north of the Angmagsalik district. 

Appendix. 

List of authorities. 



1. Preface and Introduction. 



The maxim, "'Where there's a will there's 
a way", is quite true among the Eskimo. 
O.T.Mason'). 



i he ethnographical collection which the Carlsberg Fund 
Expedition to East Greenland which was made in the years 
1898 — 1900 under the command of Lieutenant G. Amdrup^ 
brought to Copenhagen, comprises a series of 'finds' of artefacts 
from the coast between Ammassalik (on the map Angmagsalik^) 
and Sabine Island, or between 65^2° and 74° 30' lat. N. on the 
East coast of Greenland. 

On those parts of the coast which were visited for the 
first time by a European expedition, were discovered the ruins 
of several Eskimo settlements, the inhabitants of which had 
deserted them long since, or else had died out. These places 
were subjected to a thorough investigation for archaeological 
purposes, in accordance with the plan of the Expedition. A 
number of the settlements were discovered within the Ammas- 
salik district, only some few to the north of it. I reckon the 
Ammassalik district to extend as far to the north as the coast 
is known by the sole surviving Eskimo of this coast, the in- 
habitants of the neighbouring fjords, Ammassalik and Sermilik 
lal about 65^/2° lat. N.) — namely to Kangerdlugsuak, 'the great 



') Mason ni. 242. 

*) The East Greenland form of this name is Ammattalinrj , but in the 
West Greenland diabjct the name is pronounced thus: Ammassalik, in 
the misleading renderinc of Kleinschniidfs orthography Angmagsalik. 



332 

fjord', at about 68° lat. N., 31° 35' long.W. (opposite to Iceland). 
The barrenness of the stretch of coast, which extends 300 miles 
to the north of this district, between Kangerdlugsuak and Cape 
Brewster (at the entrance to Scoresby Sund), is illustrated by 
the fact that only 3 former Eskimo settlements with about 20 
houses were discovered here; while further to the north, in the 
vast fjords of Scoresby Sund and Franz Josephs Fjord and north- 
wards to Shannon Island, which lies 300 miles to the north of 
Cape Brewster, 25 settlements with over 100 houses are known 
through the discoveries of earlier expeditions; so that it would 
seem that the population was in former times larger to the 
north, where the coast of Greenland (about half-way up it) 
curves round in a due northerly direction than South of Cape 
Brewster, where it falls away in a NE/SW direction. 

As regards the distribution of the former population south 
of Cape Brewster, I must refer the reader to the tables given 
by G. Holm and Amdrup in "Meddelelser om Grønland" vol. X, 
183—200, and XXVIII, 296 (this volume); as for Scoresby Sund, 
detailed information will be found in Ryder's paper (Medd. om 
Grønl. Vol. XVII, 286). In the table that follows (pag. 333) I have 
put together the facts which i have been able to glean, on the 
basis of the reports of previous expeditions, with regard to the 
distribution of the population north of Cape Brewster. 

Geographically, as well as from the point of view of its 
contents, the Amdrup collection falls into two parts. One part 
consists of objects found north of the Kangerdlugsuak fjord; 
the population is considered to have become extinct only a few 
generations back. The second part consists of objects excavated 
within the Ammassalik district itself, and for the most part 
belonging to the same culture which we know from the present 
inhabitants of this district. 

The commander of the Expedition, G. Amdrup, lieutenant 
(now captain) in the navy, conducted in person the excavations of 
the house-ruins, graves, and rubbish heaps in which the objects 



333 



Riiins and relics of the former population 

discovered by earlier expeditions in N. E. Greenland between Cape Brewster 
(70° lat. N.) and Shannon Island (75° lat. N.). 



Localitv of settlements 


North 


Number of 


Number of 


Graves 


and authorities quoted. 


Lat. 


winter-huts 


tent-places 


Scoresby Sund 


70° 








Ryder: 7 winter settlements') . . . 




50 


many 


many 


.\mdrup : 1 winter settlement, Cape 










Tobin 




7 


several 
several 




Amdrup: Cape Brewster ^) 




Scoresby: Cape Swainson") 






several 




— : Cape Hope^) 






several 




— : Cape Stewart'^) (cf. Ryder) 










Train Islaud 


72° 








Scoresby : Cape Mewburn ") 






2 




— : Cape Simpson") 






over 50 




— : West of Cape Simpson^) 




several do2 


ens of old 




King Oscar's Fjord and Franz 




huts and ground-plots of 
summer-tents 




Joseph's Fjord: 










Nathorst^) 




6 


6 




Cape Broer Buys (Eold-itnth- 




Hope) 


73° 30' 








Koldewey'«); Nathorst") 




several 


several 




Claverinq Island 


74° 








Koldewey: Cape Mary*^) 




several 


several 


several 


— : South-western side of 










Clavering Island '^) 


74° 20' 


23 






Cape Borlase Warren 




Koldewey '^) 




2 


several 


several 


Nathorst: between Borlase Warren 










and Flache Bav'^) 


74° 32' 




several 




Sabine Island 




Koldewey: Southern side"^) 




3 or 4 


manv 




— : Soulh-eastoftheruins") 








10 


— : Southern side") 






many 




Klein Pendulum Island 


74° 40' 








Koldewey '*) 




3 






Shannon Island 


75° 


many 






Koldewey: Southern side-^') 


many 


— : Western side''') 






many 




— : Northern slde*^) 






many 





') Ryder 2S6. *) Amdnip, Medd. om Grenl. 27, 175. «) Scoresby 185. ♦) Id. 20:i i>) Id. 
VS). 208 PI. VI. •) Scoresby 247. ') Id. 247. ") Id. 266. ») Nathorst 2.->i, 256—258, 263, 
8И. 294; the map. "') Koldewey 685. ") Nathorst 172. «) Koldewey 610-615. и) Id. 
616. '«) Id. 007. >-'•) Nathorst 154. и) Koldewey 589-.590. ") Id. 594. '*) Id. 606. ») Id. 
597, cf. 335. ») Id. 330. ") Id. 330. :=) Id. 596. 



XXVUI. 



22 



334 



were found. The excavations of the more northerly localities, 
where Amdrup himself was not present, were conducted by Dr. 
Deichmann, the doctor and entomologist of the Expedition. 
After the return of the Expedition, E. Ditlevsen, painter and 
draughtsman, supplied a series of designs of the objects found. 
A detailed report of the Expedition will be found in "Med- 
delelser om Grønland" XXVII (Copenhagen 1902). 



On my return home in 1906 from Ammassalik, where I 
had wintered for the purpose of collecting linguistic and folk- 
loristic material, I was called upon by the Commissionen for 
Ledelsen af de geologiske og geographiske undersøgelser i Grøn- 
land to prepare not only the results of my own journey, but 
also a description of the Amdrup collection, for publication in 
"Meddelelser om Grønland". I hesitated at first to undertake 
work of a kind which lay outside the special line of study 1 
had hitherto pursued. On the other hand, I was moved by the 
consideration that the publication of the Amdrup collection had 
already been sufficiently delayed. This interesting collection 
surely deserved a better fate than to be forgotten. Further 
than this, in my capacity of linguist, I was sensible of the 
advantage of obtaining a better insight into the forms assumed 
by the material culture of the East Greenlanders; for changes 
in the implements often run parallel to changes in the language, 
and the Ammassalimmiut, in fact, have their own particular 
designations for many of their Eskimo implements and utensils. 
An exact knowledge of the objects and their modifications will 
always come in useful in studying a people's linguistic desig- 
nations of these objects. 

During my two journeys to the West and East coast of 
Greenland, I had had an opportunity of acquiring a first-hand 
knowledge of the implements and mode of life of the Green- 
landers. When I was now shown the highly weathered objects 



335 



trom North East Greenland which lay on two tables in the 
building of "Det kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab", arranged 
and docketed by Amdrup according to the localities where they 
were found, they presented to me a familiar appearance. The 
lifeless objects seemed to me in their dumb language to call 
upon me to furnish a solution to the following problem : — In 
what relation do these objects, which testify to a primitive cul- 
ture of seemingly great antiquity in the arctic regions of East 
Greenland, stand to the present Eskimo culture which you know 
from the southern part of the same coast? Is there in the 
peculiar forms of implements and the peculiar designations of 
the Ammassalimmiut any reminiscence of a culture which can 
be interpreted only in the light of this northern culture? 

The Amdrup collection was particularly well adapted for a 
study conducted with the solution of this problem in view, as it 
comprises characteristic samples of both cultures, the northern 
and the southern. The task undeniably appeared easier then 
than it eventually proved to be^ after I had begun to get into 
the subject and make comparisons in details and in essentials 
with the implements of the Western Eskimo and the neigh- 
bouring tribes. The task grew in magnitude in proportion as 
I succeeded in extending my knowledge in theory of the 
ethnology of the Eskimo and Indians, especially by visits to 
the ethnographical museums at Berlin, Vienna, Stockholm, Chri- 
stiania and Copenhagen. In all these museums there are con- 
siderable collections from Greenland, the largest being in Co- 
penhagen and Stockholm. I have studied the following collec- 
tions from North East Greenland: that of the ^'■Second German 
Sorth Pole Expedition' (Germania, commanded by Koldewey) 
in the .Museum fur Völkerkunde in Berlin; that of the Swedish 
Expedition (under Nathorst) collected by Dr. Hammar, in the 
Stockholm Riksmuseum : the objects collected by Norwegian 
Whalers in the Ethnographical Museum at Christiania; and C. 
Ryder's collection from Scoresby Sund in the National iMuseum 

22* 



336 



at Copenhagen. Among the collections of the latter museum is 
now included that of Amdrup from the southern districts of 
North-East Greenland. 

I hope that the following description of the objects found 
may, in part at least, contribute to elucidate the position of the 
East Greenland types of implements in the Eskimo ethnology 
as a whole. 



The objects of the Amdrup collection, which are pubhshed 
here for the first time, exhibit the North East Greenlanders as 
participators in the same extreme Arctic culture as that which 
we know especially from the most northerly West Greenlanders 
and from the Point Barrow Eskimo in Alaska. 

The particular correspondences between the North East 
Greenlanders and the Point Barrow Eskimo which Ryder ^) 
deemed himself, on the basis of his material from Scoresby 
Sund, to have detected and proved, turn out partly to be 
due to error (his fragment of a "throwing-stick" is not a 
throwing-stick at all; cf. inv. Amdrup No. 99] and partly, in 
my view, to have no signification beyond the fact that the two 
cultures both have their seat high up in the arctic regions, 
and have been evolved under the same natural conditions. 
Thus there are no adequate grounds for assuming any special 
relationship between these two Eskimo 'tribes', or a direct 
immigration in olden times of the Point Barrow Eskimo to 
East Greenland. Furthermore our knowledge of the past culture 
of the Eskimo races which dwelt between these two remote 
regions is far too slight to warrant such an assumption. 

There exists no connected account of the material culture 
of the great group of Eskimo dwelling at about the same 
latitude, around the mouth of the Mackenzie River. Still more 
meagre is our knowledge of that extinct Eskimo culture of which 



^) Ryder, Meddelelser om Grønland. Vol. 17, 343. 



337 



the sole witness are the numerous ruins in the islands in the 
-North Canadian Archipelago ^); these islands form the most 
northerly bridge between the western Eskimo and Greenland. 
An archaeological investigation in that region might possibly 
throw light on several obscure points: thus e.g. the remarkable 
resemblance between the drum- handles (in the Amdrup collection) 
of the North East Greenlanders and those of the Alaska Eskimo 
seems to call for an explanation. My own theory is that the 
North East Greenlanders and their forefathers long after their 
severance in the remote past from the common Eskimo race, 
must have numbered families and individuals for many gener- 
ations who were particularly conservative in their manner of 
working certain objects. 

The conservatism of the North East Greenlanders is not 
incompatible with their participation in certain innovations (i. e. 
typological peculiarities which distinguish them from other 
Eskimo), which are also met with in West Greenland and 
especially to the north: e. g. the special varieties of woman's 
knives, ice-scrapers, needle-cases, bodkins, combs, wooden 
buzzes, harpoon heads used in sealing on the ice {inv. Amd. 
10), perhaps also the winged harpoons (with a bone weight at 
the butt end of the wooden shaft, formed like two feathers), a 
small toy model of which was found by Ryder ^). 

These points of correspondence might seem to indicate 
that the north-easterly group of Eskimo in Greenland must have 
belonged to the same mother tribe as that from which the 
northern West Greenlanders (üpernawik, Oommannaq, Disko 
Bay) derive their descent. But the time when the groups lived 
together and could exert an influence on one another must lie 
very far back in the past; for within the population of the 
West coast, nay within the three northerly districts on the 



'i See "Map of the territories occupied by the Eskimo now and in earlier 

times", In Meddelelser om Grønland, Vol. 31 (1904). 
*l Ryder, 1. с 314, Fig. 14. 



338 

West coast just mentioned, pronounced differences, both liguisti- 
cally and anthropologically, are observable, particularly between 
the Upernawik Eskimo and those further south. 

On the other hand, we find in North East Greenland cer- 
tain forms of implements which differ in certain particulars 
from the West Greenland types, and seem to point further to 
the west. This is the case with the sledges, the bone foreshafts 
of the larger weapons, the drum handles made of bone, perhaps 
also the ornamental teeth used as belts and necklaces. In 
the remarkable preservation of these types, we see a decided 
manifestation of conservatism, more so in this part of Greenland 
than on the West coast, where the immigrated Eskimo probably 
soon came into contact with Europeans (the Icelanders in the 
Middle Ages), or for other reasons modified at an early date 
certain of those implements which were typically common to 
the whole race. 

Side by side with these indications of great antiquity in 
the culture of East Greenland, there are others which point to 
independent innovations. We find here a quaint wooden im- 
plement {inv. Amd. 99) the nature and use of which is un- 
known, probably some kind of boring or stabbing instrument, 
which is found only in North East Greenland, though in a 
sufficient number of specimens to allow of its being set down 
as a fully developed form of implement invented within this group 
of Eskimo during the time when they were settled on the East 
coast. The loose bone points on the shaft of the bird-dart have 
also a characteristic feature, a lateral barb on the outer side, 
which is peculiar to the North East Greenland type. The low 
key-shaped ridge which passes across the under side of the 
sealing-stools, nay the whole form of this implement, seems to 
have been characteristic for this region of the Eskimo world. 
The pattern of the buckle used by the kaiaker for holding the 
skin skirt round the man-hole in the kaiak tight about his body 
is found in several places within this stretch of coast, but not 



339 

elsewhere. These things are characteristic of the material cul- 
ture of the jNorth East. Let alone such purely individual features 
as the peculiar form of the large, elegant, ivory comb {inv. 
Amd. 86], the ornamented bone handle of a woman's knife 
{inv. Avid. 45), and several of the carved bone animals. By 
such manifestations of originality these objects testify that this 
north-easterly Eskimo group, after having been isolated from 
the rest of mankind, passed through a vigorous development 
of its own. 

Finally, in the implements from this corner of Greenland 
we meet with certain features which point to a special con- 
tinuity between the northern and southern culture of the coast, 
an ancient connection long since broken off between the Nor- 
theners and the inhabitants of the south i. e. the population of 
the Sermilik and Ammassalik fjords at 60^/2° lat. N., or the 
Ammassalimmhit. The highly developed culture of this in- 
tensely isolated group, which was discovered for the first time 
26 years ago, and soon afterwards was made known to the 
world by its discoverer's, G. Holm's, account of "Konebaads- 
expeditionen" and "Skitse af Angmagsalikerne", occupies a 
position apart in the Eskimo world. A number of the types 
of implements, ornaments, and traditions which in their main 
features they have in common with all other Eskimo, have been 
individualised and transformed by them in accordance with their 
own personal taste and requirements, so that their culture has 
thereby received a stamp of its own which distinguishes it from 
all others. As it cannot possibly have been influenced from 
without, it is with all its peculiarity genuinely Eskimo. However, 
we know that from past times (the Egedes actually mention the 
Easterners) up to the present day there have been restless 
spirits among them, individuals of roving temperament, by whose 
journeys this heart of the East coast has been brought into a 
remote connection with the most southerly Eskimo of the coast, 
nav even with the West Greenlanders in South Greenland. Thus 



340 



the people of Ammassalik have in recent times adopted a 
modern form of kaiak (with perfectly straight stern) which has 
superseded their old-fashioned type (with upturned stern); simi- 
larly they have modified certain implements used in connection 
with the kaiak, for instance the receptacle for the harpoon line 
on the kaiak deck, perhaps also the types of their harpoon 
heads. It is, at any rate, a matter of certainty that the typical 
harpoon heads which the people of Ammassalik now use, differ 
considerably from those which have been found in the ruins 
and graves in the northerly districts of the East coast; as to 
this the Amdrup collection gives distinct testimony. The same 
is true respecting the base end of the loose foreshaft [inv. 
Amd. 11 and 12]. 

But what is of particular interest to us here, is that, in 
spite of these and other divergences, certain of the individual- 
ising features which characterize the culture of the people of 
Ammassalik are found recurring in implements from the northern- 
most part of the coast. A crucial case are the three small 
specimens of ivory ornaments for attachment, which were found 
in Sabine Island, 9 degrees of latitude north of Ammassalik. 
For this kind of ornamentation is otherwise not known at all 
from any Eskimo district other than Ammassalik^). But the 
'wing-harpoon' (inv. Ryder), the characteristically jointed woman's 
knife [inv. Amd. 45), the urine tub {inv. Amd. 52) the flat bodkin 
{inv. Amd. 32), the round ivory pearls, {inv. Amd. Ill — 112), 
the wooden toy buzz {inv. Amd. 113), perhaps also the drill 
with its accessories {inv. Amd. 77 — 78), and the thimble-guards 
{inv. Amd. 46 — 48) all exhibit such surprising similarities to 
the corresponding implements used at Ammassalik, that the 
resemblance cannot be accounted for by a mere coincidence. 

Comparison seems to show that there is a continuity in 
the material culture along the whole of this coast, though, to 



Ï) G. Holm in «Meddelelser om Grønland» X, 151 — 153; PI. XXX sqq. 



341 

be sure, but a partial one. For most of the features which 
are peculiar to the northern culture are at present unknown 
to the people of Ammassalik. Out of the old-fashioned and to 
some extent characteristic harpoon heads of the Northeners, 
there is only one, the specimen assumed to be a harpoon head 
for sealing on the ice, which has a near relation to the south. 
The mysterious wooden implement with harpoon-shaped head, 
the club-shaped bone foreshafts for harpoons (inv. Amd. 73 — 
/01, the needle-cases, the drum handles of bone, the old- 
fashioned patterns of the ornaments incised in ivory are not 
known at Ammassalik. Nor indeed, for obvious reasons, are 
the bows and arrows, which have been found frequently to the 
north; however, the Ammassalik Eskimo refer to these weapons 
in their tales. The other implements accentuate a difference 
which exists between the culture of the north and south, and 
which is presumably due to the circumstance that the two 
Eskimo groups were separated for a considerable length of 
time, to some extent owing to the natural obstacles which lay 
between them. Amdrup was the first European to experience 
the serious character of these obstacles on his expedition. 

The Ammassalik Eskimo have indeed in their traditions only 
a very dim recollection of other Eskimo north of the northern- 
most point of the coast which they know by personal experience. 
If their ancestors once immigrated to their present district from 
the north, this must have taken place so long ago that their 
connection with the families they left behind them in the 
northern fjords, in Scoresby sound, Franz Joseph's tjord, and 
further to the north, must have long ceased to exist. After 
that lime each of these groups must have gone their own way, 
and new accessions may have taken place from the west coast 
to either of the groups south and north of the great island. 
Archæological investigations in the Ammassalik district itself 
will perhaps one day reveal whether the inhabitants of this 
recion in older times were more closely in touch with their 



342 



brethren along the north coast than their present form of 
culture might lead one to suppose. 

The discovery of the above mentioned bone ornaments for 
attachment high up towards the north on the coast and the 
other criteria which argue for the continuity, might in them- 
selves be explained by an immigration from the south, i. e. from 
AmmassaHk. I have heard — as G. Holm too did when he was 
there — old folks tell of families in the previous generation, 
parties of umiaks, who moved northwards 'long ago', never 
to return. Amdrup lighted at Nualik, two degrees of latitude 
north of Ammassalik, on a very ancient ruin, where over thirty 
persons had met their death by starvation or poisoning; the 
implements he picked up in the house were recognised as 
coming from Ammassahk. Other parties may previously have 
been more fortunate and slipped past the awkward places up 
to the great fjords in the north. Here they must have met 
their unknown kinsmen, and an isolated feature such as the 
ornaments for attachment may have reached up to these regions 
in this way. For the present I prefer this explanation, the said 
find being quite isolated, rather than to assume that this idea 
of ornamentation should have arisen up there in the high north 
without striking root, and by chance have been transplanted 
southwards to Ammassalik. 

The Amdrup collection from the regions north of Ammas- 
salik belongs on the whole to a homogeneous culture; the 
objects found convey the impression that the people who in- 
habited this part of the coast must have belonged to the same 
tribe as the West Greenlanders, if some few of the pieces 
seem to point in a contrary direction, this fact may be ex- 
plained in the light of a natural conservatism within this isolated 
group which has made them preserve some implements of high 
antiquity. For the present, let it remain an open question 
whether they arrived ail at once or in several detachments, 
and whether the varying use of stone, bone and iron for the 



343 



blades of the weapon heads and knives indicates different stages 
of development in their material culture. The numerousness 
of the house ruins in Scoresby Sund, in Traill Island (72° lat. N.), 
in Clavering Island (74° lat. N.) and still further to the north 
render it probable that the history of this population must 
have extended over many centuries. The old-fashioned types 
of the harpoon-heads and several of the other implements 
seem to tell us that this group must have belonged to the 
oldest stock of the Greenland Eskimo M. They may have im- 
migrated into Greenland anterior to, or simultaneously with, 
the northernmost West Greenlanders. However, the sole his- 
torical fact we possess as to these Greenlanders is, after all, 
only Clavering's account of his meeting with 12 Eskimo on 
the south-west side of Clavering island, as it would seem, the 
last surviving Eskimo of North East Greenland. This was in 
the year 1823. They were seen for three days, then they fled 
away. No one understood them. No records were made of 
Iheir language, legends or traditions. We know nothing about 
them beyond what the traces they have left on the deserted 
coasts can tell us. — 

These 'finds" have recently been added to. From more 
northerly districts of East Greenland than ever before Mylius- 
Erichsen and his companions on the Danmark Expedition 
brought back a collection of antiquities. I have not yet had 
an opportunity of seeing this collection, which immediately after 
its arrival was lodged in the National Museum at Copenhagen. 
It is to be hoped that it will not be long before we get a 
description of it by a competent hand. 

As I have already mentioned, the following pages will deal 



M Ryder's view of the high antiquity of the ruins of North East Greenland 
(Meddelelser om Grønland XVII, .'J4.3) has been opposed by 0. Solberg 
'Beiträge zur Vorgeschichte der Osteskimo, pp. 18—19), but, in my 
opinion, without convincing grounds. Cf. my review of Solberg's book 
in Dansk Geografisk Tidslirift 1909 (XX, pp. 11 — 16). 



344 



with that portion of the Amdrup collection which belongs to 
the ancient culture, north of the Ammassalik district from 68 
lat. N. northwards. The publication of the second part (objects 
found within the Ammassalik district itself, south of Kanger- 
dlugsuak) will ensue later in connection with an English edition 
of G. Holm's "Sketch of the people of Angmagsalik", and a 
new reproduction of his ethnographical collection of objects 
from those parts. 



2. Harpoon Heads. 



Inv. Amd. 1 (Fig. 1 and PI. XV) is a beautifully worked 
and well-preserved harpoon head, made of bone all in one piece 
{without inserted blade), in form conoidal. The blade part of 
the head is flat and slender, bi- 
convex in cross section, narrowing 
and flattening towards the point, 
with sharp, convexly curved edges. 
It increases in breadth and thick- 
ness towards the centre of the 
body, whence the thickness con- 
tinues to increase, till at the base it 
attains 1-5 cm. The body is a little 
more broad than thick, being broadest 
in the middle (2 cm). The sharp edges 
of the head curve slightly inwards 
towards the centre of the butt, thus 
giving the head a graceful slen- 
derness. Both the upper and under 
side show, particularly towards the point, a marked ridge; but 
the one on the under side disappears towards the base. The 
line hole pierces the head from either side of the butt in a 
plane parallel to the blade, forming a slightly curved channel. 
The line grooves (side grooves extending backwards from the 
mouths of the hole and intended for the countersinking of the 
harpoon line so that it may not hinder the head from pene- 
trating into the animal) are deep and carefully worked, and they 




Ш 



Fig. 1. Harpoon head. 
Cape Tobin. 



346 



extend almost entirely to the edge of the base. The butt end 
of the head is bevelled concavely in such a way that the two 
basal barbs formed by a cut in the back taper away into two 
flat tips with very sharp edges, while at the same time they 
diverge from each other more and more. The slit between 
them penetrates a little distance into the distinct edge of the 
shaft socket. Length 9'6 cm. 

This head may be compared with inv. Pfaff No. 52^) from 
the northern part of West Greenland and with Ryder's fig. 13 a, 
from Scoresby Sund^). 

Inv. Amd. 2 (PI. XV, 2) which was found in the same place 
(Cape Tobin) as inv. Amd. 1, has in contradistinction from it 
an undivided basal barb, but in other respects these heads 
belong to the same type. The manner in which the inner 
channel of the line hole is curved (in the horizontal plane of 
the head), and in which the outer line grooves are formed, the 
edge lines of the body itself and the ridges of the upper and 
lower surface, in short all the details of the workmanship in 
the two heads bear such a close resemblance to each other, 
that the idea involuntarily suggests itself that they both proceed 
from one and the same hand. Inv. Amd. 1 viewed from the 
side, is a little flatter than inv. Amd. 2, the upper and lower 
surfaces of which bulge over the part which lies nearest to the 
butt. The side edges of inv. Amd. 2 are straighter, being 
without the shght curvature near the rear part of the body 
which distinguishes inv. Amd. 1. The tip of its undivided 
basal barb is (just as the tips of the barb in No. 1) slightly 
bevelled from the upper side and tapers to a sharp point. 

Like inv. Amd. 1 this harpoon head is carved out of the 
hard substance of a marrow-bone, but while the inner softer 
substance of the bone in the former appears on the upper 
side, in the latter it is situated on the under side. The bone 



1) Swenander PI. 2, No. 52, cf. pag. 40, fig. 5. 

2) Ryder 314. 



• 



347 



has retained its whiteness more perfectly in these two heads 
than in any other in this little collection. 

Inv. Amd. 3 (Fig. 2 and PI. XV) is a short and dumpy har- 
poon head, almost rectangular in cross-section, but with rounded 
angles. The upper side, which is perfectly plane, is a little 
broader than the belly, which in front is slightly convexed. 
Both sides taper slightly towards the curved front edge, 
where in a broad slit an iron blade is still sticking. The 
openings of the line-hole in the side of the head are large, 
the line grooves cutting deep into them. Just as in the heads 
described above, the line grooves extend backward right out to 
the edge of the basal socket. The butt end is cut off with a 
short and concave bevel. The edge of the 
socket for the shaft is sharply defined, on 
the other hand the outermost edge of the 
concave basal surface is rounded, running 
over into the lateral surface and the under 
side. The basal barbs are separated by a 
curved slit, whereas in inv. Amd. 1 they 
meet at an acute angle. 

The front part of the head is pierced 
from the upper to the under side by two 
holes, which lie in the median of the body; 
in the foremost of these two holes there is still sticking a nail 
which holds the blade, which latter, as is seems, was also 
wedged into the slit with small pieces of iron. The two nail- 
holes both on the upper and on the lower side of the body 
are united by a fairly deep narrow gutter, as if the intention 
had been to form a countersink for a lashing through the two 
holes. And in fact tlie innermost nail-hole and one of these 
countersinks are Glied with a substance which looks as if it 
were the remains of a narrow skin thong. The iron blade is 
in parts corroded by rust, or broken. — This piece resembles 
\ery much a West Greenland type of harpoon head ^). 




Fig. 2. Harpoon head. 
Cape Tobin. 



') Swenander 40, fig. 4. 



348 



Inv. Amd. 4 (Fig. 3 and PI. XV), like all the following har- 
poon heads, was found on the Skærgaardshalvo. 

It is a harpoon head, in front flattish, rhomboidal in cross 
section, with sharp side edges which curve inwards at the 
middle giving the head a characteristic indenture; rear of the 
centre it is approximately cylindrical, widening out conically 
towards the base. The rear part of the upper side exhibits 
a marked ridge which extends down to the base of the 
head. There is one barb terminating the back, and slightly 
bifurcated. The base of the head is bevelled concavely; the 
shaft-socket, which opens out into it with sharp edges, is about 
l'5cm deep (at the opening about 0'7 cm in diameter). 

This harpoon head is distinguished from 
the types no. I and 2 by having, instead of 
one laterally situated line-hole, two line-holes 
which pierce it vertically (from the upper to 
the lower side) and straightly. They he close 
to one another in the median of the body. 
They are bored slantwise and diverge in a 
downward direction; on the upper side of the 
head the openings lie scarcely 3 mm from 
each other, sunk in a common oblong groove 
(cf. inv. Amd. 5), an arrangement whereby 
the line could run round without forming any 
hindrance on the surface of the head. 
On the under side of the head the openings are about 
5 mm distant from each other, sunk like the former, only that in 
this case each has its own depression, the one in front being 
formed as a circular countersink, intended for the reception 
of a knot at the end of the line for fastening it. Thus the line 
must have run round from this front depression through the 
hole and back through the other hole, the inner channel of 
which is of exactly the same width as that of the front hole. 
In the illustration the latter looks larger on account of its 




Fig. 3. 

Harpoon head. 

Skærgaardshalvo. 



I 



349 



being widened out above. From the inner hole extends on the 
under side of tlie head a distinct, but not particularly deep, 
longish groove, which must have formed a bed for the line 
with which the head was connected with the bladder. 

The principle in accordance with which the hne was fast- 
ened in the case of this harpoon head must have been different 
from the usual one. Here the line can not, as in Nos. I and 2, 
have held the head in a noose formed by its being drawn through 
the line-hole and the end of the line fastened further down on 
it; but the end of the line must 
have been twisted into a knot which 
was sunk in the countersink at 
the mouth of the hole, and in this 
way held the head tight. By this 
device the line ran singly throughout 
its whole length. 

1 have not found this type of 
harpoon head anywhere, although 
a harpoon head from North West 
Greenland in the Stockholm Riks- 
museum(lnv.PfaffNo.41 ^ resembles 
it as regards the position of the 
line-holes (No. 41, however, has 
three holes instead of two), and the 

two heads also resemble one another in having the butt end 
cut off with an angular bevel, and in the basal barb being 
median and slightly bifurcated at the end. 

Inv. Amd. 5 (Fig. 4 and PI. XV) is a very high and nar- 
row harpoon head made of bone, all in one piece, the front 
part nearly rhomboidal in cross section, with four faces, so that 
the sides meet in an upper and nether acute angle (only at the 
rear of the body is the nether edge rounded instead of sharp) 
and in two lateral obtuse angles which appear as oblique 




Fig. 4. Harpoon head. 
Skaereaardshalvö. 



') Swenander, 11. 

XXVIII. 



23 



350 



lateral ridges — thus an entirely different type from the foregoing 
flat harpoon heads. The upper edge of the harpoon head is 
slightly concave from the middle towards the butt; whereas 
the rest of it curves convexly towards the point of the head. 
The head has one spur for a barb. The line-hole, which is of 
considerable breadth, is cut straight across the vertical plane 
of the body; behind the aperture on the right side is seen a 
very short line groove; on the left side there has also probably 
been a corresponding groove, but the whole of this side is 
highly decayed, A large piece of the rear part of the left 
side is missing, so that one side of the basal socket for 
the foreshaft is quite open; on the whole of the other side 
is seen a slanting groove, evidently the bed of a lashing which 
has been carried through the little perforation at the root of 
the basal barb to complete the shaft socket. This groove cuts 
in deeply particularly at the lower edge of the head in order 
that the wrapping might not hinder the head from penetrating 
the animal. 

This harpoon head in its whole shape, in fact in its very 
details, resembles inv. Pfaff No. 7^), a harpoon head from 
Disko Bay in West Greenland; Swenander defines the head 
from North West Greenland in terms which apply perfectly to 
this head from North East Greenland. 

I also find heads which remind one of this type, from more 
remote Eskimo regions. The Gjöa Expedition (Amundsen) brought 
back from King William's Land some specimens of harpoon 
heads of a similar type (Christiania Ethnographic Museum, in- 
ventoriai Nos. 16038 and 16035), made entirely of bone, one of 
them 9"3 cm, the other 6*8 cm long; the latter with undivided 
basal barb, the former with eight small notches in the rounded 
edge of the basal barb. This latter feature is also found in 
one of Nathorst's heads from North East Greenland M, the basal 



^) Swenander, PI. I, no. 7. 



351 



barb of which has three small notches, or is trifurcated. Apart 
from these ornamentations, the types are sufficiently closely 
related to one another to suggest the thought of a continuity 
in tradition. 

Inv.Amd.e (Fig. 5 and PI. XV) is noticeable, in the first place, 
for its inserted bone blade which is still sticking in it. G. Holm 
also brought back from Ammassalik a harpoon head with a bone 
blade, but it was lashed tightly with rawhide, whereas this blade 
was fastened with a rivet of wood or bone. The slit in which 
it is jammed is unusually deep (3 cm) 
and the blade is very securely fastened 
in it, which result has partly been at- 
tained by the aid of pieces of whalebone 
(or wood) wedged in. There was found 
also a loose harpoon blade of bone {inv. 
Amd. 8) with two nail holes in it; it 
does not fit any of the harpoon heads 
with a slit for the blade which have been 
found. The blade of inv. Amd. 6 is 
comparatively large and heavy. In other 
respects they are of similar shape, ground 
along the edges on both sides and sharply 
pointed; only the short basal edge is blunt. 

The body of this harpoon head is also 
remarkable, resembling in front inv. Amd. 5 in being high and 
laterally flattened, the upper side having a median ridge; 
at the rear it is unusually slender and narrow (without 
lateral ridges); in cross section it is oval. The upper side of 
the body is also, like inv. Amd. 5, slightly concave from the 
middle towards the basal spur. The line-hole lies laterally in 
the same plane as the blade. There is a short but distinct 
line groove on the left side. The right side of the harpoon 




Fig. 5. Harpoon head. 
Skærgaardshalvo. 



Inv .Nathorst (Hammar) in the Stockholm Riksmuseum. 



23* 



362 



head and the greater part of the lower side is brolien off and 
is missing, so that the shaft socket is completely opened; the 
bottom of the socket lies only 3 ram apart from the line-hole. 
— As in inv. Amd. 5, the rear part has been lashed round, but 
the lashing on this head has not been carried through a hole 
in the upper part of the barb, but merely sunk in a groove which 
runs the whole way round. The end of the barb is undivided. 
Finally, a peculiarity of this harpoon head is its twisted 
form; its body is bent in its back part sideways to the right, 
when looked at from above, and the under side somewhat more 
bent than the upper side. 

Inv. Amd. 7 (Fig. 6 and PI. XV) resembles to 

some extent the harpoon head just described, but 

is still narrower, still more flattened laterally. 

The lateral surfaces are sUghtly arched; the 

cross section of the front part of the body is 

elliptical. The narrow upper side is rounded 

in front, and is sharper behind. A twist of the 

back end like that in No. 6 is also observable 

here, but turning to the left instead of to the 

right. There is a slit for a blade (of bone, or 

stone) 2 cm deep, 0"5 cm broad, but the blade 

Harpoon head, is missing. A hole which pierces the head at 

Skaergaardshalvo. ^щ\^{ angles to the plane of the slit, shows that 

the blade has been riveted. The basal barb is slightly bifurcated. 

This head has suffered severely from frost and damp. At the 

rear the whole of the right side is missing, so that one of the 

sides of the shaft socket is open. There has been a lashing 

on this part of the head to remedy this defect; this lashing 

lay in a groove, and was carried through a hole in the upper 

part of the root of the barb. 

Inv. Amd. 8 (PI. XV, 8). Bone blade for a harpoon head, 
about 4 cm in length, of the same shape as the iron and stone 
blades that are known (cf. e. g., the iron blade in No. 3, the 




353 



bone blade in No. 6), with sharp polished edges and two curved 
bevels which follow the edges. There are two fairly large per- 
forations for rivets close to the base of the blade in its me- 
dian, one of Ihem near the edge, the other towards the centre. 

Inv. Amd. 9 (PI. XV, 9) is a fragment of a harpoon head, 
apparently of a similar type to inv. Aind. 1, probably with a 
bifurcated double basal barb, for the stump which has been 
preserved which forms the centre part of the original body, 
broadens out behind, and the inner part of the shaft socket is 
still seen at its base. The line-hole is laterally situated, and 
distinct line grooves extend from its openings, 
rearwards. The under side of the body must 
have been much narrower behind than the upper 
side, so that the cross section is almost triangular. 

The upper side seems to have been almost 
plane, possibly however with a ridge right be- 
hind. Around the line hole the body is a little 
flattened laterally. 

Inv. Amd. 10 (Fig. 7 and PI. XV, 10) is a 
peculiar little head, the fore part of which is 
high and narrow, nearly elliptical in cross sec- 
tion, with a slit of 2 cm in depth in which a 
loose blade has been fixed with a nail (1 nail-hole). 

There is a ridge on the under side from the nail-hole 
rearwards, while the upper side is slightly rounded. The whole 
of the hind pari from the middle backwards is cutoff on both sides 
by two similar cuts of equal size, which have left lateral oblique 
shoulders, running parallel to one another on both sides of the 
head. As a result of this cutting, the hind part has assumed 
the shape of a flat tang near the centre of which a transverse 
hole is seen. This part of the harpoon head works as a 
lever which can be rotated round a horizontal axis in the 
perforated hole. The longest side-edge must be regarded to 
be the upper one. The base of the head is cut off aslant. 




Fig. 7. 

Harpoon head. 

Skærgaardshalvo. 



354 



in a direction opposed to that of the shoulders. One of the 
corners is sharp, the other slightly rounded. The head has 
no barbs at all. 

This harpoon head is of a different type from the others. 
I presume that it must have been used in the kind of ice- 
hunting which is called ituartin. This method of hunting has 
been described, as far as West Greenland is concerned, by Rink^) 
and, for Ammassalik,^ by G. Holm^), who was the first to observe 
and define the particular form of harpoon head used for this 
kind of sealing. 

But the ituartin harpoon heads which Holm brought back 
with him were longer and more slender than this northern 
type, and were pointed at the back end like a prong and provided 
with a small barb^). 

However, the harpoon head which was found by Amdrup 
in Skaergaardshalvö, 140 miles north of Ammassalik, is similar 
in principle to the ituartin heads. It is movable round an axis 
which lies horizontally. As the centre of gravity of the body 
lies a little further forward in the direction of the point than 
the axis, the head would assume a vertical direction, were it 
not held in the direction of the harpoon shaft by the aid of 
a strap which catches its rear end. The head is fitted on to 
the axis (a bone peg) in a deep slit at the end of the harpoon 
shaft, and its oblique shoulders rest close up against the cor- 
responding narrow surfaces of the end of the shaft (on either 
side of the slit), when it is held down on them by the aid of 
the strap. At the moment when the strap slides off as the 
head pierces the animal, the head turns crosswise like a toggle. 
Inv. Amd. 10 diverges in details from the ituartin type of 



*) Rink, De danske Handelsdistrikter i Nordgrønland I (1852), p. 115 cf. 

also D. Cranz I. 206—207. 
^) Holm, Meddelelser om Grønland X, 78. 
=') Holm. Plate XVI. Cf. Mason, III, 237—38, and fig. 23 ("Hinged toggle 

head"). 



355 

the Ammassalimniiut: ils entire length is 7 cm, the narrow end 
ithe tang) being only 3 or 4 cm long; the fore part of it is 
comparatively dumpy, while the tang is flat and slender, broad- 
ening out in the vertical median plane. 

The strap which held the head in its recumbent position 
in the direction of the harpoon shaft, must apparently have 
held down the projecting corner of the basis of the tang. But 
there is no trace of a notch for the strap in the upper 
edge at this corner; nor is there anything of the kind to 
be found on the corresponding heads from Ammassalik. It is 
possible that this thin back part of the head may have been 
somewhat longer, as it seems to be worn away or weathered 
just around this corner. In the thick part we notice a crack, 
which extends from the slit right down to the oblique shoulders. 

Harpoon heads of this type used for hunting seals have 
hitherto been known only from East Greenland. Mason men- 
tions in "Aboriginal American harpoons" that the Eskimo of 
Point Barrow in the northernmost parts of Alaska also use a 
special kind of harpoon in hunting on the ice: — "In hunting 
through the ice the Eskimo of Point Barrow used a different 
shaped harpoon, with a long ivory piece on each end and a 
smaller head. As the seal comes up to blow they hurl this 
spear through the hole, then they drown the seal. After the 
animal is dead they haul it through the ice, picking the ice 
away until the hole is large enough to get the seal out"^). 
Hut among the illustrations of American harpoons in Mason's 
paper the 'hinged toggle head' is only found from East Green- 
land. On the other hand we have evidence from West Green- 
land that the hinged toggle head was used there in former 
times; see Appendix, figs. 78 to 81 (inv. Pfaff). 



'i Mason 111. 237; 271. 



356 



GENERAL REMARKS ON THE HARPOON HEADS. The 

eight intact heads which were found turn out to belong to entirely 
different types. Nos. 1 and 3 were found at Cape Tobin. Nos. 
4 to 10 were found on the southernmost of the places, viz., in 
Skaergaardshalvö. They all diverge from the type most in use 
at Ammassalik. In most of them the height of the body is 
greater than the breadth. The interior of the line-holes is in 
most of them straight and laterally situated (i. e. they debouch 
on the sides of the head), whereas the harpoon heads which 
the Ammassalimmiut now employ have curved line-holes, the 
openings of which lie on the under side of the body. 

Inv. Amd. 4 occupies a place by itself, having two line- 
holes which have been bored vertically in the median line of 
the head from the upper to the lower side at right angles to 
the plane of the blade; this arrangement reminds one very much 
of the orsseq, an oblong ivory button with two holes for fastening 
the dog traces to the sledge (cf. Inv. Amd. 102). 

It is also worthy of remark that the basal barb in two of 
these heads is quite undivided, and in two others has only a small 
notch, whereas the heads which are typical of Ammassalik have 
two-forked bases, or two barbs flanking the base and shaft 
socket; inv. Amd. 1 and 3 have also forked bases, but the two 
barbs both lie in the plane of the upper side. 

None of the harpoon heads of the Amdrup collection have 
lateral barbs towards the point. 

Most of these types of harpoon heads from North East 
Greenland are also known from West Greenland. The West 
Greenland types have been described by Mason and more re- 
cently by Swenander. The latter has classified them in the 
plates and in the text in the manner that the presumably oldest 
types are placed first, the more recent and more dift'erentiated 
last. Among the harpoon heads of the Amdrup collection, Nos. 
1, 2 and 5 resemble the oldest type in Swenander, in so far as 
they consist of an entire piece of bone (without inserted blade) 



357 



and have no lateral barbs; Nos. 2 and 5 as well as No. 6, moreover, 
approach closely to the old type by having an undivided basal 
barb lying in the median line, and No. 6 also agrees with it 
in having the whole shape of the body flattened laterally, 
so that it is higher than it is broad; the line-hole is bored 
across the vertical plane of the body. Nos. 1 and 2, on the 
other hand, approach to a younger type (Swenander, inv. Pfaff 
Nos. 37 — 40) in having their breadth greater than their height. 
The two heads have lateral line-holes, but the inner path of 
the line-hole is curved, a feature which seems to point to a 
more recent type. Thus it appears as if older and younger 
characteristics were blended in these two heads. In No. 3 the 
transition to a curved pathway is traceable, and its body is 
more dumpy than any of the others. In this particular it ap- 
proaches more than any of the others to the Ammassalik type. 
Provided that in these differences of type we are justified 
in seeing different stages of development M, we find, as Swen- 
ander in fact observes^), in the North East Greenland harpoon 
heads the original type entirely unchanged, and side by side 
with them types marking the transition to more recent forms. 
Inv. Amd. 5 represents the oldest stage in the Greenland 
harpoon heads; when it is held in such a position that the 
line-hole lies horizontally, it is seen to have greater height 
than breadth, and the basal barb, which is undivided, lies in 
the vertical plane, at right angles to the line-hole; the blade 
of the head is also placed at right angles to the line-hole. It 
is made of bone all in one piece, and is without lateral barbs. 
И we compare it to the general Eskimo types established by 
Murdoch, without keeping too narrowly to his special represen- 
tation of the development of sealing harpoon heads (where great 
stress is laid on the lateral barbs of the heads), we discover 
the intere.sting fact that this type in its main features ror- 



•) Murdoch I, 218—222; Swenander 39—42. 
*t Swenander -il 



358 



responds to the harpoon heads which are used in Alaska for 
hunting whales, walruses and the larger kinds of seals. Within 
this type, too, some variation occurs (note particularly the 
varying use of blades placed at right angles to the line-hole, 
and blades which lie in the same plane), but it is just the 
whale harpoon head, which Murdoch^) regards as having pre- 
served certain antique features to a greater extent than any of 
the others, which has as a general rule a high and narrow 
body flattened laterally with a basal barb in the median line, 
at right angles to the line-hole, and without lateral barbs 
— on the other hand always with an inserted blade, but in- 
variably and obligatorily a stone blade, not a metal blade. The 
basal barb of the whale harpoon head appears always to be 
undivided; the walrus harpoon head on the other hand often 
has its spur bifurcated, but in other respects resembles the 
larger whahng harpoon. The model of whaling harpoon from 
Baffins Land given by Boas^) combines most of these features 
with some new ones. 

The harpoon heads found in North East Greenland and 
now in the possession of European museums amount up to 
date, as far as I know, to 30 in number. In Amdrup's col- 
lection there are 9 in all, in Ryder's 3, in Nathorst's 15, in 
Koldewey's 3. But of these there is only one which has a 
barb on the fore part of the head (belonging to inv. Ryder ^), 
and what is more, this barb is quite unlike the lateral barbs 
of the heads from West Greenland. All the other North East 
Greenland heads are without lateral barbs, having only basal 
barbs, undivided or two-pronged, always placed on the upper 
side of the head and produced by a concave bevelling in the 
lower part of the base. 

Out of the 30 heads only 10 have a slit for the insertion 



M Murdoch I, 239—240; Mason III, 273. 
2) Boas 1, 500, flg. 436. 
8) Ryder 314, fig. 13 b. 



359 

of a blade, 15 are carved entirely out of a single piece of bone 
without a slit for a blade, and the remaining 5 are doubtful. 
In inv. Nathorst (Hammar) 3 heads are quite of the whaling 
harpoon type. In view of the great number of West Green- 
land heads which are to be found in the museums with lateral 
barbs in innumerable variations, it is extremely remarkable to 
find in .\orth East Greenland exclusively heads of a type without 
these lateral barbs. Is it conceivable that the development of 
harpoon heads here has been unaffected by a differentiation 
of the implement which is otherwise found in all other 
Eskimo districts, so that the original whaling harpoon (walrus 
harpoon or great sealing harpoon) here is to be regarded as 
the local archetype of a quite isolated line of development ? or 
how is this one-sidedness in the development of this implement 
in North East Greenlaud to be explained? 

Among the above described objects found by Amdrup there 
are two harpoon heads of pecuUar types, which convey a notion 
of their function : viz., Inv. Amd. 4 (without slit for the blade), 
the line-hole of which points to a peculiar mode of attachment: 
the line cannot have taken the form of a noose with a double pull 
from both sides of the head round a transverse axis, but of a single- 
running pull in the median axis (acting about at the centre of 
gravity of the headi; — and Inv. Amd. 10 (with a slit for 
the blade), which is of quite another type than any of the rest, 
a pure toggle harpoon without either lateral or basal barb. If 
my conception of it is right, it must have been used in sealing 
on the ice. Whereas the former head is merely an accidental 
variation (just as inv. Pfaff 8, West Greenland)^), the peculiarity 
of Inv. Amd. 10 is due to the special function of the head; 
this confirms what one might naturally have been led to expect, 
viz., that the inhabitants of these northern coasts must have 
been acquainted with the same special methods of hunting as 



M They are delineated by Stolpe PI. IV. fig. 114. 
■' Swenander 16, PI. II. 



360 



are practised by the Eskimo in the other Arctic highlands, in 
North West Greenland, and at Point Barrow. — As for the other 
heads of the collection, it is, of course, hazardous to make any 
categorical assertion as to the function of each singly — beyond 
the general remark that they must have been used for hunting 
the different kinds of seals; but the circumstance that some of 
the North East Greenland heads resemble very closely the 
whaling and walrusing harpoon heads known from other places, 
seems to indicate that they must have been used in hunting 
whales and walruses, or at any rate that they were used in 
hunting these large marine mammals besides in hunting seals. 
A similar conclusion must probably be drawn with regard to 
those of the West Greenland harpoon heads which belong to 
this type, e. g., the greater part of inv. Pfaff 1 — 32^). 

In other words, the typological variation of the heads must 
not be judged merely from the point of view of form, but also 
with reference to their function. 



Ч Swenander PI. I. 



3. other weapon heads made of bone. 



luv. Amd. 11 (Plate XVI) is the loose bone shaft which 
belongs to a harpoon (or lance). It is a piece of white bone, 
part of a narwhal tusk, much corroded and overgrown with 
sea-weed ; it seems to have been carefully carved, but it is 
broken off at both ends. It is 33*6 cm long, slightly curved, 
rhomboidical in cross-section, but the upper and lower angles 
of the section are fairly blunt, towards the basis almost rounded, 
so that this part of the bone is biconvex. The hole for the 
strap is double, the bone having at its lower part in two places 
along the median axis a transverse, direct perforation. The two 
perforations are alike and parallel to each other. Under (or 
behind! three of the apertures is seen on the surface of the 
bone a shallow groove, pointing towards the basis, to receive 
the strap which attached the bone head to the end of the 
wooden shaft. This strap must, of course, have been double- 
running. The edges of the apertures are blunt. The fourth 
aperture is broken off underneath, a fairly large piece out of 
the side of the bone having been destroyed. The interior of 
the line-holes has been widened out, owing to their crossing the 
interior channel of the tusk. — It is impossible to determine 
whether the weapon in its fore part had a slit for the insertion 
of a blade, or whether the bone itself was pointed. Its having 
a socket at its basis is due to the interior channel of the tusk 
having been opened by the basal bevelling. In any case we 
must assume that the butt end was pointed sufficiently for it 
to fit into the socket of the fore-shaft (the bone head of the 
wooden shaft). 



362 



The German North Pole Expedition of 1869—70 found in 
Klein Pendulum Island north of Franz Joseph's fjord a partially 
carved narwhal tusk in the bevelled base of which is seen a 
narrow hole, but the form of the base militates against the 
supposition that the piece was used as a detachable bone-shaft. 
In contradistinction from Inv. Amd. 11, the cylindrical form of 
the tusk has been retained; the front part really seems to have 
been left quite rough. Stolpe ^) mentions a similar find made 
by the Swedish Expedition to North East Greenland in 1899, 
and the leader of the expedition,- Nathorst^), has in his book a 
reproduction of this narwhal tusk; it is only worked at its butt 
end, where three or four holes are seen in the median line of 
the side, as well as a bevel at the very bottom, on the surface 
of which is seen a little hole "as if it (the tusk) was to be 
fastened to a shaft". These implements seem to have had a 
somewhat different function from the narwhal-bone shaft dis- 
covered by Amdrup, the double line-hole of which relegates it 
to a place among the well-known detachable forepieces of 
harpoons or lances. The two previously discovered narwhal 
tusks must have been firmly attached weapons heads (foreshafts 
of whale harpoons?). 

I might here take occasion to observe that one of the 
legendary heroes of East Greenland, Uijarteq, according to the 
traditions of the Ammassalik people^), is said to have had 'an 
arrow-head (?) made out of an entire narwhal tusk', just as his 
companion had one of 'walrus tusk'. 

Inv. Amd. 12 (PI. XVI) is the loose bone shaft of a lance, 
31 cm long. It is made of a heavy piece of the hard substance of 
a bone, probably of the bone of a whale, which is fairly spongy. 
The shape of the |piece is uniform, biconvex, the cross-section 
almost elliptical, the lower part towards the butt being thicker 



stülpe 105. 
Nathorst II, 344. 
Holm 255. 



363 



than the middle. The upper (front) end narrows-in slightly 
from two sides, while on the two other sides it increases, rather 
than decreases, in thickness ; but towards the extreme point it 
tapers away, the sides being severely rounded off. The butt 
end of the piece is conically pointed. 

In the head there is a slit, 2 or 3 mm in breadth, to receive 
a blade of stone or bone, which must have been pressed home 
into it. As the extreme end has been worn away or broken 
ofi', it cannot be determined with certainty whether there was 
a nail-hole or not; probably not. The blade (and the slit) has 
a horizontal position, at right angles to the two line-holes, 
which have been bored transversely through the lower part of 
the shaft. These holes are similarly shaped and parallel; under 
each of the four openings there is a distinct but short groove, 
being a continuation of the inner path of the hole. Through 
these holes must have passed two straps with which this bone- 
shaft was fastened in the usual way to the wooden shaft of 
the lance, at the upper end of which there is generally a 
firmly attached piece of bone (the foreshaft) with a socket into 
which the conically tapering end of the bone-shaft fits. 

It should be noted that the base of this loose shaft is 
not cut off flatly with a tang-like projection in the middle, as 
is usually the case in the modern lance and harpoon shafts 
from Ammasalik and West Greenland^), but merely conically 
pointed. However, we know of several specimens, found in 
graves from North West Greenland, which have the same basal 
form as that of the shaft which we have just described^); and 
vice-versa, a loose bone-shaft has also been discovered (by the 
Nathorst Expedition) -^1 in North East Greenland with the tang- 
like projection known from Ammassalik and West Greenland. 

luv. Amd. 13 (PI. XVIi is a flattish weapon head, 35 cm 



M Holm, PI. XIV. Nansen 31; Fabricius 1, 13Ô and fig. 1. 
*) Swenander, PI. V, fig. 168. 
») Stolpe, PI. IV, ßg 14. 



364 



in length, made of a reindeer horn, broadest just behind the 
point and in the parts around the strap-hole. The dark-brown 
upper side is smooth and hard, unevenly convex, the spongy 
under side is highly weathered. Originally the piece seems to 
have been thicker and more rounded, as the lower end, which 
still retains its thickness, attests. The head is not quite straight; 
the fore end curves slightly upwards, and the same is the case 
with the middle. Not only the point, but also the foremost 
part of the side edges, is sharp like a lancet. About the point 
marks of a cutting tool are perceptible. The pointing seems 
to have been made with a knife, after which the upper surface 
has been smoothed. 

The strap-hole, which is single, has under one of its mouths 
what appears to be a faint trace of a groove; perhaps, however, 
it is merely the mark produced by the rubbing of the strap. 
The edge of the other mouth of the hole is weathered away. 

At the lower end is seen a cross scratched awry on the 
surface between the hole and the conically pointed base, 
but it has been so carelessly executed that no importance can 
be attached to it. If Swenander is right in his assertion that 
the lances of the Greenlanders usually have a double line- 
groove (two line-holes), Inv. Amd. 13 must either be one of 
the rare lance heads of the old type, with only one hole, of 
which he has a few reproductions (inv. Pfaff 163, 164, 166), or 
must have been part of another implement, probably an arrow- 
head. It deserves to be noted that it has no barb, nor is there 
any slit for the insertion of a blade in the head. The pointed 
head of the antler has apparently been used for the point of the 
weapon. In form and material it bears a slight resemblance to 
the small arrow heads which figure next to it in plate XVI. 

Inv. Amd. U, 15 and 16 (Plate XVI). The three small 
flat bone-heads from Dunholm, from 15 to 16 cm. in length, 
two of which are illustrated here, must have been inserted in 
the fore-end of wooden arrow shafts. One of them is perhaps 



3Go 

of reindeer horn, the two others are carved out of the side 
of nondescript bones. None of them are quite plane; they 
have seemingly preserved the original bendings of the material 
{reindeer antler?). 

They have on their upper surface elongated facets, evidently 
the traces of the tool with which they were cut. Only in one 
of them is there a faint trace of a ridge on the upper side; 
the two others are quite flat. The edges of the sides, and 
indeed even of the points, are blunt in all of them. 

Two of them have a little incision in the base — a circum- 
stance which seems to indicate that the bone was driven with 
some force into the socket at the end of the wooden shaft, in 
order to drive it home. 

Similar arrow-points were discovered by Ryder in Scoresby 
Sound M. Several of them have at the butt-end a conical tenon 
or tang on the upper surface of which there are distinct 
traces of screw-threads winding to the left, a feature which is 
also found in old arrow-heads from West Greenland. In the 
Riksmuseum at Stockholm there are seven arrows from East 
Greenland (inv. Nathorst)^) with spiral screw -threads of this 
kind about the tenon; one of these heads, which in other 
respects closely resembles those discovered by Amdrup, is 
22 cm in length, in one of the smaller heads (9 cm long) in 
the same collection (inv. Nathorst), there is in the place of a 
tang an incision in the base of the head similar to that in the 
arrows of the Amdrup collection. Both in the Nationalmuseum 
at Copenhagen and in the Riksmuseum (inv. Pfaff) at Stock- 
holm, there are bone-arrows from West Greenland with screw- 
threads on the tenon; and screw-threads are also known to be 
found in other bone implements from West Greenland (cf. the 
inventory of Pfaffs collection, sect. 29). Perhaps the uneven- 



*) Ryder 309—310, fig. 9. 
*) stolpe. PI. V. 
XXVIII. 24 



366 



Ja 

m 
m 
ж 



nesses at the rear end of inv. Anid. 17 are a crude attempt to 

represent a worm of this kind. 

Inv. Amd. 17 (Fig. 8 and PI. XVI) is a 
weapon head, 21-5 cm in length, worked out 
of the hard substance of a hollow bone, on 
one side hard and smooth and on the other 
somewhat spongy; its form is peculiar. In 
front, it has a head shaped like the head of 
a snake, with a slit at the point for the inser- 
tion of a blade (without nail-hole). To the rear 
its body is narrower and more slender, flattened 
from the upper and under side. One of the 
edges runs out into a wingshaped lateral barb, 
found on the left side of the head when what 
is presumably the upper side is turned up- 
wards; this lateral barb is flat, sharp-edged 
and pointed. The whole body from the lateral 
barb to the rear end, on the other hand, is 
more rounded, being elliptical in cross jsection. 
Seen in profile, the central part of the head 
curves considerably. The lower part of the 
Iv Ш piece has an incision running half way round 
and producing a tenon, whittled off towards the 
point, and l'5cm in length; this tenon bears 
traces of arbitrarily carved figures and rough- 
nesses, as if it had been meant to be lashed 
or inserted in a socket, the roughnesses serving 
to give a firmer purchase. 

I have not been able to find either in 
p. Mason, Murdoch, or Nelson any arrow the 

Bone head оГ a spear head of which resembles this specimen from 

or arrow (same as in ^ast Greenland. 

PI.XVl)üuiiholm.'/7. 

In Boas^) is seen an arrow-head from 



') Boas I, 005, fig. 444. 



367 



Boothia with two lateral barbs on the same side and with a 
pointed butt. Arrow-heads of the Central Eskimo type (Baffin 
Land etc.) are, according to Boas, always 'slanted and lashed to 
the shaft', whereas those of the western type (Boothia, Mackenzie 
River) are 'pointed and inserted in the shaft'. The arrow-heads 
from King William Land in the collection lOf the Gjøa expe- 
dition in the Ethnographical Museum at Christiania have, one 
and all , a bone head which at its butt is held in place 
by a lashing on the cylindrical wooden shaft, presumably 
inserted in a hole at the end of it (the lashing conceals the 
junction); these heads are either pointed at the fore end, or 
have a slit for the insertion of a blade; several of them have 
lateral barbs. Inv. Amd. 17 might be regarded as a similar 
arrow head of the more western type, i. e. 'pointed and inserted 
in the shaft' (Boothia, King William Land; also Alaska, cf. 
Nelson M, though no exactly corresponding specimen is known 
to us from the west. However, among the numerous varieties 
of bone arrows in the National Museum at Copenhagen there are 
several which resemble that treated of here pretty closely.^) 

It is, however, by no means out of the question that we 
have to do with the head of a bird-dart. The point of the Eskimo 
bird-dart was originally made blunt, in order to avoid piercing 
the skin of the bird, but is found from early times in two 
varieties, one with a blunt point-'), and the other with a pointed 
bone head and three barbed lateral points, placed a little behind 
the middle of the wooden shaft. 

Swenander gives reproductions from the Pfaff collection 
from West Greenland^) of a series of dart-heads with conically 
pointed ends and lateral barbs. Most of them are designated 
as harpoon heads (i. e. bone fore-pieces), or lance heads, though 

'I Nelson Pi. 61; Mason II, PI. :Л to 66. 
»I Solberg 73. 

») Mason II. PI. ;Л and .57; Nelson PI. 61. 
*) Swenander PI. 4. 

24* 



368 



with the qualification that "it cannot be determined with cer- 
tainty to what use any of them were apphed; besides, it is 
obvious that, with weapons applied to such similar uses as the 
dart and the lance, transitionary types must necessarily arise" ^). 
Practically all of them have in the median of the butt three, two, 
or one, line-holes pierced through them. These heads are fol- 
lowed by a series of lances without lateral barbs. It is only the 
last of these in his series, inv. Pfaff no. 169 from the Egedes- 
minde district in West Greenland, which need interest us here. 
It is somewhat larger (29"7 cm) and more clumsy than inv. 
Amd. 17, from which it differs also by being without a slit 
for the blade, but it has, like the latter, at the fore end a 
head-like expansion tapering away in front and thus producing 
a fairly blunt tip; and it has no line-hole. It has no lateral 
barb, but resembles inv. Amd. 17 in having its butt pointed 
and provided all the way round with irregular indentations to 
hold it fast in the socket in the shaft into which it is intended 
to fit. Swenander suggests that it (as well as the foregoing 
number in Inv, Pfaff, which has a line-hole) either must have 
been used as a lance-head, fitted in the kappout (the small 
lance), or else as a bird-dart. Inv. Amd. 17, as I have already 
remarked, might be thought to have been used as a bird-dart. 
Another, though less probable, supposition is that this 
bone head may have been used as a salmon spear, for fishing 
on the ice^); cf. Nelson (Alaska) ^). In the Gjøa collection at 
Christiania there are some fish-spears (nos. 16002—16006) from 
King William Land with heads of reindeer horn and shafts 
of wood. The heads, which have pointed butts and lateral 
barbs, are detachable, being fastened to the wooden shaft in 



^) Swenander 27. 

^) At Amnnassalik salmon is cought in the summer in rivers, with a three- 
pronged pitch-fork, during the winter through holes in the ice with a 
harpoon (Holm). 

=4 Nelson PI. 67 and 68. 



369 



harpoon fashion by a rawhide-line through a line-hole. A spear 
of this kind (fore-piece and wooden shaft) is about two metres 
long. Besides this kind of spear, which according to Amundsen 
is used for salmon-spearing from a kaiak^ the Gjøa collection 
has also some salmon spears of tlie ordinary well-known type 
(two-pronged or three-pronged forks on either side of a bone- 
point at the end of a shaft). However, as inv. Amd. 17 is 
not arranged so as to form a detachable fore-piece, it is not 
quite justifiable to compare it with these western fish-spears; 
especially, as fish-spears with detachable heads, as far as I 
know, are not known from any district in Greenland. 

A quite similar weapon-head was found in North East 
Greenland by the Swedish Expedition (Inv. Nathorst in the Riks- 
museum at Stockholm)^). It is 19'5cm long. The slit for the 
blade is very narrow and deep, and a transverse hole has been 
pierced through the head, to receive a nail. The centre of 
the piece is flatter than its fore part, and just here a lateral 
barb with a sharp tip is placed. The back part, again, is more 
or less cylindrical in cross section. At its rear extremity, this 
head is carved in the shape of a tang with a knob-like exten- 
sion at the tip. The upper side is smooth, the under side 
spongy. 

There is another quite similar bone head in Vienna (in 
Uie k. k. Naturhistorisches Hofmuseum, inv. no. 4905, see 
Appendix fig. 82); it belongs to a small collection of stone and 
bone implements which in 1876 was presented to the Museum 
at Vienna by the late Steinhauer, custodian at the National 
Museum at Copenhagen. It probably comes from West Green- 
land. The end of it is partially broken off', being split length- 
wise. Viewed from the side, the knob-shaped head is hardly as 
broad as in inv. Amd. 17^ and the lateral barb is placed at 
right angles to the blade slit, whereas in inv. Amd. 17 it lies 



M Stolpe PI. V, fig. I. i C'arrow-head"). 



370 



in the same plane as the slit ; in other respects they resemble 
each other perfectly. 

A bone-head from Scoresby Sund found by Ryder ^) may 
perhaps also be placed in the same category as these two 
specimens, but it should be noted that it has no lateral barb. 
Inv. Amd. 18 and 19 (Fig. 9). These two heads of white 
bone (or narwhal tusk) are of similar shape, 2I*5 and 19'5 cm in 
length respectively, cylindrical, and tapering towards the ends, 
with a very long bevel at the butt end. 

No. 18 (Fig. 9^) is a hollow bone; at the upper edge of 
the bevelling is bored a hole which reaches up to the medullary 
canal without piercing the bone right through; the medullary 
canal, moreover, is seen not merely at the lower part of the 
implement, almost throughout the whole length of the bevel, 
but also at the thin end, where it emerges along one side of 
the head as a very narrow elliptical aperture, stopped up with 
a wedged-in piece of wood. 

No. 19 (Fig. 9^) is carved out of the hard substance of a 
bone, the spongy layer of which is seen extending along one 
side. This bone, too, has a transverse hole in the same place 
as in the former, but here it runs right thorough, and its 
mouth on the side opposite to the bevelling is widened out as 
if to receive a knot. 

Both pieces are so well finished that the natural form of 
the bone is quite disguised. The upper surface is carefully 
polished. 

At first sight they look like weapon heads, but what kind of 
weapon heads? They cannot have been detachable, loose, har- 
poon heads belonging to the common sealing harpoons, or 
agdligak harpoons ^), or to the somewhat heavier walrusing 
harpoons^); against both these possibilities militates the position 



M Ryder 314, fig. 13 d. 

'-') Murdoch I, 212, fig. 197; Boas I, 494, fig. 429 a and b. 

8) Murdoch I, 224, fig. 214. 



of the hole (which runs right tlirough only in one of them), 
and especially the very long hevelling at the butt end ; the be- 
velling must have been intended for fastening them to another 
piece of bone, or to a shaft. They have no slits for blades, 




Fig. 9. Miniature bone fore-pieces of whaling harpoons. 
Cape Tobin, ''ig. 

and thus cannot have been the fore-pieces of sealing lances. 
Nor do they look like the fixed bone heads of bird-darts M: 
a partial resemblance to the head of an arrow from Alaska 



M Murdoch I, 211, fi2. 10.0; Nelson PI. .',1 and .50. 



372 



(illustrated in Mason ^)) which is inserted in the end of the 
shaft and wrapped round with sinew, must be regarded as a 
coincidence. 

On the other hand, the resemblance of these heads to the 
firmly secured bone heads at the end of whaling-harpoons of 
the type known from Alaska and from Baffin Land, is unmis- 
takable. But a remarkable point about them is their small size, 
which might lead one to suppose that they were only used as 
toys, or as models for boys to practise with. 

Murdoch ^j describes a foreshaft of a whaling harpoon from 
Alaska in the following terms: "Is of walrus-ivory and 15"8 inches 
long, with a diameter of 1^/2 inches at the butt. The oblong slot 
at the beginning of the chamfer is to receive the end of the lashing 
which secured this to the shaft." Boas^) gives the following brief 
description: "To this wooden shaft a bone point tapering towards 
the end is firmly attached." The illustration shows it to be cylin- 
drical. It seems to me by no means improbable that the two nar- 
whal tusk heads found by the German Expedition and by Nathorst 
(Hammar) in North East Greenland and mentioned by me under the 
heading of inv. Amd. 11, must have had the same function, namely 
of being fore-pieces for whaling harpoons. — 

Inv. Amd. 20 is the only one of the three-fold set of 
bone points fixed back of the centre of the shaft of a bird- 
dart, each in its plane around it, intended to catch the bird, 
when the point of the spear has eluded it — an ingenious 
contrivance which is found, executed in much the same manner, 
in all Eskimo districts. It is cut out of the side of a non- 
descript bone, greyish-white and spongy, especially on the flat 
under side, the upper side being slightly convex. The tip of 
the point is sharp, and the inner edge of it is cut particularly 
sharp round the two barbs. 

Several quite similar points have been discovered in North 



1) Mason II, PI. 53, fig. 1. 

2) Murdoch I, 239, fig. 237. 
9) Boas I, 500, fig. 436. 



373 



m 



East Greenland by "Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarexpedition" ^), 

by Hyder-), and by Nathorst ■'). 

Aside from the latter's find, the three other points are 

characteristic in so far as their barbs are not unilateral (i. e. 

placed only on the inner edge of the points), but that they 

have a barb also on the outer edge, and that this barb is — in 

all alike — situated a little further from the tip than 

the barb on the inner edge. The lowest of the 

inner barbs in the point found by Amdrup, as 

well as in Nathorsts point, are placed unusually 

far down (about at the middle of the point), and is 

less sharply marked than the corresponding barb 

in the two other points from East Greenland. For 

the rest, all the points which have been discovered 

are more or less of a pattern ; thus e. g., all 

of them have a little notch on the outer edge 

just where the edge forms the greatest outward 

curve; this notch being intended to receive a 

lashing which held this part of the point in its 

proper position on the wooden shaft; the butt of the 

point lies close up against the latter, and is secured 

with another lashing. Whereas the point discovered 

by Ryder was broken off at the base, the lower р;„ jg. 

part of inv. Amd. 20 is well preserved, and the Lateral point of 

same is true of that found by the German Expe- ' r^ .• 

•^ ^ Cape Tobin. 

dition; both of these latter are marked by the 
oblique cut in the butt end, characteristic of these imple- 
ments, which gives the lower edge a slanting shape, adapting 
it well for resting close up against the wooden shaft, and 
the equally characteristic reflexed or hooked end, which 
makes it possible with the aid of a light lashing to turn the 



Ш 



i\ 



') Koldewey I. 60.=>, fig. 18. 

*) Ryder 316 

*) Stolpe. Plate .5, fig 15. 



374 



point a little away from the shaft, to which it is secured solely 
along its basal edge ; the lashing nearer to the middle counter- 
acts this tendency of the basal lashing by exerting centripetal 
force. This manner of attaching these lateral points, which 
may be safely deduced from their form, seems different from 
the usual manner, where the two lashings work in the same 
direction, the position of the point depending solely on its 
form as soon as the base of it has been secured to the 
shaft, the lower part bending outwards and the middle part 
curving inwardly (cf. Appendix Figs. 83 and 84). In the bird- 
spears of Baffin Land the two separate lashings of the lateral 
points are placed around the elongated slanting butt^); the 
points of the bird-spears of Alaska^) have either two separate 
lashings round the lower part, or a single broader one ; the 
reflexed base is also found in some points from Alaska, but is 
lacking in others ^). It is particularly interesting to find the 
barb on the outer edge of the point, just as in the point from 
East Greenland, recurring in one of the lateral points of the 
bird-spears illustrated in Nelson, from St. Lawrence island in 
the Bering Strait^). Finally, it may be mentioned that the 
Chukchee^) employ bird-spears with lateral points, of a some- 
what different type, it would seem, from those of the Eskimo. 
Peculiar to inv. Amd. 20 are the two comparatively large 
perforated holes, which were presumably used for securing the 
lashings. 



GENERAL REMARKS. Most of the long weapon heads of 
the collection come from Dunholm, the little island hardly twenty 
miles south of the entrance to Scoresby Sund, where an old 



') Boas I, 496, fig. 4:«. 

2) Nelson PI. 59; Murdoch 1, 211,213, figs. 195, 199. 

Я) Nelson 150, fig. 42. 

■•) Nelson fig. 42, no. 6. 

b) Bogoras, 146. 



375 



Eskimo tent-place was discovered out in the open, though always 
ice-61led, sea. In Skaergaardshalvö, which lies two degrees further 
to the south, there was only found a very defective fore-piece 
of a harpoon or lance {inv. Amd. 11). The latter has, like the 
well-preserved loose bone-shaft of a lance which was found in 
Dunholm {inv. Amd. 12), a double line-hole, and must thus have 
been secured to the wooden shaft by a double-running line. 

The longest weapon head of bone {itiv. Amd. 13) which 
was found in Dunholm has, on the other hand, only a single 
line-hole. The flat form of the head and its light weight render 
it doubtful whether it can have been a part of a lance; and 
the line-hole and the form of the butt are hardly in favour of 
its having been attached to a dart; all things considered, there 
is more to be said for the first possibility; in this case it be- 
longs to a primitive type of the Eskimo lance. 

Finally, there was discovered in Dunholm a curious shaped 
weapon head with a slit for the blade, one lateral barb, and basal 
tenon, which must, in my view, have been the head of an arrow, 
or of a bird-dart (inv. Amd. 17). 

At the north corner of the mouth of Scoresby Sund, at 
Cape Tobin, was discovered the lateral point of a bird-dart, 
which in its main features represents the type common to all 
Eskimo tribes. One feature of this point [inv. Amd. 20) — the 
barb placed on its outer edge — confirms the impression we 
had formed of two points with lateral barbs previously found 
in North East Greenland, namely that there must have existed 
a peculiar form of this bird-dart accessory in this part of the 
Eskimo world, characterized especially by the barb on the 
outer edge. 

Further inv. Amd. 18 and 19 were also found in these 
parts, a fact which seems to indicate that the whaling-harpoons 
from the more westerly Eskimo districts, with a fixed fore-piece 
of bone, must have been known in North East Greenland. 
This find confirms our impression that the former inhabitants 



376 



engaged in whaling in these parts. — I must also make men- 
tion here of the three quite similar foreshafts for harpoons or 
lances which were found in Dunholm (inv. Amd. 73, 74, 75), 
and which will be described more in detail when I come to 
describe the other objects found there. These implements, 
moreover, when compared with the flat, square 'caps of bone' ^} 
which are otherwise used as foreshafts throughout the whole 
of Greenland, will be seen to be of a type foreign to that 
country. They approximate much more closely to the foreshafts 
of the West Eskimo pattern. 



Murdoch I, 223. 



4. Stone Implements. 

(Figs. II to 16, pag. 381.) 



luv. Amd. 21 (Fig. 11) is a finely polislied piece of light- 
gray clay-slate, triangular, with convex faces, and two slightly 
curved edges. It was found in a kitchen-midden outside the 
ruins of a house in Skaergaardshalvö. It is 3'2 cm at its greatest 
length, but is merely the fragment of a larger, probably elong- 
ated blade. The sharp pointed end might lead one to suppose 
that it is the blade of a weapon head, but the objection to this 
is that one of the edges is cut sharp, while the other is blunt 
or broad like the back of a womans knife (w/o); weapon heads 
are generally two-edged and are cut alike on both faces. One 
of the faces of this specimen has traces of an oblique ridge, 
or what is possibly the edge of a ground facet; the edge line 
fades away towards the part which has been broken off. 

The specimen has no perforated hole, which fact, however, 
does not militate against the supposition that it might be the 
end of a woman's knife, as the holes in a knife of this kind, 
or at any rate one of them, may well be situated 3 cm within 
the end of the blade (cf. inv. Amd. 23). It is also possible 
that it is to be reckoned as the stone-blade of a 'crooked 
knife" (Murdoch)') a specimen of which was found in Scoresby 
Sund by Ryder ^). 

Whate\er kind of cutting or boring implement this speci- 
men is a part of, it is remarkable to notice the care with 



>) Mordoch I, 157. 

*) Ryder 322, fig. 21 d; cf. Solberg 60. 



378 



which the polishing has been executed over the whole surface 
(so far as the latter has been preserved unbroken), rendering 
it perfectly smooth and bright. 

Inv. Amd. 22 is an oblong, flat stone (in linear measure- 
ment circa 6'5 cm X 2 cm) of reddish (iron-holding) clay- 
slate, found in a grave in Skærgaardshalvo. Like the foregoing 
specimen, it is truncated at one end, and has probably been 2 
or 3 cm longer. Its sides are perfectly flat and smoothly pol- 
ished; one of its edges is shaped like the edge of a knife, but 
is blunt (worn away?); the other is 4 or 5mm in thickness. 
The stone is of the material out of which the Greenland grind- 
stones are usually made; in form it resembles the blade of a 
woman's knife [ulo]. 

The hole which has been preserved at one end has been 
perforated from both sides, two conical openings, one of 
which is bored rather crookedly, having been arranged to meet 
half way. The German North Pole Expedition^) found in North 
East Greenland a woman's knife of reddish clay-slate. It is 
probable that inv. Amd. 22 was the blade of a knife of 
this kind. 

Inv. Amd. 23 is a blade belonging to the bone handle 
of a woman's knife (ulo); the handle will be described in detail 
under the heading of inv. Amd. 42. The blade, which was 
found firmly stuck in the basal slit of the bone shaft is a 
short, silicious, fairly soft, stone (clay-slate), 8'5 cm in length, 
quite flat, or with very slightly convex sides, which have been 
rather roughly polished, only the two converging surfaces (bevels) 
on either side of the sharp edge being smoothly polished. The 
back of the blade is flat and unwrought. One of the ends of 
the blade has been broken off. 

The two holes in the blade have been bored from two 
sides. In one of them is still sticking part of the twisted sinew 



M Koldewey I, 601, fig. 5 a. 



379 

thread with which the blade has been secured to the haft 
through two corresponding holes in its lower part. The upper 
part of the blade has been driven home into a slit on the 
lower side of the haft; but even if the blade could go right 
to the bottom of this slit, its two holes can never have 
come down far enough to tally with those in the haft, the slit 
not being deep enough for this. The two holes in the blade 
must accordingly have lain outside the slit, and been visible 
under its lower edges, and the sinew cord must have run 
from the holes in the blade up along both outer sides of the 
bone haft to the holes in the latter in which it was secured. 
Traces of the tautening of the lashing can still be seen in two 
grooves in the upper surface of the bone under one of the 
holes (cf. fig. 21a). 

The form and appearance of this blade correspond more 
or less to the blade in one of the ulos which Ryder ^) brought 
home with him, where it was found fixed in a wooden haft 
and secured with a sinew lashing in a similar manner to the 
knife found by Amdrup, namely with exteriorly fastened straps 
passing from the holes in the blade to the holes in the haft. 

Most of the ulo blades hitherto found in North East Green- 
land are of a somewhat different type, having the shape of a 
section of a circle in which the edge describes the arc and the 
two blunt side edges form the radii. BothRyder^) and Nathorst-'^) 
found women's knives of this type, made entirely of stone, 
without a haft of bone or wood. The curved edge, however, 
is no doubt a feature which the two types have in common. For 
the rest, several specimens of the type of a circular section 
are imperfectly cut, tlie upper part (i. e. that nearest to the 
centre) being broken off, and the quadrilateral blade thus formed 
being perforated and inserted into a haft. As for other details 

'1 Ryder 331, ßg. 29c. 

*) Ryder 331, fig. b. 

') Stolpe PI. VI, ng. 19; PI. Ill, fig. 10; the same in Solbeig 56, fig. 48. 



380 

regarding the types of the ulo^ the reader may be referred to 
the excellent papers of 0. Mason ^), and my occasional remarks 
under the heading of inv. Amd. 45 and 80. 

Inv. Amd. 24 is a thin flake of gray clay-slate found in 
Dunholm, 85 cm in length and 2 cm in breadth, with a clearly 
marked, though blunt, median ridge on one of its surfaces, 
and with sharp edges. The terminal edges, which have 
been broken off, are on the other hand, not sharp. The spe- 
cimen shows no trace of polishing or finishing so that it is 
uncertain whether it is an artefact at all, and whether it has 
ever been in use. 

Inv. Amd. 25 is a more or less globular stone of circa 
3"5 cm in diameter, with a segment broken away on one side, 
and hollowed out. The mouth of the kettle-shaped cavity thus 
produced is 2 cm in diameter. The interior of the cavity is 
globular, like the exterior surface of the stone. The specimen 
does not correspond to any part of any known Eskimo im- 
plement, and it is by no means easy to say whether it has 
been used as toy (a pot), or as an amulet, or as a tool. Per- 
haps it was only the curious globular form of the natural stone 
{a form extremely rare in Greenland) which gave occasion to 
the fabrication of this artefact. 

Inv. Amd. 26 is a thin piece of gray clay -slate (circa 
2'5 X 2'6 cm) with flat, roughly polished sides, and a sharp 
turned up edge fringing it on two sides. On the two other 
sides the stone is broken off, in such a manner that one of 
the two perforated holes which lie close to one another at 
a distance of 2 cm, has been broken in half. These two holes 
are bored obliquely and from both sides. 

There is a slight vestige of polishing along one part of 
the curved edge, but only on one side of the blade. 

Probably the fragment of a knife-blade {ulo). 



1) Mason, 1 and VI, 585. 



381 






Fig. 11 iini: Amd. 21). 



Fig. 15 [inxi. Amd. 25). 




Fig. 13 [inv. Amd. 23). 




Fig. 12 (inv. Amd. 22). 





Fig. 16 (inv. Amd. 26). 



Fig. 14 (inv. Amd. 24). 



Fies 11 — 16 \inv. Amd. 21 — 26). Stone implements. 11 — 13 from 
^kæreaardshalvo, 14 — 15 from Dunholm, Н; from Sabine island. -I». 



25 



383 

GENERAL REMARKS. Few, and to a great extent frag- 
mentary as these stone implements from North East Greenland 
are, they nevertheless add their fresh testimony to the stone 
artefacts previously known from these parts. In the Museum 
fur Völkerkunde in Berlin there are 9 wrought stones brought 
from East Greenland by "Die zweite deutsche Nordpolarfahrt", 
among them 2 ulo stone blades, 2 arrow-heads, 1 or 2 knives 
of pronounced Eskimo stone age type (the same type as those 
from Point Barrow illustrated in Murdoch ^), as well as some 
nondescript specimens. Further, Ryder declares himself to 
have found 3 arrow-heads^), and 3 lance stone-heads^), all 
of slate, triangular, pointed and two-edged, one man's knife 
of stone ^) and 9 women's knives {ulos) of stone ^), and a 
scraper of flint '^j (all of them in the National Museum at Co- 
penhagen). The Swedish Expedition under Nathorst has in its 
collection at least 2 women's knives^) of stone and 4 one- 
edged knives^). In the Ethnographical Museum at Christiania 
there is a fragment of a woman's knife ^), and a one-edged 
stone knife from North East Greenland, 17'5cm in length. 

Taken together, these stone implements from North East 
Greenland convey the impression that the Eskimo who first 
arrived on this coast were merely treading in the steps of their 
forefathers of the stone age. To form any conclusions as to 
how long this stone-age culture held its own in these regions, 
would now be premature. It may be a mere coincidence that, 
comparatively speaking, so little light js shed on this point 



M Murdoch I 1.Я, (Ig. 107 a and b. 

-') Ryder 309, fig. 8. 

•'I Id. 316; 315, flg. 15. 

♦) Id. 322, fig. 21. 

^) Id. 330, fig. 29. 

«) Id. 333, fig. 31. 

") .Stolpe, PI. 3; .Solberg 55, flgs. 46 and 48. 

") Solberg PI. 9, flgs. 4 to 8; Stolpe PI. 4. 

«I Solberg PI 9, fig. 3. 



25' 



384 



by the collections hitherto made of stone objects from this 
part of Greenland. As a rule, it is the largest and best- 
preserved houses which have been excavated, while the older 
and much dilapidated houses have not received so much atten- 
tion. Moreover, the rubbish heaps in front of the houses, par- 
ticularly the oldest ones, have only here and there been thor- 
oughly ransacked. I am inclined to believe that it is as yet 
premature to speak — as 0. Solberg^) does — of the rapid 
decay and disappearance of the stone-age culture in North 
East Greenland, and from the temporary scantiness of stone 
implements discovered there, to draw conclusions as to the 
short life of the Eskimo culture now extinct in those parts. 

I particularly disagree with Solberg's general statement that 
the one-edged stone knives found in North East Greenland only 
to a very slight extent resemble Eskimo implements, and can 
only be explained as the result of European influence. It may 
possibly hold good of some few knives with iron blades and 
wooden hafts, which may have had their origin in Clavering's 
Expedition to the coast in 1823 (see under inv. Amd. 79)^ or 
have been washed on to the ice from whalers, or have been 
brought there by immigrants from the south in times past. 
But Murdoch mentions, as typical of the western Eskimo cul- 
ture in Alaska, not only stone- knives, both two-edged and one- 
edged, but also crooked knives with wooden hafts ^). There 
is thus nothing remarkable in our finding similar types of im- 
plements in North East Greenland (cf. also under inv. Amd. 69]. 

The stone artefacts brought home by Amdrup have there- 
fore a claim on our interest (except perhaps one specimen, the 
artificiality of which is doubtful). Three of the objects are 
from Skærgaardshalvo, which for the present I choose to regard 
as the southern boundary of the North East Greenland culture; 



>) Solberg 59—60. 

2) Murdoch I, 151 — 161. 



385 



I may add that also among the objects found in the Ammas- 
salik district there are some few stone implements. I shall leave 
it to specialists on Eskimo archæology to determine what the 
objects found have to teach us as to the stone craftsmanship 
of the North East Eskimo. Their art as a whole can scarcely 
be said to be of the most primitive kind. As for the types of 
the implements, it can hardly be denied that several of the 
stone implements found in North East Greenland are charac- 
teristic samples of the prehistoric Eskimo culture. 



5. Finds from SkærgaardsMvo (68° lat К), the most 
southerly part of Iforth East G-reenland. 



The foregoing sections have treated of three kinds of Eskimo 
implements which have hitherto been the object of particular 
attention on the part of ethnographers, and which are all re- 
presented in Amdrup's collection from North East Greenland, 
without taking into account the particular locality on the coast 
where they were found. 

The rest of the collection will be described in the geo- 
graphical order, the sections beginning from the southernmost 
place of former habitation and proceeding gradually north. As 
1 have mentioned before, I reckon the southern boundary of 
North East Greenland to lie where the Ammassalik district 
begins, namely at Kangerdlugsuak, at about 68° lat. N. and 
31° 56' long. W. On the coast just north of this fjord was 
discovered an extinct Eskimo settlement, where the expedition 
made a comparatively rich haul of archæological relics and 
remains. 

[ shall here quote Lieutenant Amdrup's own description, 
translated into English. He was coming at that time from the 
north. On the 29th July 1900 he had left Cape Dalton, the 
most northerly starting point of the Expedition, in an open boat, 
whence with three companions he made his way southwards 
along the coast, following the polar current, towards Ammas- 
salik. On the 8th August they had reached Kangerdlugsuak, 
where the peninsula of Skaergaardshalvö lies. 



387 

'On the south side of Sk-cergaardshahö, where we landed, 
Eskimo had previously lived. On tlie whole stretch of coast from 
Cape Dalton up to here, we had not found a single trace of 
Eskimo having travelled or lived there. But here we found no less 
than 8 house ruins, 6 tent places, 11 fox traps, 1 bear trap, and 
numerous graves. It was quite apparent from the nature of the 
houses that they had not been inhabited simultaneously. Owing 
to the lack of turf the houses had been buiU mainly of stones, 
fitted together awkwardly. Several of the houses were very old, 
and some of them had quite tumbled to pieces. One of them 
was apparently of more recent date, and unusually well preserved. 
In this house the platform along the back wall was built of flat 
stones, so that it seems as if the inhabitants did not possess parti- 
cularly large quantities of wood. But there must be excellent op- 
portunities for hunting in the Kangerdlugsuak fjord, for there were 
plenty of seals, several bears and narwhals were seen, and in Skcer- 
gaardshalvö itself there were numerous traces of bears. 

We set to work at once to excavate and examine the houses 
and graves. Several of the graves were extraordinarily well con- 
structed. On the Expedition of 1898 — 99, we had found in Depotö 
Island (66° 07' lat. N.) a grave which had a feature that marked 
it off from all others we had seen , viz. , that a little chamber 
was constructed by the side of it. In Skcergaardshalvö we dis- 
covered several graves of this kind, and at the same time lighted 
upon the explanation of what the chamber was used for. It was 
intended as a repository for all the implements etc., which were 
put in along with the dead, whereas in the graves without a chamber 
these were placed in the graves themselves. 

In one of the graves examined the corpses seem to have lain 
fully clad upon a bedding of bear-skin, for we found remains both 
of hairy seal-skin and hairless skin, and on the skulls, which were 
otherwise complete skeletons, the lanky black hair of the head was 
still adhering. The excavations of the houses gave no result at all, 
while the graves, on the other hand, yielded what under the circum- 
stances may be called an unusually rich collection of ethnographical 
objects, most of which we took with us. We had also room in 
the boat for three of the best-preserved skulls." 

The objects from Skaergaard.shalvö are thus, with a single 

') Meddeleleer om Grenland Vol. XXVII, 240-241. 



388 

exception (inv. Amd. 21), ail grave finds. Besides the objects 
brought home, there were found in the graves 1 wooden tray, 
1 wooden ladle, a number of worked pieces of wood, 1 frag- 
ment of a soapstone pot, and two fragments of lamp bowls, 
one of them of soapstone, the other of a soft kind of gneiss; 
these objects were not taken in the boat owing to lack of room. 
In the enumeration of the objects found four graves in all are 
mentioned, one of which was considered to be a child's grave ; 
above it a toy sledge {inv. Amd. 27) was found. Most of the 
objects were discovered in a little stone chamber built by the 
side of the three adult's graves. To judge by the nature of 
the objects, one of these must have been a man's grave and 
another a woman's. For the finds consist in the one case of 
man's implements, harpoon heads, a drill, part of a lance, in the 
other of woman's paraphernalia (woman's knife, bodkins and 
bead ornaments). 

Inv. Amd. 27 (Fig. 17) is a model of a sledge made of wood, 
found above one of the children's graves under some flat stones. 
It consists of two runners, 30 cm in length, and 3'5 cm in 
height (without bone shoes or vestiges of them), and four 
loose cross-bars, averaging 9 cm in length, 3"5 cm in breadth, 
which have been secured by a lashing on to the runners. Without 
doubt, one or more of the cross-bars are missing. There were 
no traces of the uprights. The upper edges of the two runners 
are straight, without upturned tips; their basal edges curve 
upwards towards the fore end, and the curve begins at a dis- 
tance of 8 or 9 cm from the end of the tip, which practically 
means that about two-thirds of the runner glides over the firm 
snow, while the remaining third does not touch it. At the rear, 
the runner is rectangular. The wood is of uniform thickness 
behind and in front, so that the under surface of the runners 
is of the same breadth at either end. 

Both the upper and under edge of each runner is cham- 
fered obliquely, which shows that the vertical planes of the 



389 



391 



runners must have inclined towards each other, the distance be- 
tween them being less above than below. The distance between 
them above, to judge by the length and form of the cross-bars, 
must have been 5*5cm; if the runners are now placed in such 
a position that their chamfered under-surfaces rest entirely upon 
the ground, the distance below will be about 7 cm. When they 
are placed in this position, the cross-bars will also rest entirely 
on the chamfered upper surfaces. This, however, would be an 
exaggerated divergence of the runners, and it can only be ex- 
plained by the fact that the sledge is merely a toy or an in- 
complete model. 

The cross-bars (which in the accompanying illustration 
have been placed at a venture in the position they are presumed 
to have occupied on the runners) must have protruded a little 
beyond the runners on both sides of the sledge; before they 
became weathered, they must all have been more or less uni- 
form, notched at both ends so that a kind of neck is produced 
at either side of the broader body. Each of the cross-bars 
has towards each end of its body two holes pierced to receive 
the lashing. As in each runner, a little below the upper edge, 
there is a row of 7 holes, it is uncertain whether there were 
one, or two holes in the runner corresponding to each cross- 
bar; if we suppose there was one for each, there must then 
have been seven cross-bars on the sledge, and these must have 
lain close to one another. 

One of the cross-bars has an extra hole a little within the 
centre of one of the edges. In the larger sledges there is 
generally a hole of this kind in one of the back cross-bars 
near the uprights where the baggage is placed, to receive the 
lashing wherewith the latter is tied. But in this toy sledge, 
where the runners have not the usual hole pierced in front to 
receive the cross line which holds the dog-traces, this hole may 
possibly have been bored in the first cross-bar in front, for 
the reception of a cord wherewith the sledge was drawn. 



392 



Particular interest attaches to the two holes pierced right 
up in the upper edge of the back part of the runners. They 
are placed higher than the other holes, so much so that in 
one of the runners the hole has been bored from the inner 
side of the runners obhquely upwards, so that it debouches on 
the narrow upper surface of the runner (in the other runner 
the wood has been partially splintered at this spot). It may 
be permitted to assume that these two holes must have been 
used for lashing one of the missing uprights (if the sledge 
possessed any^). If we consider the distance between these 
holes and the back edge of the runners, we get the impression 
that the feet of these uprights must have been comparatively 
long. 

Almost all the previous expeditions to North East Green- 
land speak of having found sledges, or parts of sledges. 

Scoresby made a similar find in Traill Island (72° 12', in 
the south part of the big Franz Joseph Fjord complex^). "One 
large piece of main-keel was found entire. It was composed 
of fir-wood (probably drift-timber) and defended by a row of 
pieces of bone, fastened to it by wooden pegs inserted in 
holes ^lio^^^ of an inch in diameter." 

Besides this, in several places a number of sledge keels 
were found. Whereto Scoresby makes the comment, that this 
great number of fragments of sledge parts indicates that the 
population must once not merely have been numerous, but must 
also have made extensive use of sledges. 

Of special interest here is the sledge which was discovered 
and brought home by "Die zweite deutscheNordpolarexpedition"^), 
and which now reposes in the Museum für Völkerkunde in Berlin 



Murdoch (1, 355) designates as characteristic of sledges of the Greenland 
type "two upright posts at each side of the back of the sled, often 
connected by a cross rail, which serves to guide the sled from behind". 
Scoresby, Journal 267. 
Koldewey G85. 



393 



(see Appendix, fig. 85i. It was found on the same day that the 
Expedition was about to leave the country to return home (16lh 
August 1870) near an old Eskimo settlement at Cape Hold- 
with-hope (Cape Broer Ruys) at 73° 30', just north of the mouth 
of Franz Joseph's Fjord M- It is both larger (208 cm long), 
more unwieldy, and more clumsily fashioned than the ordinary 
Greenland sledges. Clumsy as the sledge is, when we consider 
the hardness and weight of the logs of drift-wood out of 
which it was fashioned, and the big holes, most of them rect- 
angular and on an average 7 or 8 cm in length, which they 
have managed with their primitive tools to pierce in the run- 
ners, one cannot refrain from wonder at what they have ac- 
complished. 

Doubts might well be entertained as to whether this sledge 
is of the Eskimo type, for it is widely different from the Green- 
land sledges with which we are familiar. I believe, however, 
that along with the picture one will be obliged to form of 
the North East Greenland sledge, it will be necessary to modify 
to a certain extent one's conception of the East Eskimo type 
of sledge. The sledge model found by Amdrup corresponds in 
all essential details with this complete sledge found by the 
German Expedition at 6V2 degrees of latitude further to the 
north on the same coast; and the sledge runner found in 1899 
by the Swedish Expedition (illustrated in the Appendix, fig. 86 ^)) 

') Die zweite deutsche Nordpolarfahrt, Vol. 1 (1874), page ()8.5 : "The still 
well-preserved and almost entire pieces of an Eskimo dog-sledge which 
were found further to the east, by the shore, lying by each other in 
the right order. They consisted of both of the runners, roughly fashioned 
out of drift timber, on the lower surface of which the holes and to 
some extent the wooden nails with which the rails of bone or ivory 
had been fastened to them, were still in preservation. Besides this, 
there lay by them some of the connecting cross-pieces, as well as one 
of the pieces of wood which are fastened on behind as uprights. The 
circular and .square holes through which the dog-traces and the rawhide 
straps for fastening them were passed were distinctly preserved, but not 
a vestige of the leather itself was to be seen". 

''l This sledge is in the Nathorst collection in the Stockholm Kiksmuseum. 



394 



gués to confirm the picture we have formed, viz. a broad heavy 
sledge, one meter or more in length, the two runners of which 
are quite straight along their upper edge, not curving up in 
front like those of the West Greenland sledges ; with irregularly 
cut cross-pieces, which have at either end two holes through 
which have passed the straps with which they have been fastened 
to the runners through large, often rectangular holes; with a 
keel of flat pieces of bone or ivory, which are nailed to the 
under surface of the runners by means of wooden pegs. Whether 
it had uprights or not, is not quite clear. It is true that a 
pair of uprights have been fathered on the sledge of the Ger- 
man Expedition, but it is by no means certain that the function 
of the comparatively narrow wooden sticks which were found 
lying together with the other parts, has been rightly under- 
stood^). 

We find a quite similar sledge among the central Eskimo 
in King William Land, from which Amundsen brought three 
large sledges, two of which are now in the Ethnographical 
Museum at Christiania, and the third in the Ethnographical 
Museum at Bergen (Appendix fig. 90); these three are entirely 
without uprights. 

In contradistinction to the above, the sledges of the Smith 
Sund Eskimo (at Cape York) have uprights resembling those of 
the central West Greenlanders (in Umanak fjord and Disko Bay). 
The sub-arctic Eskimo in West Greenland between Holstensborg 
and Cape Farvel, as we know, do not make use of sledges. At 
Ammassalik, in the central part of the East coast, the sledges 
are comparatively small and narrow and the uprights are of a 
peculiar type (Appendix fig. 89), being several times broader at 
the foot than above, their upper parts being rounded and having 
an indentation as a rest for the hands in steering them down 



') In any case there are reason for supposing that the uprights, if they 
existed, were fastened to the inner side or on the upper surface of the 
runners, not to the outer side. 



39; 



a slope or between the hummocks on the sea ice. The use of 
uprights made of vsood seems to be confined to Greenland. 

Among the central Eskimo the use of uprights is only 
spoken ot among the Baffin Land Eskimo ^), and they use as 
uprights reindeer horns, adhering to the skulls. It is con- 
ceivable that it is this latter contrivance which has given 
rise to the use of the wooden uprights which are characteristic 
of the East Eskimo sledges in Greenland. 

The East Eskimo type of sledge, however great its varia- 
tions in detail, corresponds only to one of the two types 
which, according to Murdoch -), are in use among the West 
Eskimo, particularly in the north of Alaska. One of these 
Arctic Alaska types, which is unknown to the eastwards, is 
common to the Alaska Eskimo and the Chukchee in North 
East Siberia-'). The other, smaller type (миш = "the one which 
is dragged") which is low and flat, without rails or uprights, 
is used mainly for transporting game, or the women's boat 
{umiak\ across the land or solid ice. "Both kinds are made 
without nails, but are fastened together by mortises and lashings 
and stitches of thong and whalebone; both kinds are made of 
drift-wood and shod with strips of whale's jaw fastened on with 
bone treenails." As Murdoch^) goes on to remark, it is the 
unia type which corresponds to that of Greenland, except in 
the fad that it is without uprights. It is this type of sledge 
which must apparently be regarded as typical of the Eskimo, 
which is found recurring variouly fashioned, but on a large, and 
in fact the very largest scale among the Eskimo in King William 
Land and in North East Greenland. Inv. Amd. 21 ^ a little toy 
sledge, found on a child's grave in the extreme east of the 
Eskimo lands, is probably an imitation of this type. 



>) Boas I, 529. 

■') Murdoch I, 353. 

*) Bogoras ICS — 106. 

*) Murdoch I, 353. 



396 

Inv. Amd. 28, 29 and 30 (illustrations of which are found 
in figs. 47, a, b, c) are three small bones of similar nature 
(knuckle-bones or tarsi of a mammiferous animal?) which are 
used as drill caps (head-pieces) in boring. In the centre of 
each is seen a fairly deep cavity due to the wearing action of 
the upper end of the revolving drill-stock. The head-piece is 
placed lengthwise in the mouth, in such a manner that the 
teeth tightly grip the elongated crest of the bone, while the 
knob-shaped thick part of the bone sticks out from between 
the teeth and forms a support for the upper end of the drill. 

At one end of each of them there is a transverse hole, 
intended for a strap for hanging up. 

Ryder ^) found in Scoresby Sund a similar 'mouthpiece' 
of a drill made of the tarsus of a reindeer. Quite similar 
mouthpieces {kimmiän), made of the knuckle of a seal's paw, are 
used at Ammassalik. 

Inv. Amd. 31 (Fig. 19) is a slender bodkin, 9 cm in length, 
in the middle oval in cross section, but flattened towards both 
ends, gradually tapering towards the point, where both side 
edges are sharp, just as the point is quite sharp, in contra- 
distinction to the other bodkins in the collection. Through 
the flat knob of the thick end an eye (to receive a strap for 
hanging up) has been bored: the part under the knob has a 
concave indentation. 

Several bodkins of a similar nature were found by the 
Nathorst Expedition in North East Greenland^). Some of them 
(like the bone needles found by Ryder*) may be compared with 
the marline-spikes described by Murdoch''), the use of which 



>) Ryder 323. 

2) Nelson 81, and PI. 37; Hough 1, 562 — : "The small wooden and 
bone mouth-pieces of the Eskimo east of Point Barrow to Cumberland 
Gulf (Alaska) seem to be copies of the deer knuckle-bone". 

Я) Stolpe, PI. IV, fig. 13. 

*) Ryder 319—320 (cf. Boas I, 523, fig. 4721. 

^) Murdoch I, 292: "This implement is used in putting on the backing of 



397 



is well known from Alaska. But the nail found by Amdrup 
is so well adapted for piercing with, that it must, no doubt, 
have been used as an awl for piercing holes for stitches in 
skinM. 

It is worth noticing that the Eskimo at Ammassalik use a 
similar kind of implement (a 'bone plug') for closing up the 
wound of the seal they have killed^). 

Inv. Amd. 32 (Fig. 20). This needle is remarkable for its 
short, broad, and flat form; it is only 7*5 cm long and 1 cm 
broad in the middle. The ring-shaped head, which is now 
highly weathered, must originally have measured circa Г8 cm 
in diameter. The needle from the middle tapers off towards 
both ends; at the pointed tip, moreover, it is quite thin, so 
that the edges both at the broad end and some distance up 
along the sides are sharp. 

The implement does not seem to be adapted for piercing 
hard material or hides. The broad tip renders it more probable 
that it was used for making folds in skin (e. g. at the edge of 
the large upward-turned kamik soles which are well known 
further southwards along the East coast), or have been used 
in some way in women's needlework, though not directly as 
a needle. 

It resembles some of the boot-sole creasers described 
by Nelson^). 

Inv. Amd. 33 to 44 (Fig. 18). There were found, in all, 
12 entire bodkins of this type and 1 fragment in Skærgaards- 



a bow to raise parts of the cord when an end is to be passed under, 
and In tucking in the ends in finishing off a whipping ". 

') Nelson PI. 46, figs. 13—16 (bodiiins with knob-like heads without eye). 
— Two bodkins of a similar kind are found in the Amundsen collection 
(the Gjôa Expedition) at Christiania, N0.15711, length 127 cm. quite 
pointed, without eye; and iNo. 157Г2, length 99 cm, with a blunt point 
and an eye (to receive a cord loop for hanging up). 

») Holm PI. 1.:.. 

^) NeUon 108 and PI. 44, fig. 50. 
XXVIII 26 



398 

halvö. They have a length of from 8*5 to 13 cm. Ten (eleven) 
of them resemble each other closely, being cylindrical in cross 
section, tapering towards the point, which in all of them is 
blunt, except in the fragment which has a point formed by 
four short oblique cuts. Around the head end (the thick end, 
circ. 1 cm broad in cross section) in most of them, has been 
cut a series of from four to eight independent rings. Three of 
the bodkins are without these rings. 

An eye for a thread is found on the flattened top of 10 
of them (in that furthest to the left in the figure it has been 
broken and replaced by a lateral eye); the eye is carefully per- 
forated through a low projection on the flat top of the head; 
a very fine and sharp drill must have been used in this per- 
foration, which has been made from two sides, obhquely down- 
wards, so that the perforated holes meet under the foot of 
the projection. The hole thus curves a little downwards in the 
middle. 

Only one of these bodkins (the next but one on the right 
in the illustration) is of a somewhat different variety, being 
flat like a lancet, though without sharp edges, and the eye is 
produced by a simple lateral perforation through the broad end. 
Cf. inv. Amd. 106. 

In North East Greenland, a needle similar to those first 
mentioned, with a cylindrical body and with six rings in the 
thick end, was found by Ryder ^) in a child's grave. The upper 
part of it is flattened laterally, and the eye produced by a 
transverse perforation. 

In the National Museum at Copenhagen there is a little 
collection of 10 bodkins found by K. I. V. Steenstrup at Eqaluit, 
near Ikerasak on the Umanak fjord in West Greenland. These 
ten bodkins correspond to those from East Greenland both as 
regards the rings round the thick end and the cacuminally 



') Ryder 333, and fig. 32a (National Museum at Copenhagen, Lc. 1426). 



399 




Fig. 18 (inv. Ämd. 33 to 44). 



Fig. 19 {inv. Amd. 31). Fig. 20 [inv. Amd. 32). 

iNeedles and bodidns. Siiaergaardshalvö. 'I2. 



26* 



401 



placed eye. From the same quarter come 5 bodkins of quite 
the same type (6 to 9 cm in length), now at the Ethnographical 
Museum at Christiania (inv. Nos. 6947 — 5960). — This type 
seems to be peculiar to Greenland. It is true, we occasionally 
meet with annular incisions in bodkins or marline-spikes 
outside Greenland, but there they are more richly ornamented 
and have knob-shaped heads, which are often representations 
of animals heads M. In PfafiTs collection from West Greenland, 
in the Riksmuseum at Stockholm, there are two so-called ajagak 
sticks (Sticks for the ring-and-pin game) which have these 
annular incisions round the upper thicker part, and the upper 
ends of which are cut in the form of human faces (see Appendix 
figs. 92 and 93). 

Inv. Amd. 45 (Fig. 21) is a bone haft belonging to the 
blade of stone described under the heading of inv. Amd. 23; 
they are the parts of a woman's knife (ulo) of a highly differenti- 
ated type. The haft consists of four pieces, which are grooved 
into and partially nailed to one another. 

At the bottom is the blade-holder (see fig. 21) or the 'haft 
proper', an elongated thinly cut bone with two parallel side 
surfaces and two diverging end surfaces. In the under edge 
of this haft there is a comparatively broad open slit, into 
which the stone blade fits. At the bottom of the slit are seen 
two holes, which might indicate that a blade other than 
that which is there now was once inserted there, and fastened 
in a diff'erent manner. This perhaps also serves to explain 
the large aperture (8 mm in diameter) which is seen at one 
side of the holder, just where one of the legs of the upper 



M See e. g. Nelson 193; cf. PI. 46 and 48 (description pp. 106—107). For 
simpler types see Murdoch I, 318, fig. 325 (flat, without rings, with la- 
teral eyes). Another type of needle, triangular in cross section, thickest 
in the middle, where the eye has been pierced, tapering towards the 
tip at both ends, was found by Die zweite deutsche Nordpolarexpedition 
(I, 605. flg. 19Ь); the same type is known from the Central Eskimo 
(Iglalikl. See Boas, 1, 523, fig. 472 and II. 94, fig. 136. 



402 

part of the ulo has been grooved in, so that its foot is exposed 
in the opening (there is a break in the haft just underneath in 
which the lower end of the leg is visible). A little higher up, 
over the two small holes in the side of the 'haft proper', which 
are intended to be used in fastening the blade by means of a 
sinew lashing, are seen the nails in two other holes in the side 
which hold this bottom piece (the 'haft proper' along with the 
inserted blade) fixed to the legs of the handle. 

The legs are elliptical in cross section (with the broad 
side in the same plane as the blade), very slightly tapering 
above to enable them to fit into the holes in the top piece of 
the ulo. The lower ends of the legs are whittled off into two 
flat, thin tangs, the shoulders of which are chamfered in such 
a manner, that when they are pressed firmly down, the legs 
are supported in the position in which they are seen in the 
illustration, resting against the upper edge of the blade-holder 
and at the same time fitting exactly into the slots on the under 
side of the top piece. These slots in the under side of the top 
piece are very deep, one of them, probably owing to an error 
in the working, having passed right out to the opposite side of 
the piece, where the upper end of the leg is seen sticking up 
in an elongated, irregular opening (cf. fig. 21b). 

The 'top handle', or the upper piece of the ulo, is like 
the 'haft proper', an oblong, slightly curved bone, elliptical 
in cross section, placed horizontally and with the broad side 
at right angles to the plane of the blade. The surface of this 
interesting piece is specially characteristic in view of the three 
rows of holes (not bored through) which extend along it, and 
the two slightly concave grooves, which are cut across them at 
either end, more or less parallel to the concavely cut terminal 
surfaces of the piece (the concave chamfering of the end sur- 
faces expands infundibularly downwards towards the under side 
of the bone). These regularly disposed holes in the upper 
surface of the piece must be considered to have been nail- 



403 




^^-^---^'^-^ 




Fig. 21 {ini'. Amd. 45). Bone handle of a woman's knife. ''Im. 

An illustration of the stone blade belonging to this knife 

is found in fiK. 13. 





Fig. 22. Ihree thimble-guards of bone. '/i. Skærgaardshalvo. 



405 

holes for securing: attached ornaments of ivory (cf. inv. Amd. 
107 — 109), such as we are familiar with in the implements 
from Ammassalik, or else have been intended for a lashing of 
whalebone like that mentioned by 0. Mason ^) in ido handles 
from the mouth of the .Mackenzie River (inv. Amd. 86, pag. 473), 

In this ulo two types are blended or joined into one; the 
ulo which consists of a stone blade inserted into a simple bone 
or wooden haft, and the nlo the stone blade of which 
is attached to a handle formed by two legs united 
by a cross-piece ^). 

The last of these types no doubt occurs only 
in Greenland, where perhaps a chance formation of 
a piece of reindeer horn used for a haft — as in the 
specimen from West Greenland (inv. Pfafif in the Riks- 
museum, Stockholm) illustrated in the Appendix, 
6g. 94 — may have given rise to its invention. It 
is extensively used for ulos particularly at Ammas- 
salik^), whence 0. Solberg*) holds that it perhaps 
originally came from East Greenland and was brought 
thence by traders to the West coast at a later date. 
.\t any rate it is interesting that this type has been 
found so high to the north on this coast as Skær- 
gaardshalvö. (Cf. another ulo type in inv. Amd. 80). 

Inv. Amd. 46, 47, 48 (Fig. 22). These are three 
thimble-guards of the usual Greenland type, which 
is also found in Alaska'^). Fork made of 

This type consists of a double hook with barbs ^'one. Skær- 

gaardshalvö. 
back to back, made of a flat piece of bone which by ^ 1/2. 

two incisions is formed like two hooks back to back. The upper 



M Maeon I, PI. 56 and 57. Cf. Stolpe 1. 

*) Ма8оп (VI. 585) does not give these varieties, as he is chiefly occupied 
uith the diJferences in the type of handle within the West Eskimo district. 
») Holm PI. 19. 
*) .Solberg 52. 
■) Nelson 110. and PI. 44. figs. 16 and 18. 



406 



end of the centre part in these pieces has a hole pierced in it 
so a^ to enable it to be hung by a loop over the place where 
the woman works on the platform in the hut. These thimble- 
guards, which were found on Skærgaardshalvo, are very small 
(from 3*8 to 4*8 cm in length), when compared with those used 
by the people of Ammassalik, but the West Greenland specimens 
in the National Museum at Copenhagen^) are, taken all round, 
not larger than these from North East 
Greenland, 

On these double hooks the Eskimo women 
hang their sewing-rings of skin^) which they 
place on their fingers while sewing. A sewing- 
ring of this kind was found by Ryder ^) in 
the same part of Greenland. 

Inv. Amd. 49 (Fig. 23) is a one-pronged 
fork for meat or blubber. It is a thin piece 
of bone, 21 cm in length, triangular in cross 
section, slightly curved. At one end there 
is a fairly large hole (for hanging up), in the 
other it is irregularly bevelled or worn away. 
The best -preserved parts of it have still 
fairly smooth sides. 

Inv. Amd. 50 and 51 (Fig. 24) are two 
wooden hooks, evidently intended to be hung 
Fig. 24. Blubber hooks "P> Probably over the lamp in the house, 

of wood. Skærgaards- or over a fire-place, as they are thickly 

halvö. Ч2. , , 

sooted. One of them has at the pomted end 

two barbs, like those of an arrow, back to back, with sharp 

points, whereas the point proper is blunt. 




1) There are many old specimens of this type of thimble-guards from West 
Greenland in the National Museum in Copenhagen (Nat. Mus. cabinets 
84, 91 and 92). 

^) Skin thimbles of this kind are found illustrated, for instance, in Boas 
I, 524, fig. 473. 

") Ryder 334. 



407 



The one of these liooks which is entire is 155 cm in 
length; the little fragment has a length of 4*5 cm. 

Similar wooden hooks are used at Ammassalik for hanging 
over the lamp, with a piece of blubber stuck on them so that 
the train-oil can run down on to the lamp and feed the flame. 

Murdoch M speaks of blubber hooks of wood, but with 
barbs of ivory attached to them, as being very common on the 







Fig. 25 (inv. Amd. 52). Four pieces of a child's urine-tub. 
Skærgaardshalvo. '^l-i. 

coast of Alaska, but merely mentions that they are used for 
moving pieces of blubber from one place to another. 

Inv. Amd. 52 (Fig. 25) is a little collection of 9 concave 
pieces of wood which, when joined together, will be seen to 
form a little vessel, which in fig. 27 is illustrated in natural 



') Murdoch I, 310. 



408 



size by E.Ditlevsen, tlie artist of the Expedition. Two of the pieces 
form the round bottom of the vessel, the diameters of which are 
4*1 and 4"8cm; the remaining pieces build up the curved sides; 
the height of the vessel is S'l cm. There is one of these side- 
pieces (staves) in the vessel which is formed in a different way 
than the other pieces, being more straight, and moreover ap- 
parently made of a different kind of wood; perhaps it did not 
originally belong to the whole, but was fitted in later. 

Inside, at the bottom, there runs round the side of the 
vessel a deep groove into which the edges of the bottom fit, 
and under which a circular foot has been carved out in the 
lower part of the staves. 

On the side of the vessel, exteriorly, is seen, a little above 
the middle, a broad shallow groove which passes right round 
and was apparently intended for a hoop for holding the pieces 
together. There are no holes, or vestiges of nails having been 
employed. 

This little work of art was probably carved as a model 
of a urine-tub for the house, to be given as a present to 
a child. 

Inv. Amd. 53 (Fig. 26) is a whalebone-dish of the usual 
type known from all Eskimo districts (Murdoch ^), and called 
by the Greenlanders pertaq (cf. Appendix, fig. 95). It consists 
of a piece of whalebone bent double, and fastened with tree- 
nails on to a wooden bottom. 

The oblong elliptical bottom made of wood of fir or pine, 
circ. 29 cm long, 1 2*5 cm wide, is carved out of one piece, and 
is absolutely flat. In its edge are seen six holes for pegs, and 
four of these pegs are still sticking in them. All these holes 
lie on one half of the edge of the bottom; on the other half 
the whalebone rim has not been pegged on to the bottom, but 
merely secured by the force of the pressure. The flat surface 



Murdoch I, 88, figs. 18 and 101. Cf. Nelson 71. Boas 11, 44 and 73. 
Holm, PI. 25. 



m- 



409 




Fig. 26 {inv. Amd. 53). Whalebone-dish, i,' 




Flg. 27 {inv. Amd. 52). Child's urine-tub. ^U. 
E. Ditlevsen del. 



411 



of the bottom has also pierced in it eight holes, which must 
have been made with a very fine drill. They are disposed in 
hvo parallel rows. The object of these holes is uncertain. ;As 
one side of the bottom bears traces of blubber, the dish may 
perhaps have been used as a repository for blubber, and the 
holes in the bottom have been intended for the discharge of 
the liquid part of the blubber. — Ryder found several bottoms 
of whalebone-dishes in Scoresby Sund^). 

The ends of the whalebone piece which form the sides 
have been made to interlap, and have been sewed together 




Fig. 28 (гиг?. Amd. 53). The interlapping ends of the 
whalebone rim. ^/7. 

with whalebone cord (fig. 28). Ryder ^) also speaks of having 
found samples of whalebone lashings in Scoresby Sund, plaited 
or unplaited. Those which were found here are unplaited thin 
strips. In the piece where the whalebone rim has been doubled 
over, the holes traverse both its ends, and along the top 
edge they lie in two rows, eight (or nine) in each. The cord 
is drawn from each hole in the upper row through the cor- 
responding hole in the lower one, so that it connects one pair 



') Ryder, 334. 
-I Ryder, 326. 



412 



of holes with the next only at the inner side of the rim. One 
of the vertically disposed lines of holes is also double; but here 
one of the rows of holes lies outside the jointing of the 
ends of the rim, thus passing through only a single layer of 
whalebones. 

The seam forms a rhomboidal figure (circ. 7 x 5"o cm) on 
the side of the rim. That part of the rim which faces the 
bottom, as can be seen from a few nail-holes which have been 
preserved at the nether edge, was no doubt without a seam. 
Most of the stitches have been broken; at the upper edge a 
few intact stitches are still to be seen. 

Inv. Amd. 54 (Fig. 30) is an oblong bone button, or toggle, 
4*2 cm long, flat on one side, convex on the other, with rounded 
edges and corners. One of the side edges which run length- 
ways is straight, the other is slightly curved. Close to the 
middle of the curved edge has been pierced a hole, with ellip- 
tical circumference. 

One end of the button has been partially worn or frayed 
away, forming a sharp edge. 

The button may be one of the belt-fasteners described 
by Nelson^). "The belt-buttons are passed through a cord loop 
on the opposite side of the belt and thus hold it in place". 
Inv. Amd. 57^ found in the same spot, is probably part of a 
belt of this kind. 

Inv. Amd. 55 (Fig. 29 b) is a bone handle, 13*6 cm long, 
made of a yellowish-grey hollow bone (narwhal tusk?), the medul- 
lary channel of which is visible at both ends of the handle. 
The lower part of one of the side surfaces has been broken 
off. This heavier end of the handle is rhomboidal in section, 
nearly double as high as broad, whereas the cross section of 
the handle towards the other end is almost quadratic. The 
extreme end of this part of the handle is notched off to form 



1) Nelson 59, PI. 27. 



413 




a (inv. Ämd. 56.) 






b (inv. Amd. 55.) 
Figs. 29 a and b. Drum-handles (?) made of bone. ^/з. 



f ;.Ä:-iWr 



a (inv. Amd. .59.) 





b (inv. Amd. 60], 
Fig. 30 [inv. Figs. 31 a and b. Iiiterlinited beads. 4i. Fig. 32 (inv. 

Amd. 58). 
Bear's tooth. 



Amd. 54]. 
Toggle button 
оГЬопе. *',io. 



Figs. 29 — 32. Hone objects from Skærgaardslialvo. 



27 



415 

a round knob. Particularly characteristic are the four notches 
for flnger-rests which lie in a row along the under side of 
the handle. 

On the back of the handle there is a distinctly carved 
ornament, half of which, however, is weathered or worn away 
(see Fig. 33 a). 

From the underside of the knob-like head a hole has been 
bored obliquely into the medullary channel, so thai its path lies 
in the longitudinal direction of the handle, one of its mouths 
looking towards the finger-rests, while the other faces the end 
of the handle within the medullary channel (see Fig. 33 b). 

I am of the opinion that this piece is the old handle of 
a drum. As far as I know, this is the first time that a drum- 
handle of this type, and made of bone, has been found in 
Greenland. In type it approaches very closely to the handles 
from Alaska described by Murdoch and Nelson. The former^) 
states that the Point Barrow Expedition brought home 8 handles 
for drums which exhibit but slight variations. The commonest 
material for the handle is walrus ivory; only two out of twelve 
were of antler. Their length is from 46 to 5*4 inches. Mur- 
doch gives illustrations of several specimens, two of which, 
like inv. Amd. 55, have four notches for the fingers; all of 
them have at the end a knob carved either as a human or 
an animal head. Nelson^) also speaks of the ornamentation of 
the drum handles: "One of these handles (number 43807), which 
was obtained at Shaktolik, is of walrus ivory, and is six inches 
long by an inch and a half in diameter. It is carved in the 
form of a walrus, the well-made head being placed at the inner 
end; on the lower side are four diagonal grooves for finger- 
rests, and at the rear the animal's flippers are represented. 
The back is etched with short lines to indicate bristly hairs". 
This last feature reminds one of the ornament found on the 



') Mnrdoch I, 386-387, (Igs. 384 and 385. Cf. Wilson II, 561—562. 
*) Nelson 351. 

27* 



416 



back of the handle from North East Greenland, and which might 
possibly be a stereotyped ornament of the same kind. 

The question now is to what end of the handle the hoop 
of the drum, over which the membrane was extended, was 
secured. If we suppose that it was secured by a lashing to 
the knob-like head at the narrow end of the handle, where the 
oblique hole lies, the finger-rests would, if the handle were 
grasped in the usual manner, with the left hand, be brought 
to lie transversely to the fingers, as they are cut in a direc- 
tion obliquely to the longitudinal direction of the handle, and, 
besides, they would He too close up to the drum ring. I feel 
convinced that it is the broad end of the handle which carried 
the drum, though I am not clear as to the mode in which it 




Fig. 33 {inv. Amd. 55). Parts of the drum-handle (a) orna- 
ments carved in the surface, (b) the knob-shaped end. 

E. Ditlevsen delt. 

was secured. It is just at this end that a piece on one side 
of the handle has been broken off. The mouth of the marrow 
pipe forms at this end a very large square hole (about 1'5 
by 0*8 cm), which may possibly have been used in securing it. 
Otherwise both in Greenland (e. g. at Ammassalik) and in Alaska 
there is generally a notch at the back of the handle, in which 
the drum ring is stuck, and under it one or two transverse 
holes for the lashing with which it is secured. These features 
are missing here. But it would be in accordance with the 
usual practice with regard to drums, that the drum-ring was 
placed at the broader end of the handle, at a distance of three 



417 




Fig. 34. Belt consisting of pierced teeth (fragment). ^/2. 



or four centimetres from the nearest finger-rest. — The oblique 
hole in the narrow end of the handle must then have been 
intended to receive a strap for hanging up the drum. 

Inv. Amd. 56 (Fig. 29 a) is a handle similar to the foregoing, 
likewise made of a hollow bone (but probably of another animal) 
somewhat smaller and more slender, scarcely 11'5 cm long, 
having at the thick end a height of 2*2 cm, and a breadth 
of 1 cm. It has suffered severely from climatic action, and is 
almost entirely decayed at the narrow end. The drum-handle 
type, however, is unmistakable; we see the finger-rests and 
the remains of the knob-like head; whether a hole was pierced 
in the latter, cannot be decided. On the other hand, there is, 
in contradistinction to the foregoing, a transverse hole in the 
broad end, to which the hoop of the drum was probably secured 
by a lashing. 

Inv. Åmd. 57 (Fig. 34) is a collection of 53 teeth of a 
mammiferous animal, which were found lying loose, all of them 
pierced in a similar manner at the tip. In the case of some 
of the holes it can be seen that they have been bored from 
two sides. — 1 have strung the teeth on a cord, as is shown 
in the illu.«tration; the chain, when stretched taut, measures 
23 cm in length. 

These teeth have, without doubt, been used for some kind 
of ornaments, as a primitive kind of beads, as part either of 



418 

a necklace or of a belt. Ryder ^) also found at 'Hekla Havn' 
in Scoresby Sund a collection of small carved bone beads, 
which may have formed a necklace. A necklace consisting of 
perforated teeth from West Greenland is in the National Mu- 
seum at Copenhagen^). 

Whole teeth of this kind used as ornaments are as a rule 
fastened to and hung from the lower edge of skin girdles 
which are worn round the women's waists. Nelson^) makes 
mention of belts of this kind among the Alaska Eskimo. 
"Throughout the Eskimo country from the lower Kuskokwim 
to the Arctic coast, a favorite waist belt worn by the women 

is made from the incisors of reindeers These rows of 

teeth are sewed along a strap of rawhide, one overlapping the 
next in scale-like succession, so that they form a continuous 
series along its entire length .... when worn, the belts are 
brought loosely round the waist and held in place by a toggle 
or button". 

In the Gjöa collection (Amundsen) in the Ethnographical 
Museum at Christiania, there are several belts of a similar kind 
from King William Land and Boothia. Some of them consist 
of narrow, double strips of skin, others are broader; all of 
them are richly hung with teeth or other objects, used as 
ornaments, but always in such a way that the ornaments on 
each belt are similar in kind: in No. 16153, for instance, 26 
teeth of the same kind are strung in the sinew-cord loops at the 
lower edge of the belt, and all the teeth have their tips pierced. 
In No. 16167 about 100 teeth (of seal?) have been fastened to a 
quite narrow girdle, each tooth having been strung on a loop, 
the ends of which are sewed in at the upper edge of the belt 
in the intervening space between the double layer of skins ; the 
teeth here are pierced at the roots, and hang in such a manner 



1) Ryder 338. 

'-') Kobenhavn Nationalmuseum, Ethnographical section. Vitrine 77, No. 54. 

3) Nelson 59. 



419 



that the tips are turned inwardly towards the body of the person 
wearing the belt. In other belts in this collection bear's 
teeth, bodkins, animal bones of one kind, or talons of birds 
are hung. 

Inv. Amd. 58 (Fig. 32) is a bear's tooth (7 cm long) with 
a hole pierced in the part nearest the root, but otherwise un- 
wrought. As it was found isolated, there is no ground for as- 
suming that it has hung in a chain of bear's teeth. 

"Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt" M mentions a similar 
find from North East Greenland of a bear's tooth with a hole 
pierced at the root. — The Fram Expedition likewise found a 
bear's tooth with a similar hole at Leffert Glacier (Ellesmere 
land?^)). 

The use to which these isolated teeth were applied is not 
quite certain. According to Boas, a bear's tooth was used as 
bait in spearing salmon (just as carved ivory fish are used for 
the same purpose) among the Baffin Land Eskimo^). And with 
regard to the Eskimo from Southampton^ Island, he says "knives 
are carried in seal-skin pouches, provided with a bear's tooth, 
which may be used for whetting"^). There are, however, no 
grounds for supposing that this is the use to which the tooth 
we are speaking of was applied. 

Occasionally a bear's tooth of this kind is found hanging 
among the different objects which generally depend in a bunch, 
attached to the women's needle cases'"). Inv. Amd. 58 is per- 
haps rather to be taken to be a pendent ornament of this kind. 

In conclusion, I must remind the reader that the Lapps 
used to employ bear's teeth pierced at the root as amulets"). 



M Koldewcy 1, 603. 

*) Christiania Kthnographical Museum No. 12377. 
8) Boas I, 513, and Fig. 4.04. 
*) Boas 11, 71, Fig. 94. 
*) NeLson 104, PI. 44, fins. 23 and 2îj. 

•) 8 pieces of this liind are in the N'ordiska Museum, Lapp section, at Stock- 
holm. 



420 

Inv. Ämd. 59 and 60 (Fig. 32 a and b) consist of five 
'beads' carved in bone, belonging to different ornaments or 
implements. 

Two of them are elongated, circular in cross-section, at- 
tached to each other by the aid of two eye-forming clasps 
which grip each other. The mode of the attachment seems to 
have been that one eye was pressed through a slit in the other. 
There appears to have been a third link, as one of the two 
has the remains of an eye at the free end. 

Inv. Amd. 60, on the other hand, is complete, as neither 
of the two clumsy beads which are attached by their eyes to 
the quaintly formed central link, have terminal eyes at their 
free ends. The body of the central bead has been flattened 
laterally, and almost has the form of a thick disk the edge of 
which is cut straight on two opposite sides, which are con- 
nected by a bored hole. 

Quite similar beads were found by Nathorst (Hammer) at 
Cape Franklin in North East Greenland, in a grave in which 
the body of apparently a little girl was buried ^). 

Interlinked bone beads, or short bone chains of this 
kind have hitherto been known only from Alaska, where they 
are frequently attached to the thick end of bodkins, as orna- 
mental means for hanging up. At all events, I have not suc- 
ceeded in finding any objects more closely resembling them^). 

It is interesting to note that the art of linking together 
fine bone objects of this kind was known among the Eskimo 
of the north-east part of Greenland, as well as among those 
of the Bering Strait. 

Inv. Amd. 61 (Fig. 35). This curious object is a shaft-like 
tube made of bone, with two thick and two thin opposite walls, 
the implement being oval in cross section, while the cavity of 



^^) Stolpe, PI. 6, Fig. 19. 

'^) Nelson 107, and PI. 46; cf. PI. 43 and 52. — Hoffman PI. 65, Fig. 1 and 
especially PI. 41. 



421 



the tube is cylindrical (0*7 cm) in diameter. The implement is 
made of a single hollow bone (narwhal tusk?), its length 
8"5cm; its cross section at the thickest end 3 cm by l'5cm. 
There are no holes pierced in the walls of the tube, but about 
at the middle of the body four conic sections have been re- 
moved, whereby its upper surface has been divided in the 
curious manner shown in the figure, bringing to light an inner 
layer of the bone with convex edges, which appear in the two 





"vf- 



Fig. 35. iNeedle-case of bone. Skærgaardshalvo. 'Is. 



bow-shaped incisions between the intact parts of the outer 
layer, or between the upper and lower ends of the tube; these 
last are connected on either side by a narrow bridge in the 
outer layer, narrowest in the middle, expanding uniformly above 
and below. 

It is interesting to find in this part of North East Green- 
land this extinct type of implement, which has often been found 
before in graves in the north of West Greenland, but which is 



422 



otherwise unknown in Greenland, and has never been met with, 
for instance, at Ammassalik; there are several specimens of it 
both in the National Museum at Copenhagen and in the Riks- 
museum at Stockholm, (the Pfaff collection contains 6 of them) 
the latter being unusually beautiful and partially ornamented (see 
Appendix, Figs. 96 and 97). Now to what use can it have been 
apphed? In the records of the above mentioned museums 
has been embodied an explanation of native Greenlanders to 
the effect that this implement was part of an old-fashioned 
ring-and-pin toy (a curious kind of ajagaq), a game which, in 
another form, is to this day very common among the Eskimo 
of all parts ^). This, however, is the sort of explanation which 
a Greenlander might very easily be induced to give when 
questioned about matters which are no less a puzzle to him 
than to his questioner. I venture therefore to cast a doubt 
on the correctness of the explanation, and shall hazard an- 
other hypothesis. 

From all Eskimo regions outside of Greenland is found as 
an accessory to the women's sewing-apparatus a needle-case 
of bone, formed like a tube, from 6 to 10 cm in length, through 
which a long rawhide thong is drawn. At the ends of this 
thong, which project out through both the ends of the tube, 
the women fasten various small implements or knicknacks, such 
as needles, bodkins of various forms, small carved bone or 
wood objects, which perhaps are to be collected for a future 
girdle, pierced bear's teeth etc. The thin sewing-needles are 
stuck into the thong and can be drawn along with it into 
the tube in order to protect them^). The collection of these 
objects from Alaska exhibit, as usual, the greatest number of 
variations and the richest ornamentation ^). Whereas the types 
of tubes from the western regions, to judge by the illustrations 



1) Culln 544. 

'^) Murdoch I, fig. 328 b. 

") Nelson 103, and PI. 44; Murdoch I, 318—322. 



423 



in Nelson and Murdoch, appear to be preponderatingly circular 
in cross section, the more easterly types, from the coasts of 
Hudson Bay and Baffln Land, illustrated in Boas^) and Turner^), 
are more flattened from both sides. 

Exclusively cylindrical needle-cases are found also in the 
Gjöa Expedition's (Amundsen's) collection at Christiania; the 
leather thong, which is drawn through the tube, is here se- 
cured by one of the ends of the thong being fastened with a 
knot to a thin bone handle, which toggles towards the end of 
the tube; at the other end of the thong are stuck needles and 
bodkins, beads, animals' teeth, etc. 

This type of implement is not confined to the Eskimo; an 
exactly similar implement is also found among the Laplanders; 
in the Nordiska Museum at Stockholm there are over 30 similar 
needle-cases, which have belonged to the Laplanders, consisting 
of ornamented bone tubes through which a rawhide thong is 
drawn, held in place with the aid of a knot at one end (quite 
like the thongs in the needle-cases described by Murdoch from 
Point Barrow in Alaska), while the needles are stuck in the 
other end of the strap. — The same implement has probably 
been in use in several places in the north of Siberia; I know 
it only among the Chukchee^). 

No proofs have so far been forthcoming that this implement 
was used in the domestic culture of the Greenland Eskimo, 
but there are grounds for believing that it must once have 
existed there. It may, however, easily be imagined that, owing 
to the introduction of new sewing implements from Europe, 
it passed out of use at an early date, and was superseded by 
other kinds of repositories, so that the object of it, when 
found in graves or ruins, is no longer known. The Greenland 
specimens which supplement inv. Amd. 61 with a consider- 

•) Boas I, 523 II, 94. 
») Turner 254. 
8) Bogoras 224. 




424 

able number both from the east (cf. inv. Ä7nd. 87) and the 
west coast, represent, in my view, the special Greenland type 
of this otherwise so widely diffused implement. These flattish 
bone tubes, quaintly carved and often ornamented, are old- 
fashioned needle-cases, the other accessories which originally 
went along with them having been lost or destroyed in the 
earth. Inv. Amd. 61 from North East Greenland is particularly 
interesting, as corresponding exactly in type to the form known 
from West Greenland. 

Inv. Amd. 62 (Fig. 36) is a piece of carved 
wood, in form like a shaft, cylindrical, ll'5cm 
in length, cross section 2"5 cm in diameter. At 
both ends there was originally a rounded knob, 
a little thicker than the centre part, whittled off 
all round at the inner side so as to form a well- 
marked shoulder. Both the knobs are highly 
weathered, one of them being quite corroded, 
though the traces of its shoulder are still visible. 
The object can therefore not have been very 
much larger than it now appears to be. 

The implement bears a resemblance to the 
Fig. 36. Wooden 
handle (object coss bars (as a rule made of ivory), mentioned 

unknown). Skær- by Nelson^) and Murdoch ^), belonging to large 
gaar s a vo. з. fj^r^^g^ ^^^ which serve as a handle for raising 
them. Nelson also tells us of an isolated cross bar of this 
kind from St. Lawrence Island in Bering Strait, which is made 
of wood^). This parallel is, of course, extremely dubious. 
On the other hand there seems to be no grounds for hesitating 
to compare this object with certain cylindrical pieces of wood 
from West Greenland in the Riksmuseum at Stockholm (inv. 
Pfaff, sect. 48). These are a little thicker in the middle 



1) Nelson 145. 

2) Murdoch I, 247 (Fig. 249). 

3) Nelson, PI. 56a, fig. 31. 



425 



than at the ends, where the knob-like heads are shouldered 
off from the centre parts. The length is 15"5 and 14 cm re- 
spectively. The use to which they were applied is unknown. 

Indv. Amd. 63 and 64 (Fig. 
37 a and b). Two very thin, tri- 
angular pieces of bone, one 5 cm 
long, sawn off with the aid of 
drilled holes, whereby jagged edges 
have been produced; the other 
5'8 cm long with smooth edges. 
The first piece is quite flat; the 
second curved, spoon -shaped, 
being, in fact, probably the frag- 
ment of a little spoon ^). 




Fig. 37. Fragments of bone 
implements. Skaergaardshalvö. 



1) Holm Pi. 24. Boas II, Fig. 145. Also Kumlien (pag. 21) states that 
among the Baffin Land Eskimo he found "a little spoon, or rather a 
miniature scoop, made of ivory, %\hich they used to drink soup with " 



6. Einds from Bunliolm (69° 54' lat. I,) and Cape Tobin 
(70° 24' lat. I.). The central part of lorthEast Greenland. 



The objects described below were found at two settlements 
about 500 kilometres to the north and east of Skaergaardshalvö, 
namely right up at the mouth of Scoresby Sund. The section 
of the Carlsberg Fond Expedition which in the summer of 1900 
was sent out to reconnoitre here, was led by the botanist Ж 
Hartz, who in his report of the Expedition gives the following 
description of Dunholm, which lies about 20 English miles 
south of the entrance of the vast fjord of Scoresby Sund. 

"It is quite a little, low basalt holme, the highest top of which 
lies about 100 feet above the sea-level .... Eider-fowl and black 
guillemots brooded here in numbers, and up at the top stood no 
less than 7 Eskimo winter-houses, grouped in a ring about a little 
water-wheel, which was quite over-mantled with green sea-weed 
and teemed with swarms of gnat larves. Dr. Deichmann super- 
intended the excavation of a few houses and found various well- 
preserved objects, a comb, weapon heads etc. Down by the shore, 
moreover, a few tent-rings were seen^)." 

Only a day's journey to the north lies the other settle- 
ment, Cape Tobin, from which the same number of found ob- 
jects, namely 20, was brought home, as from Dunholm. The 
territory around Cape Tobin was surveyed by Dr. Nordenskjold 
and Lieutenant Koch^). This place received its name during 



Meddelelser om Grønland 27, t64. 
Ibid. 175. 



427 

Scoresby's Expedition, like Cape Stewart, — which lies a 
little further in by Hurry Inlet —, where Scoresby in 1822 dis- 
covered an extinct Eskimo village of 10 tents ^). The settlement 
at Cape Stewart was afterwards more thoroughly investigated 
by Ryder (in 1891—92)2), and then again in 1899 by Nathorst. 
The settlement at Cape Tobin, which lies on the point of land 
which projects furthest out into the sea at the mouth of the 
great fjord, in the interior of which, as Ryder has proved, the 
Eskimo lived in ancient times in many different places, had 
DOt been previously investigated, when the Carlsberg Fond Ex- 
pedition in 1900 made this find there. 

The settlements at Dunholm and at Cape Tobin lie so 
close to each other, and the objects found supplement each 
other so well, that I have not deemed it needful to keep the 
descriptions of them apart. Taken together, they give — 
particularly when we bear in mind the harpoon heads (inv. 
Amd. If 2^ and 5, from Cape Tobin) and the longer weapon 
heads (inv. Amd. 12, 13, 14, 15 from Dunholm, inv. Amd. 16, 
17, 18 from Cape Tobin) described above — a fairly complete 
picture of the hunting life of the Eskimo, the men's hunting 
expeditions on the fjord ice, the work, finery and games of the 
women and children in the hut or in the tent, by the hearth 
fire or outdoors. 



Inv. Amd. 65 (Fig. 38) and 66 (Fig. 39). it is most charac- 
teristic of the manner in which the Eskimo carried on their 
seal-hunting in this fjord, that two fine specimens of sealing- 
slools, of the kind the Eskimo use in hunting seals out on the 
ice, were found at the very mouth of the fjord. We gather 
from this that the method of sealing adopted during the long 
and dreary winter season was to repair to the seal's air-hole 



') Scoresby, Journal 1822, p. 208. 
*) Ryder 285—288. 



428 

in the Qord ice, and to watch patiently hour by hour for the 
favourable moment when the animal stuck its nose up through 
the hole to breathe — for the last time, before the Eskimo 
buries his harpoon in its head. 

The two stools, which are complete, are essentially of a 
pattern. Each of them has three loose short legs for sticking 
in the holes in the under side of the seat. The one of the 
stools is thereby lifted about 10 cm above the ground; the 
other a little less. As the holes narrow conically upwards, 
the pointed ends of the legs, when thrust home into them, 
are caught in a tight grip. 

The form of the stool is flat, with a broadly curved outline, 
like an imperfect half-moon, or a rough triangle with one 
concave and two convex sides. The measurements are as 
follows: — ■■' 

Inv. Amd. 65: 39'5 cm, direct length from corner to corner, 
23*5 cm, breadth between the centres of the 
concave and the convex sides. 

Inv. Amd. 66: 42 cm length, 
24 cm breadth, 
3 cm thickness. 

Each of the seats is carved out of a piece of wood (red 
fir or larch, with the probability in favour of red fir). 

They have evidently been made out of a section of the 
stem of a big tree; the broad log of wood has been cut in 
two and dressed so as to peel off the bark (the convex side) 
and remove the marrow (the concave side). It must have been 
an enormous labour to produce these large objects of carved 
wood with primitive stone implements; they testify to a highly 
developed skill in wood-working. 

Instead of a handle for carrying the stool there is just in- 
side the middle of the concave edge a semi-circular cutting, 
the curved side of which is bevelled off" conically, so that the 
section is larger on the under side than on the upper side of 



XXVIII. 



28 



430 





Fig. 38. Sealing-stool from Cape Tobin, '.'s. 

a. The stool in natural position, b. Under side of the stool. 

c. One of the legs of the stool. 



431 



ч 



'/■ 



»V ^ 



%ài^ 





Fig. 39. Sealing-stool from Cape Tobin. '/5. 

a. Upper side of the stool, b. I'nder side, с One of the three 

legs of the stool. 



28* 



433 

the stool. Through this hole the hand can be stuck in, and 
the fingers grip the narrow bridge which has been left behind 
between the edge of the stool and the semi-circular hole, as a 
handle wherewith to carry the stool on its way to the hunting- 
ground. 

The two stools resemble one another even in such a detail 
as the following: across the under side of the stool, from the 
handle-forming section just described to the opposite point on 
the convex edge of the stool, has been carved in relief on the 
wood, a low ridge, narrow at the inner end but expanding like 
the head of a key towards the other end; the expanding end 
encloses one of the holes intended for the legs of the stool. 
Presumably this wooden ridge serves to strengthen the bearing 
strength of the stool. The form of the relief is so charac- 
teristic that it can scarcely be a caprice of individual taste, 
but must be the result of experience which has crystallised 
into a tradition. The weight of the Eskimo, as he sits or 
stands on the stool, has its greatest effect on the middle part 
of its surface. The one of the stools (itiv. Amd. 65) in fact 
exhibits at this place one or two fractures and a menacing 
crack, which it has been endeavoured to counteract by pegging 
across the cracks some narrow oblong patches of bone, four 
in all, of which, however, only one has been preserved. These 
patches of bone have, with the ^exception of one, not been 
laid on top of the wood, but have been sunk about 2 mm in 
grooves of the same size on its surface, and have been riveted 
with tree-nails which are still sticking in the holes. The large 
truncated segment in the convex edge goes across through one 
of the holes which are intended to receive the legs of the stool. 
Another, lesser segment, which had been broken off on the 
other part of the convex edge, has been pegged on directly 
with the aid of tree-nails which pierce the edge transversely 
and penetrate into the intact part of the wood. While this 
last segment has been replaced by a piece of a different kind 



434 



of wood from that of the stool, the part with which the larger 
fracture has been repaired undoubtedly belongs to the stool ^); 
for the ribs in it fit in exactly with those on the other side 
of the crack. 

A stool of the same type, but less beautifully worked, was 
found a little further up the fjord by the Nathorst Expedition^). 
Considerably higher to the north (at 74° 20' lat. N.) two legs 
(about 12 cm in length) of a sealing- stool which are now in the 
Ethnographical Museum at Christiania (inventoriai Nos. 10293 
and 10399) were found by whalers. 

Not far from Greenland, in Depot point in Heibergs Land 
(79° 8' lat. N., 86° 10' long. W.), the Fram Expedition (Sverdrup) 
found a sealing-stool of a similar type, but without the above- 
described relief ridge on the lower side, with three conical 
holes for the legs, and two smaller holes besides, near the 
edge on each side of the 'handle'. Between the three holes 
the under side of the stool has been scooped out. The side 
edges are bevelled. The greatest length of the stool from 
corner to corner is 40 cm. This stool also is in the Ethno- 
graphical Museum at Christiania. 

At Ammassalik towards the southern part of the East coast 
of Greenland sealing-stools of an almost similar type, but with 
longer legs are extensively used. They more closely resemble 
the type used in the northernmost part of Alaska, which is thus 
described by Murdoch^): — "The upper surface is flat and 
smooth, the lower broadly beveled off on the edges and deeply 
excavated in the middle, so that there are three straight ridges 
joining the three legs, each of which stands in the middle of 
a slight prominence. The three legs are set into holes at each 



^) This piece has, to be sure, a different colour than the rest of the stool, 
but this can be explaihed by the fact, that after it had been broken 
off for the second time it lay better shielded from climatic agencies 
than the rest of the stool, till the Expedition found it. 

2) Nathorst 347. 

«) Murdoch 1, 255—256. 



435 

corner, spreading out so as to stand on a base larger than the 
top of the stool. They stand on this and thereby escape 
getting cold feet". 

In Hans Egede's "Det gamle Grønlands nye Perlustration" 
(1741), we Ond (pag. 35) an illustration of a Greenlander sitting 
with hunting weapons on a chair which is only provided with 
one leg, fairly long and pointed at the bottom; his feet rest 
on a low stool of the usual sealing-stool form with quite short 
pointed legs. This picture agrees with David Cranz's descrip- 
tion ^) of hunting on the ice in Disco Bay: "A Greenlander 
sits down by the seal's air-hole on a one-legged stool, and, in 
order not to catch cold, rests his feet on a three-legged foot- 
stool". This differentiation of the original single stool into a 
chair plus a stool, seems to be peculiar to West Greenland. 
The long-legged stool used at Ammassalik, however, is equally 
well adapted for sitting on as for standing on. 

As compared with these types, we find in the northernmost 
part of East Greenland a very low-legged stool, adapted for standing 
on, the features of which, taken in conjunction, bespeak a marked 
type of development from this part of the Eskimo world. 

Inv. Amd. 67 (Fig. 40 a) and 68 (Fig. 40 b) (Dunholm), 
give evidence of another aspect of hunting-life in the winter- 
time. They are two pieces of sledge keels made of bone, of 
about the same size: 30cm by 5 cm in surface measure. 

The nail-holes are all of a pattern, from 5 to 6 mm in 
diameter, and pierced to the same length. The width of the path 
of the holes is the same at both mouths, being only in the 
case of a very few holes slightly larger on the inner side 
(upper side) of the shoe than on the outer (under) sur- 
face; the holes seem thus to have been perforated from the 
inner side. They are disposed fairly regularly in such a man- 
ner that in no part of the keel are there two holes in the 



M Cranz 206. Cf. Mason III, 239 and 210, fig. 8. A foot-stool of this kind 
from West Greenland is in the National Museum at Copenhagen. 



436 



same transverse line ; they are placed two and two in lines 
obliquely to the longitudinal direction of the keel (with one 
single exception), the advantage of which arrangement is that 
the friction which the edges of the nail-ends must produce, as 
the, sledge glides over the snow, is evenly distributed, being alter- 
nating and in no transverse line produced by more than one nail- 
end a.t a time. At the same time the holes form two long rows, 
which extend almost parallel to each other from one corner of 
the rhomboidal figure formed by the outline of the keel tow- 
ards the opposite corner at the other end, whereby is further 




Fig. 40. Pieces of sledge keels made of bone. Dunholm. ^/з. 

ensured that the friction under the runner of the sledge is 
distributed evenly and in an advantageous manner; for other- 
wise the sledge would receive an uneven side pressure at the 
bottom of the track formed by the shoe which would tend to 
make it run off the track. Furthermore, it is of interest to note 
that not only the placing of the holes but also the boring of 
them has been made on definite principles, they being bored 
obliquely to each other (Ryder, too, has observed this)^) so 
that the mouths of the two rows on the upper side of the shoe 
lie a little closer to one another than on the under side^). 



M Ryder 305. 

^) I convinced myself of this by sticking two pencil handles into the holes 
from above, their upper tips met each other at an acute angle. 



437 



Only the isolated unpaired holes at one end of the piece, lying 
in the median of it, are bored exactly vertically. No doubt, 
the advantage of giving the nails an obliquely diverging posi- 
tion is that they hold the keels better in place, and that the 
friction of the snow or of the ground in travelling does not 
tend so much to loosen them. Only in one of the holes is 
there still sticking a tree-nail; its bottom has been cut in a 
plane with the under surface of the keel; its protruding top 
end has been broken off roughly. 

The under side of both these pieces of keels are very 
smooth, without being much worn. The upper side, on the 
other hand, is rough, or less carefully smoothed. Both have 
been warped by the agency of cHmate, but could presumably 
be straightened out with the aid of water or heat. 

All the previous Expeditions which have landed in North 
East Greenland have found sledge keels. The first who set 
his foot in the country, Scoresby^), tells us in his journal that 
he found some in Traill Island (72° 12' lat. N.): "Our people 
found the keels of sledges. These consisted of slices of bones 
of whales, and of the horns of teeth of narwals. One piece 
of the latter was nearly two feet in length; and another frag- 
ment, not quite so long, measured 2^/2 inches in diameter. 
These bones were all flat on one side, and convex or semi- 
cylindrical on the other". He observes that the great number 
of fragments betoken not only that the population must once 
have been numerous, but also that they must have made an 
extensive use of sledges. This impression of Scoresby's derives 
further support from the German Expedition's find of a sledge 
(see under heading itiv. Amd. 27), from Ryder's find in Sco- 
resby Sund of 28 pieces of sledge keels made of the bones of 
whales and narwhals, and the not much smaller number of 
these latter which Nathorst and Hammar brought home with 

') Scoreeby 266. 



438 



them from a locality a little more to the north (now in the 

Riksmuseum at Stockholm). 

Similar sledge keels of bone are also known from the 

more westerly Eskimo districts. In Baffin Land the Eskimo 
shoe their sledges with keels consisting of 
several pieces of flat whalebone, which is fast- 
ened under the runners with tree-nails^). The 
same thing is true of the Point Barrow Eskimo 
in North Alaska, whose sledges in other re- 
spects are pretty different in type from the 
Greenland ones^). 

Inv. Amd. 69 (Fig. 41) from Dunholm is 
a fragment of a kaiak-scraper of bone (cf. the 
following number). It is a long, flat, thin piece 
of bone from 16 to 17 cm in length, of a dark- 

^K' ^^' ^t^ scraper brown colour. One of its edges is bevelled, 
of bone. Fragment. ° ' 

Dunholm. i /з. probably due to wear. The pointed tip is un- 
common in this kind of implements. 

Inv. Amd. 70 (Fig. 42) from Cape Tobin is a very typical, 
beautifully worked kaiak-scraper, or bone knife for scraping the 





Fig. 42. Ice scraper of bone. Cape Tobin, '/з. 

ice off the kaiak skin, and thus an accessory for the kaiak. 

It is 31 cm long and 8'5 cm broad at the back end of the blade 

It is made of a single heavy piece of bone, of a light-grey 
colour. 



1) Boas 1, 530; Turner 242. 

2) Murdoch I, 353; Nelson 206. 



439 

One side of the blade is slightly concave, the other convex; 
thinner towards the edge than in the middle ; none of the edges 
are sharp. 

Two holes have been pierced in it, one of which passes 
through the back and upper part of the blade ; the other, at 
the extreme end of the handle, is particularly remarkable, as it 
diverges from the nether edge of the handle in two directions, 
one branch of the hole leading out on the under side of the 
projection, right by the point, the other on its upper edge 
a little further in. Perhaps the craftsman wished on account 
of the heaviness of the knife thus to obtain a firmer hold for 
the loops with which the knife was hung up or fastened to the 
kaiak, than a single hole would afford. 

The type of this implement from Cape Tobin corresponds 
exactly with four kaiak-scrapers from the more northerly parts 
of the same coast found by Nathorst (Hammar)^). One of them 
even has a hole pierced in the upper corner of the blade, and 
the end of the handle curves in a downward direction, just as 
in inv. Amd. 70. — From the same region as these there is in 
the Ethnographical Museum at Christiania (inv. No. 10039), 
a kaiak-scraper of the same type, a very beautiful specimen, 
carved out of white (grey) bone, the blade rounded at the tip, 
broadest at the butt; flat, or slightly bulging, sides, with a 
slightly concave upper edge and a slightly convex under edge; 
the handle, rhomboidal in cross section, unevenly cut on the 
two sides, curving downwards and ending in a downward in- 
clined projection, wherewith the hand obtains a better purchase 
on the handle. At the rear of the upper edge there is a 
straight section cut off which has been replaced by a piece of 
bone or wood (which has been losti held in place by means of 
rawhide thongs through three holes under the section; side 
grooves lead from the holes up towards the empty space. 



') Stolpe PI. 4, fig. 12. 



440 



There is a single hole in the lower corner at the back of the 
blade, presumably intended for a strap. 

It is a striking circumstance that the characteristic handle 
with the downward bent projection recurs in several of the 
stone-knives found in North East Greenland^). 

This approximation in type between these two kinds of 
implements, which are not known from other Eskimo districts, 
gives us the impression that in North East Greenland the one- 
edged stone knife, which is otherwise well-known from other 
districts, has been influenced in this respect by the form of 
the kaiak ice-scrapers. 



é 




Fig. 43. Wooden bottom? Dunholm. ^/з- 

We find in the northern part of West Greenland ice-scrapers 
of the same type as those in North East Greenland. Here 
again we come across a special Greenland variety of an imple- 
ment^) otherwise common to all the Eskimo tribes. 

Inv. Amd. 71 (Fig. 43) from Dunholm. Part of a wooden 
implement of unknown use. It is a flat piece of wood, oval 
in circumference, longest diameter 21cm, shortest 15cm; the 
thickness of the wood is about 3 mm. One side of this piece 



M See the illustrations of both types side by side with each other in Stolpe, 

pi. 4, figs. 11 and 12. 
^) Cf. the snow knives of the more westerly districts, Boas I, 539; II 29 

and 95; Nelson pi. 94; Murdoch I, 305. 



441 



is slightly convex, the other quite flat. There are two holes 
pierced near the edge, lying transversely to each other, and 
there are no traces of holes in the edge itself, which fact might 
argue that the piece did not form the bottom of a box or a 
dish, as in that case there would have been nail-holes in it 
(cf. inv. Amd. 53]. There are, however, examples of bottoms 
having been grooved in without nails being used, so that this 
possibility is not excluded (cf. inv. Amd. 52). 

Could it be the blade of an umiak oar? In one of the 
ends of the umiak oar, a loose flat piece of wood is generally 
grooved in as a blade, which at Ammassalik is sometimes 
ovally rounded in the free part of the edge ; only the grooved 
or nailed part of the blade is formed otherwise, more in the 
manner of a tongue ^). The two holes in inv. Amd. 71 must 
in this case be thought to have been used in binding the 
blade to the shaft of the oar, certainly, one would think, a 
clumsy method, which can hardly have been generally prevalent. 

No unimpeachable piece of an umiak oar or of an umiak 
(large skin boat) has been found in North East Greenland ; but, 
as Ryder remarks^), the great number of tent-places betoken 
that the use of umiaks must have been known. 

Inv. Amd. 72 (Fig. 44) from Dunholm is a hammer-like 
piece of wood, apparently the fragment of a branch, which 
has grown naturally at right angles. 

The length of the legs of the angle is 23 cm, and 13 cm. 

The thinner, slightly tapering part of this object is almost 
circular in cross section; the circumference of the cross section 
increases continuously towards the corner of the angle, but 
diminishes where the rounding of the outer line begins. At 
the same spot there is also a change in the form, the inner 



*) Ота! oar-blades are also found in Baffin Land; see Boas 1, 529; cf. 

Nelson 224, fig. 70; Cranz 149, PI. 6. 
*) Ryder 306. 



442 



surface of both legs near the corner being cut almost flat. 
This is also eminently the case with the inner side of the 
thick part of the piece, the cross section of which might almost 
be said to be triangular. The stump end of it is slightly convex. 
The wood, which was intact and solid when it was found, 
has warped a good deal and has formed deep cracks. It is of 




Fig. 44. Hammer-like implement (fragment?) made of a crooked branch. 
Dunholm. ^/2.4. 

a red fir or larch, 'the probabilities being in favour of its being 
a larch'. 

The only visible traces of workmanship appear in the 
corner of the inner angle, where the natural rounding of the 
branch has been cut away, and in the uniform rounding of the 
rest of the surface. Whether it was part of an implement, and 
if so, what part, it is hardly possible to decide with certainty. 



443 

It bears some slight resemblance to the post^) at the 
bottom of the stern of an umiak\ but the latter generally con- 
sists of two pieces and has holes bored in it. Moreover, the 
object here would be rather small for this purpose. There is, 
however, a warrant for the comparison in Turner's description 
of the umiak of the West-Labrador Eskimo^): — "The ends 
are nearly perpendicular .... the stem and stern posts are 
nearly alike, the latter having but little slope, and are cut 
from curved or crooked stems of trees. A tree may be found 
which, when hewed, will form the stern-post and keel in one 
length. Otherwise the fore and aft posts have places cut out 
for the insertion of the respective ends of the keel, and are 
fastened firmly by stout thongs of sealskin thrust through 
holes bored in the wood and ingeniously lashed". 

Inv. Amd. 73, 74 and 75 (Figs. 45 a, b and c), found at 
Dunholm, are three heavy bone foreshafts, for nailing and lashing 
firmly to the top of the wooden shaft of the harpoon, with 
sockets in the free end for the insertion of the loose bone shaft 
which forms the first joint of the harpoon and carries the 
harpoon head. The biggest of them measures 14 cm in length, 
its elliptical cross section at the top is about 4*2 cm by 3'4 cm. 

In order to permit of their being fastened to the wooden 
»haft, the lower part of these foreshafts have been given the 
form of semi-cylindrical wedge-like tangs, rounded on one side, 
cut to a bevel on the other, so that the bottom edge is sharp. 
A little above this edge there is a transversely bored hole 
which seems intended for a nail. Only in the largest of the 
pieces is there, about in the middle of the plane of the bevel, 
a transverse, upward-turned shoulder which is meant to rest 



M Boas (I, 527, flg. 479) calls (using the Baffin Land dialect, or erroneously?) 
a post of this kind kiglo. The Greenlandic word Iùllo (Kleinschmidt 
kifjdlo) designates a flat cross-piece resting upon the post, to which the 
ends of the gunwale are lashed and used as a seat in the stern. 

») Turner 235: cf. Murdoch I, 335—336. 



against an oppossitely facing shoulder on the main shaft. But 
in all of them there is at the root of the tang a downward 
facing shoulder, which runs round it and is only interrupted 
by the upper part of the tang bevel which narrows here. 

The upper part of the pieces is a somewhat flattened cy- 
linder, 4 to 4'5 cm long, with a slightly convex end surface in 
which there is a deep oval socket м2'5 to 3 cm deep), into 






Fig. 45. Bone foreshafts of harpoon. Dunholm. ^/2. 

which the loose harpoon shaft fitted. This cylindrical part has 
in all three pieces, a smooth, almost polished surface. The 
largest of the pieces is also fairly smooth on the flat surface 
of the bevel, but its convex back has long facets which are 
the traces left by a cutting tool; there will be seen, moreover, 
on the same side of the implement, in the sharp edge of the 
nail-hole, a cavity which has been cut in half in boring, pres- 
umably the result of an error. The two smaller pieces have 
on both sides of their tangs very evident traces of the knife 
or chisel with which the rough cutting was made, and only in 



445 

one of them are there slight vestiges of an attempt at smooth- 
ing. These two implements have probably not been quite 
flnished off. 

Compare with these implements inv. Amd. 104 and 105. 

As to the form and use of foreshafts in general, I beg to 
give a quotation from 0. Mason ^): — 

"The foreshaft of a barbed harpoon is a more or less cylin- 
drical or pear-shaped piece of heavy material, bone or ivory, fitted 
on to the shaft, and having a socket in front to receive the tang 

of the barbed head the attachment of the foreshaft to the 

shaft is by means of a splice, a wedge-shaped tang and kerf, a 
socket in the shaft fitting a projection on the foreshaft, or a socket 
in the loose shaft fitting a projection on the shaft"; after vv^hich he 
refers to two figures of foreshafts in E. W. Nelson's work on "The 
Eskimo about Bering Strait" ^), one of which is of a type exactly 
corresponding to the three from Amdrup's collection which have 
just been described. Further on he speaks of foreshafts of toggle 
harpoons ^): "The foreshaft of a harpoon is the working end of 
the shaft, and is usually a block of bone or wood neatly fitted on. 

Foreshafts vary in material , in size and shape, from the 

delicate point of the sea-otter harpoon to the clumsy variety on the 
Greenland whaling harpoon". 

Murdoch's description of the various foreshafts of the point 
Barrow Eskimo fits in well with the form of inv. Amd. 73, 74, 
75, except in the feature that the Alaska (Point Barrow) fore- 
shaft 'is kept from slipping out by a little transverse ridge 
on each side of the tang'^), from which it is evident that the 
tang is bevelled from both sides (not as in those from North 
East Greenland only from one side), and the transverse ridge 
which connects the two slanting surfaces of the narrow sides 
of the tang takes the place of the transverse shoulder I men- 
tioned in the flat surface of the bevel of one of the tangs. 



'I Mason III, 199. 
-) Nelson PI. 57, b, figs. 33, 34. 
') Mason III, 204. 

*) Murdoch I, 216, cf. fig. 204; of. Mason III, 302, fig. 92. 
XÏTIII 29 



446 



The description is about the same for foreshafts of seal-darts 
and for foreshafts of walrus harpoons ^) ; the latter are of course 
the largest. The following description is appended to the 
typical walrus harpoon: "In the tip of the foreshaft is a deep, 
round socket to receive the loose shaft. The shaft and fore- 
shaft are fastened together by a whipping of broad seal thong, 
put on wet, one end passing through a hole in the foreshaft 
one-quarter inch from the shaft, and kept from slipping by a 
low transverse ridge on each side of the tang"^). In this passage 
Murdoch, as we see, alludes to a hole in the foreshaft, like those 
in foreshafts from North East Greenland, but with the difference 
that it lies higher up than the wooden shaft and over the lash- 
ing^), whereas in the Greenland foreshafts, it lies right down 
on the thin end of the bevel, round which the lashing is 
wrapped, and seems to have been used for riveting rather than 
for catching the end of the lashing. 

Except for the peculiarities just alluded to in the three 
foreshafts from North East Greenland, unilateral bevelling and 
the hole pierced at the bottom of the tang, they bear the most 
striking resemblance to the West Eskimo foreshafts, as these 
have been described by American ethnographers'^). We find 
in them a type which diverges widely from the small flat 
square 'cap of bone no larger than the shaft, the tip of which 
it protects' (Murdoch) of the eastern harpoons, which in Green- 
land take the place of the foreshaft of the western Eskimo. 
There is nothing to indicate that they correspond to an older 
form of the harpoon in Greenland; it still remains a riddle 
how they came to North East Greenland at all. 

Jw. Amd. 76 (Fig. 46), from Dunholm, is the bone head 



Murdoch figs. 204 and 223. 

Murdoch I, 224. 

Ibid. id. fig. 214. 

Murdoch's general definition of this implement is as follows: "a heavy 

bone or ivory foreshaft, usually of greater diameter than the shaft and 

somewhat club-shaped" (Murdoch I, 223). 



447 

of an adze with a slot in the lower end for the insertion of a 
stone blade, or celt. The celt is missing, as also the wooden 
handle wherewith the centre part of the block of bone was 
attached. 

It is a heavy bone of a dark-brown colour, probably of a 
whale, t4"5cm long, the lowest half having the greatest breadth 
15 cm) and thickness (2"5 cm), while the centre part, which pro- 
jects like a shaft up from the bevelled shoulder which runs 
almost the whole way round is of lesser breadth (3'5 cm) and 
thickness (2 cm). The upper part of this shaft again is formed 
like a broad flat head, which expands out on either side in the 
latitudinal plane of the shaft. 

The back of the lower half of the implement (fig. 46 b) is 
semicylindrical, being rounded on one side edge which thus 
merges into the front side, while on the other edge (fig. 46 c) 
it is marked off at the bottom from the front side by a blunt 
edge which expands upwards into a distinct side surface. The 
back of the centre part (the shaft) is flat and separated by two 
sharp edges from the lateral surfaces, thus merging by imper- 
ceptible gradations (fig. 46 a) into the front side over a double 
row of facets, cut in the longitudinal direction of the shaft; the 
cross section of this part of the implement is a rectangle, in 
which two of the angles tend rather towards the obtuse. This 
part of the bone has unfortunately been severely damaged by 
the elements, so that a large splinter has flaked off". 

The upper head-like part of the shaft (one side of which 
has crumbled away) seems to have had a convex back like the 
lower piece, but an oblique cut (or the natural form of the 
bone) has deprived one half of the side of its curvature and 
made it flat. As the front side, which otherwise keeps 
uniformly flat over the whole piece, has here also been bevelled, 
the back and front sides meet at the top in a comparatively thin, 
slightly curved edge. 

The lower part of the front side has an aperture, the 

29" 



448 

irregular form of which is due to its being the result of an 
accident. Originally, the front side must, of course, have con- 
tinued right down to the bottom of the implement, and the 
opening merely debouched in the surface of the base, forming 
a slot. To judge by the part which remains, the base, must 
have had a narrow surface of 3"5 cm in length and 0*8 cm in 
breadth; into this debouched the aperture of the slot, rect- 
angular in cross section, for the insertion of the stone celt of 
the axe. If this celt filled the opening, it must have penetrated 
a little over 2"5 cm up into it. The two inner surfaces of the 
slot converge into one another at the bottom, so that its area 
is hardly 1*5 cm by 0*6 cm, whereas the mouth of the hole 
is 2"2 cm by 0*6 cm in cross section. 

This implement may be compared with an adze, with stone 
blade attached, from Niaqornak in Umanak fjord in North 
West Greenland, in the National Museum at Copenhagen (Lc. 
780—781), illustrated in Solberg's "Beiträge", PI. 7, which 
according to this author is 'one of the most interesting of 
Greenland antiquities'. The block of bone has been cut out 
of a reindeer horn, just as is the case of an adze from the 
lower Yukon in Alaska described by Nelson^). There are several 
finds from West Greenland of adzes belonging to two or three 
different types, which in the main resemble those known from 
Alaska; and another adze from West Greenland, which exactly 
corresponds to inv. Amd. 76, of a slightly different type from 
the foregoing, is likewise illustrated inSolberg^), who also gives 
illustrations of a series of stone-blades (celts) for adzes. He does 
not mention the three bone heads of adzes in Pfaff's collection 
in the Riksmuseum at Stockholm, of which I give illustrations 
in the Appendix figs. 100, 101 and 102. 

It may be gathered from all these illustrations that the 
adzes in general use in Greenland had the cutting edge at 



1) Nelson 92, and PI. 39, fig. 1. 

2) Solberg 48—49, PI. 7, fig. 2; id. PI. 8. 



449 





451 



right angles to the handle, and were of three different types 
as regards the manner of attaching the head to the wooden 
handle. It is true that the latter is missing in all the adzes 
found in Greenland, but a comparison with the adze types from 
the West described, as far as Alaska is concerned, by Mur- 
doch^) and Nelson ^) reveals its original existence. We under- 
stand from these descriptions that the groove in the middle 
part of inv. Amd. 76 is a bed for the lashing, which passed 
through holes in the broader end of the handle; in this bed, the 
thong is held in place, and the handle, moreover, as explained 
below, is supported by the horizontal shoulder which borders the 
top of the lower part of the bone in which the celt, or stone- 
blade, was inserted. — Murdoch sees in this elaborate con- 
struction of the adze a substitution for a simpler form 
which is only known from Alaska, where the stone blade was 
attached immediately to the handle. Inv. Amd. 76 thus ans- 
wers to the first type of the second stage of development and 
has an exact counterpart in Alaska^); the second type within 
this stage we find in the already mentioned adze from North 
West Greenland (National Museum, Copenhagen, Lc 714*) cf. 
inv. Pfaff, Stockholm, see Appendix fig. 102), and this type also 
is well known from Alaska''); in place of a groove the bone 
head has two (or more) transverse perforations from the back to 
the front side, through which the lashing passed. The third 
Greenland type (Appendix fig. 101), has a single perforation from 
the back to the front side, besides a deep round aperture (hke 
a socket) at the top of the head; how it was fastened to the 
shaft, can not be determined with certainty. 

This find of the Carlsberg Fund Expedition at the mouth 



') Murdoch I, 165-172. 

*) Nelson 91—92: as for the West coast of Hudson Bay of Boas II, 88, 

flg. 128. 
') Nelson 88, PI. 38, fig. 5. 
*) Solberg PI. 7, fig. 3. 
") Mardoch I, flgs. 135 and 136. 



452 

of Scoresby Sund thus forms an interesting contribution to our 
knowledge of this prehistoric implement in Greenland. It is 
the bone piece of an adze of a true Eskimo type. Only a very 
few specimens of the same type have been found in Greenland, 
and none intact or complete. A sharp blade (of stone or iron?^ 
must once have been inserted in the aperture at the bottom, 
and the whole piece attached to a curved haft (of wood?) in 
such a manner that, while the bone piece was lashed to the 
broad end of the haft, the thin end served as a handle, lying 
cross-wise to the edge of the blade. — Perhaps it is a wooden 
haft of this kind, for a small adze, which was found in East 
Greenland by die Zweite Deutsche Nordpolarexpedition (in the 
Museum für Völkerkunde, IVA, 205, Berlin)^); it is made of 
wood, 14*5 cm long, with four holes in the broad end, and 
line-grooves from the holes out to the edge"). 

As far as North East Greenland is concerned, inv. Amd. 
76 is an interesting addition to our knowledge of the tools of 
this primitive population. Ryder ^) also found in Scoresby Sund 
five worked whale bones, which he pronounced to be parts of 
adzes, and one of which (National Museum Lc. 1401) is of a 
similar type to this one, while the others approach more close- 
ly to the other types (the 2"*^ type: National Museum Lc. 1388 
and 1401). But inv. Amd. 76 is the most beautiful and ela- 
borate specimen we possess. 

Inv. Amd. 77 (Fig. 47 d) from Cape Tobin, is a drill con- 
sisting of a cylindrical stick of wood (23 cm in length), tapering 
towards the upper end. An iron point (the remnant of a nail?), 
2 cm in length, has been stuck in a crack-like slit in the 



1) Koldewey, 603, fig. 14. 

^) The same kind of hafting of adze-blades also prevails among the Coast 

Indians south of Alaska; see Niblack PI. 23. 
■') Ryder 325—326. Scoresby also believed himself to have found two 

axes at Cape Stewart: "Two axes made out of bone were picked up". 

(Journal 214). 1 do not know where these axes are now. 



453 



lower end. A low shoiilder-like projec- 
tion, which passes right round at the 
lower end close by the slit, indicates 
that there used to be a wrapping round 
this part. 

The implement is common in all 
Eskimo districts M, but has not been previ- 
ously found in North East Greenland. {}] 

Inv. Amd. 78 (Fig. 47 e) from Cape 
Tobin, is a drill bow of white bone with 
holes in both ends for fastening the strap 
with which the drill was set in motion. 
The length from point to point is 47 cm; 
the thickness of the bone in the middle 
of the curve is I'ocm. The bow is a 
little thicker at one end than at the other. 
It is very carefully worked and smoothly 
polished. I shall describe it, imagining 
it lying flat on the ground. At the thin 
end (pointing up in the illustration) a flat 
segment has been cut off in the horizontal 
plane, through which a hole has been 
bored in a vertical direction; a short 
oblique groove, probably due to the fric- 
tion of the taut strap, points towards the 
inner side of the bow downwards. A 
little within this groove there is a small 
hole, probably the commencement of a 
perforation. At the other end of the bow 
a concave segment has been cut off in 
the vertical plane, executed by removing 
the soft mass of the bone. The two 



M Nelson PI. 37; Mc. Guire I, 719 fT.; Murdoch 
I, 176 to 179 and 189. 



Fig. 47. 
.Set of a bow drill. ^U. ' 
a-b-c {inv.Amd.28,29,30). 

Drill caps of bone. 

Skærgaardshalvo. 
d (inv. Amd. 77). Wooden 

drill stick with iron 

point. C. Tobin, 
e (inv. Amd. 78). Drill bow 

of bone. С Tobin. 



454 



transverse holes which have been bored here, the outer- 
most of which is broken open at the extreme point of the 
bow, have thus horizontal paths. The inner hole has been 
perforated obliquely inwards, so that its path points in the 
direction of the other end of the bow, this having been done 
in order to obviate the strap rubbing against the edge of the 
hole in which it was fastened. At this end also there is a 
smaller hole within the larger ones, pierced through, but stopped 
up with a bone plug. 

The drill strap was held fast by a knot on the inner side 
of the outer hole, and was carried from it through a shallow 
groove in the outer side of the bow, then drawn through the 
inner hole directly over to the upper end of the bow and fastened 
in the hole. Every trace of the strap itself has disappeared. It 
is generally a leather thong, which is so loose that it can be 
passed once round the drill shaft; the latter is set in revolution 
alternately to the right and to the left, the drill bow moving to 
and fro in the manner of a horizontal saw. The drill shaft 
(fig. 47 d) is held in a vertical position by the upper end resting 
against a head-piece of bone which the workman holds fast 
between his teeth, and in which there is a cavity sufficiently 
deep to prevent the shaft from slipping out^). Inv. Amd. 28, 
29, and 30 are head-pieces (or 'drill caps') of this kind. 

Ryder ^) found in Scoresby Sound both a fragment of a 
drill bow and a head-piece (a bone from a reindeer's foot^). — 
Inv. Amd. 78 is an intact specimen of a drill bow; and a very 
fine piece of work too. 

Inv. Amd. 79 (Fig. 48), from Cape Tobin, is a knife, 20 cm 
in length, consisting of a thin wooden haft tapering towards 
the top, in which has been inserted a still thinner iron blade, 



') Holm PI. 18, Mc Guire I, 707, 720. 
^) Ryder 323. 

^) A mouth-piece of deer's knuckle-bone is also mentioned as belonging 
to a fire-making set from Point Barrow, Alaska. See Hough I, flg. 31. 



455 




Fig. 49. 




Fig. 50. 



Fig. 48. 




Fig. 51. 



Flg. 48. Man's linife with wooden liandle and iron blade. Cape Tobin, '/j. 

• 49. Wooden handle of a woman's knife (scraper). Dunholm. Ч2. 

•' 50. Pari of a kindling set with drill-hole. Dunholm. '/2 

•j 51. Wooden tray for meat Cape Tobin. Ч4. 



457 



which seems to be a piece of a European iron hoop. The 
blade has been wedged into a slit at the end of the haft and 
secured with whalebone or sinew cord ; for this purpose two 
holes have been bored in the rear corner of the blade within 
the edge of the slit in the haft ; and the latter has two grooves 
running right round and forming a bed for the lashing, each 
covering one of the two holes in the blade. 

Doubt might arise as to whether this be a genuine Eskimo 
knife. The blade is seemingly made of hoop iron, and the 
form of the handle is, except for the pointed end, about like 
the wooden haft of an European knife. The mere fact that the 
haft is of wood seems in itself a suspicious circumstance. On 
this very ground Solberg^ cast doubt on the primitiveness 
of a knife with a stone blade with a wooden haft, found by 
the Nathorst Expedition in North East Greenland (now in the 
Riksmuseum at Stockholm), urging that mens' stone knives with 
wooden handles are never found in West Greenland. More- 
over, as has been mentioned before (pag. 384), he sees traces of 
European influence in the curious form of the stone knife, a 
view which I endeavoured to combat by referring to the types 
of knife among the Western Eskimo and the stereotyped ice- 
knife common to all Eskimo tribes (cf. pag. 438 — 440). 

The western parallels will apply in this case as well. The 
Eskimo of the West have from olden times used knives both 
with bone hafts and wooden hafts. Boas^) gives instances 
from the isolated Southampton Island in Hudson Bay actually 
of snow-knives which have bone blades inserted in wooden 
hafts. He mentions a similar form, but with bone haft, from 
the West coast of Hudson Bay'): — "models of the ancient 
form of snow-knife, which was similar to that of Southampton 
Island. In one specimen, figured here, the joint between the 



>) Solberg 59 (Fig. 6). 

^) Boas ]1, 69, ßg. 91, b, с 

») Id. 94, flg. 138. 



458 



ivory handle and the bone handle is slanting, while in another 
specimen the ivory extends some distance along the bone 
handle to which it is sewed". It is really a slanting joint 
of this kind we find here in inv. Amd. 79, where the blade 
is of iron and the handle of wood. The two parts form an 
angle towards each other. The type is the well-known Eskimo 
crooked knife ^), and as for the joining of the two parts, it is, 
at any rate, just as genuine Eskimo as the knives of the same 
type known in Alaska^), with a handle now of bone and now 
of wood. 

Now as for the iron, both knives and harpoons heads with 
iron blades have been previously found in North East Green- 
land (cf. also inv. Amd. 3 and 77). So early an explorer as 
Scoresby^) found at 70° ЗГ at Cape Swainson (near Cape Lister) 
'the head of an arrow or small dart, rather neatly made of 
bone, armed with a small piece of iron', and adds that "it is 
difficult to say whether this iron was native, or whether it 
was carried on shore in the timbers of some wreck". The 
manufacture was a good deal similar to that of the iron imple- 
ments of the Arctic Highlanders, discovered by Captain Ross. 
The state and situation in which it was found, indicated that 
it had not long been out of use". It was found in a pool of 
water down by the shore and was hardly at all rusty. Clav- 
ering*), who in the following year came across the Eskimo 
themselves in these regions, also observed that several of their 
weapons had iron points which "seemed to be of meteoric 
origin." "Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarexpedition" ^) found in 
Klein-Pendulum Island a knife (or chisel) of iron with a wooden 
handle ; the iron blade is inserted in a slit at one end and 



1) Murdoch I, 157-161; Boas II, 87, fig. 126. 

'■') Murfloch I, fig. 118; Nelson 85—86, PI. 38, figs. 19 to 31 

3) Scoresby 187. 

■•l Quoted in Petermann's Mitteilungen 1870, p. 326. 

6) Koldewcy 605, fig. 20; and 623. 



I 



459 

secured with a lashing of sinew. Tlie author expressly declares 
that the iron cannot be derived from iron ore found in the 
the land itself, but that it is really iron wrought, and the 
supposition is advanced that it is a piece of the iron which 
Clavering gave as a present to the natives in 1823, in the 
form of knives and other objects, as he himself has related. 
Ryder M found two man's knives with blades of iron, of which, 
however, only one piece is extant; he also comes to the con- 
clusion that it is not of Greenlandic origin, but has been 
washed ashore with wreckage or drift timber. Finally Nathorst 
iHammar)-) also found a knife (length 20 cm) with an iron blade 
and a haft of ivory, as well as a chisel with an iron point and 
a haft of reindeer horn. All these implements, however, by 
no means belong to the same type, and there is no denying 
that several of them diverge from the types of knives we know 
from the West Eskimo districts. The divergences, however, 
at least as far as a number of them are concerned, do not 
seem to me so great as to preclude our explaining them as 
varieties within the original type, and to these we must reckon 
inv. Amd. 79^ even if the separate parts of this knife, both 
the blade and the handle, were brought to this coast from 
Europe •''). 

Inv. Amd. 80 (Fig. 49), from Dunholm, is a flat block of 
wood, length 6'5 cm, with downwardly diverging side edges 
and an oval head; the base is about double as broad as the 
slenderer centre, but only half as thick as the latter, the lower 



») Ryder 321—322. 

*) Nathorst 347, figs, a and b; Stolpe PL 4, fig. 11. 

') I have no grounds for supposing that the iron in this knife is of telluric 
(Greenlandic) origin. But in this connection I wish to point out that 
K. I. V. Steenstrup has shown on the basis of objects found in 
graves from West Greenland that the Eskimo have occasionally used 
for their implements genuine iron of telluric origin, occuring in the 
basalt. May not this apply also to some of the implements from North 
East Greenland, in which iron is found used? Gf. Steenstrup's reports 
in "Meddelelser om Grøriland" 2, 215 and 4, 121. 



460 

part of the side surfaces being bevelled, so that the surface 
of the base is only 0*7 to 1 cm broad, whereas the breadth 
of the median cross section of the block is 1.7 cm. The form 
of the cross section all through the implement approaches to 
the form of an ellipse, which is thus broader in the upper 
part of the block than in the lower part. 

The original form of the implement must have been sym- 
metrical, but the symmetry has been destroyed by the breaking 
off of one of the bottom corners. On the other hand, the 
considerable slit which extends from the base up through 
the whole breadth of the shaft, to the knob-like head, is an 
integral part of the implement; quite narrow at the top, it expands 
downwards, until, where it debouches into the basal surface, 
it attains a breadth of 0*2 cm. It is probable that a blade of 
some other material (iron?) has been wedged into the mouth 
of the slit, and that the object before us is really the wooden 
handle of a woman's knife, or skin-scraper {ulo). 

An ulo, or skin-scraper made of stone, of the same charac- 
teristic form was found in North East Greenland by the Swedish 
Expedition under Nathorst (Hammar)^). The form in this, as 
well as in Amdrup's haft, is perhaps an imitation of a common 
type of skin-scrapers of bone, the form of which in turn was 
conditioned by the natural form of the bone. A skin-scraper 
from Baffin Land made of bone and of the same form is figured 
in Boas^), who also figures a series of scrapers the handles 
of which are of wood, while the blades are of stone, bone, 
or metal. These handles all have a knob-like expansion at 
the upper end. Also from Alaska (St. Michael's) an example 
is extant of this type of wooden handle for a scraper^ which 
is figured in Mason ^), who describes it as follows: "Handle 
of wood, grip cylindrical, shaft triangular, expanding downward 



1) Solberg 55. fig. 47; Stolpe PI. 3, fig. 10. 

2) Boas II, 33, fig. 40 b; fig. 41 с and d. 
8) Mason VI, PI. 83, fig. 1. 



461 



to fit neatly the blade of slate, which lies in a cut on the 
under side and is held in place by a neat lashing of a fine 
rawhide string". Except for this last feature (the lashing), 
the implement is of quite the same type as inv. Amd. 80. 
Finally, we find this type carved in ivory in a handle of a 
scraper from Cape Darby in Alaska, illustrated in W. J. Hoff- 
man M, who in the form sees an imitation of a whale's tail: — 
'the front end has a deep incision in which v/as placed one 
time a flint scraper.' The form of the handle 
is quite like the North West Greenland type, 
only that it is made in ivory instead of in 
wood. Most of the other skin-scrapers from 
Alaska which have been described are of a 
peculiar form, unknown from Greenland^), and 
yet not so different from the type figured here 
as to disguise the continuity between the forms. 
Inv. Amd. 81 (Fig. 52), from Dunholm. 
This is the most notable needle or bodkin in 
the collection, very beautifully worked in ivory, 
polished, elegant, and symmetrical, and withal of 
a peculiar type. It is 14 cm long, cylindrical 
in cross section, tapering from the middle to- 
wards the point (which is much worn or broken 

ofif) and having a concave narrowing around the Fig- 52. Bodkin 

■ jii /. .1 ■ .1 ^ ii i .of ivory. Dun- 

middle of the upper part, so that the top again , j 

is thicker, still thicker than the middle of the 

needle. 

The eye is particularly remarkable; it is placed laterally 

and bored in a curve, or formed by two independent conical 

borings which meet at their bottom. The mouths of (he path 

are elongated (1 cm high) and placed edgewise, facing almost 

towards the same side, near each other on either side of a 



Ч Hoffmann. PI. 35, fig. 8. 
'') Murdoch I, 294—299. 



30 



462 



narrow bridge. The hole seems to have been large enough 
to permit of a narrow thong being drawn through it. The 
nail has probably been intended for the sewing of large boat- 
skins. 

Inv. Amd. 82 (Fig. 50) from Dunholm. A block of red pine- 
wood, 12-5 long, which has been used for making fire. In the 
middle of the upper flat side there is a conical aperture about 
1 cm in depth (the diameter of the mouth is about 7 mm). 
There are no traces of side-grooves. The interior of the aper- 
ture is black with combustion. It is in fact the hole in which 
the wooden drill rotated, the heat generated by the friction 
causing sparks. Compare G, Holm's^) description of fire-making 
among the Ammassalik Eskimo. 

The only remarkable point about the piece is that the 
under side of it is so narrow that it has to be gripped firmly 
when the drill stock is to be moved in the hole, to prevent 
its overturning; this indicates that the fire-making set when 
used in conjunction with this block must have been served by 
two men in drilling. 

Inv. Amd. 83 (Fig. 51), from Cape Tobin, is a wooden 
vessel, made of an elongated wooden block of spruce fir or 
larch, which has been hollowed out. Its upper' edge forms 
approximately a rectangle (about 30 by 16 cm), while the sharply 
marked bottom edge (about 21 by 13 cm) approaches more to 
the form of an ellipse. The side walls, which thus converge 
downwards towards each other (and the two narrow ones more 
than the two broad ones), have a thickness of about I cm; the 
bottom is not much thicker, so that it is evident that the 
hollowing has been very thoroughly carried out. The interior 
of the vessel is in places very rough, and by its numerous 
scratches and grooves shows manifest traces of the cutting 
implement with which the excavation was performed. The long 



') Holm 70-71, PI. 24; Hough I, 555 1Г. II, 396-399; Nelson PI. 34. 



463 

sides are smoother than the two end sides of the vessel, the 
grain of the wood lying in the longitudinal direction of the 
vessel. The upper edge has two or three fractures, probably 
due to rough usage. Along one of the two narrow sides the 
upper edge projects about 1 cm out over the side surface ; this 
projection, which is somewhat irregularly cut, was perhaps in- 
tended as a rest for the hand in carrying the vessel, or else as a 
lip through which the content might be poured out. In the 
middle of one of the long sides near the upper edge, there is 
a minute hole. 

The vessel was probably a tray on which meat was served, 
like the hollowed wooden blocks used by the Ammassalik Eskimo 
as meat-bowls^), although it differs somewhat from them in 
form. It more closely resembles the vessels, likewise hollowed 
out of a piece of wood, in the Gjøa collection (Amundsen) from 
King William Land (in the Ethnographical Museum at Chri- 
stiania). There are similar trays and dishes from West Green- 
land also (National Museum at Copenhagen, cabinets 31 and 
92). Boas^) gives an illustration of a dish made of wood, of 
a quite similar type, from the west coast of Hudson Bay. 
'They are sometimes edged with ivory either all round or only 
at the ends'. They also occur in Alaska, as we are informed 
by Murdoch^), who gives a figure of a meat bowl with flat 
bottom and rounded sides, and by Nelson^): "cut from a single 

piece of wood to hold meat, fat etc., both raw, and 

cooked." 

hiv. Amd. 84 (Fig. 53), from Cape Tobin, is a bone stick, 
cylindrical in cross section, 30'6 cm long, curved, tapering 
towards one end, with a handle irregularly cut at the thick 
end. The handle is separated from the other part by an annu- 



'I Holm 69. 

-') Boas II, 99. fig. 143 b. 
') Murdoch 1. 89, fig. 19. 
') Nelson 70. 

30* 



464 



lar ridge, which, however, is broken through on 
both sides, on one side by a groove which runs 
along the lower part of the implement, on the 
other side by a narrow cut. On either side of 
this cut and this groove, which lie along the 
side surfaces of the handle, are seen some irre- 
gular facets left by cuts, alternating with hacks 
and low knobs. In the handle there are two 
transverse holes converging from the upper side 
towards each other, and meeting in a common 
large hole on the under side. Is this curious 
aperture meant for a looped strap into which the 
person holding the stick as a fork stuck his hand, 
thus obtaining a better purchase on it? The end 
which points upwards in the illustration would 
easily hold a piece of blubber or meat stuck on 
it, and the small transverse grooves rifled on 
the inner side of this end would serve to 
strengthen the hold. 

If it is a fork, it may be compared to inv. 
Amd. 49'^), which, however, it far surpasses in 
elegance. However, it is quite possible that it 
may be intended for a different object ('feather 
setter', or 'seal indicator', cf. Murdoch) ^). 

Inv. Amd. 85 (Fig. 54), from Cape Tobin. 
A lyrate buckle of white bone. A thin hexa- 
gonal flat piece of bone. The lower part is 
bounded by five straight sides ; the upper part 
forms a corner, separated from the other part 
by two fin-shaped wings, and edged by a line 
which curves round three times. The buckle is 
4"3 cm in length, 3*2 cm in breadth, and of 



Fig. 53. Blubber 

fork(?) of bone. 

С Tobin. 'Ь. 



1) Also Boas I, 563, fig. 517. 

2) Murdoch I, 255, fig. 255. 



465 



exactly the same thickness (0"5 cm) all over. At the bottom of 
the buckle there is an elongated narrow horizontal slit, parallel 
with the basal edge, large enough to permit of a flat thong 
being drawn through. It was made by first boring two holes 
in the same line and then cutting away the intervening piece 
of bone. In the middle of the buckle there is a large hole 
(tilled up with dried clay or mud), the irregular form of which 
is probably merely due to its having first been bored wrong 
in the buckle, and the error having been rectified by boring a 
fresh hole which ran into the edge of the first. Above it there 
are three smaller holes, the nether- 
most of which is connected with the 
main hole by a little groove for the 
countersinking of the thong which was 
passed through from hole to hole. 

This buckle is much like those 
which are attached to the upper edge 
of the circular kaiak skirt used by the 
kaiakers both in West Greenland and 
at Ammassalik ^1, and which below is 
lashed round the ring in the man-hole 
of the kaiak, while above it reaches 
about to the height of the man's mid- 
riff, when it is drawn tight; for this latter purpose there is 
either a pair of braces (a chain of bone beads) over the man's 
shoulders attached at the back to the border of the kaiak skirt 
and in front carried through one or two buckles in the front 
of tlie skirt; or two strings of beads hang down from the man's 
shoulders, fastened under the neck on his kaiak jacket; in some 
kaiaks these strings are gathered together in the buckle at the 
upper edge of the kaiak skirt; in others they are kept apart and 
attached each to a separate buckle, in which case each of the two 
buckles is fixed in front of the skirt on either side of the centre. 
^) Holm PI. 20. 




Fig. 54. Buckle of bone. 
С Tobin. 4i. 



466 



In analogy with the buckles [ saw in the National Museum at 
Copenhagen (Cabines 76 and 66, Nos. 98 — 99), inv. Amd. 85 must 
rather be thought to have belonged to a kaiak skirt which was 
held up by two buckles, and been attached to its border by a 
little loop through the elongated horizontal slit at the bottom 
of the buckle. The single brace string must have passed 
through the large central hole. The smaller holes are perhaps 
reserve holes for use in the case the brace got wet before it 
was attached, and therefore required different degrees of tight- 
ening according to the different degrees of contraction and 
expansion due to the wet. 

A bone buckle of exactly the same form was found by 
Nathorst (Hammar) further to the north; it has the same elon- 
gated horizontal slit at the basal edge ; on the other hand the 
larger round hole lies right out at the opposite end, between 
the fin-like wings, and two small apertures are seen across the 
middle. 

The same Expedition also found in a young girl's grave 
(at Cape Franklin) ^), a fairly similar buckle which is ornamented 
with numerous dots (minute holes). As it is hardly hkely that 
an implement belonging to the man's kaiak accessories was laid 
in a woman's grave, we must cast about for another explanation 
as to the purpose for which this buckle was used. Boas^) 
describes some buckles of a similar character, serving to carry 
needle-cases or similar implements at the girdle. This resem- 
blance to a woman's buckle, if it really exists, need not alter 
our view of inv. Amd. 85 as a buckle belonging to a man's 
kaiak dress. 

Inv. Amd. 86 (Fig. 64), from Dunholm, is an ornamented 
comb of yellowish-brown bone (the shoulder-blade of a large 
mammiferous animal?). Length 12 to 12*5 cm; breadth 3"9 to 
4 cm ; thickness 4 to 5 cm. 



M Stolpe PI. 6, (ig. 19; Nathorst 364. 
2) Boas I. 560, flg. 514. 



467 

It consists of a flat handle of considerable length (over 
half of the comb) which by the edge curving well in from both 
sides is divided into two sections which together form some- 
thing like an 8 upside down. The larger section is crowned by 
a flat blade-like projection, at the top of which there is a 
broken eye, in which a looped thong for hanging the comb 
may have been fastened. The long teeth of the comb have 
been cut out from the lower part of the second section; at 
the root these teeth are flat like the handle itself, but they 
soon become cylindrical like bodkins, tapering towards the 
point. There seem originally to have been eight teeth, but the 
extreme tooth on both sides has been broken off. The teeth 
are not equally sharp, nor equally long ; the shorter ones have 
been much blunted by wear-, a very thin slit in the blunt point 
of them leads one to imagine that the wear was due to the 
friction of the hair. Also higher up, on the upper part of the 
teeth of the comb, where hairs generally collect, is seen a 
horizontal groove, running from tooth to tooth, and probably 
due to wear. The spaces between some of the teeth at the 
root are still filled with dirt from the hair. 

What strikes one at once about this comb is the ornamen- 
tation, identical on both sides of the comb, which is more 
luxurious than we should expect to see in Greenland. We 
see the interlacing ornamentation at the edge, consisting of 
two parallel lines which follow the border of the handle in all 
its sinualions, the intervening spaces of which are filled up 
with small triangular dots placed alternately along the two lines; 
and the two crosses which are incised each in its section and 
filled with ornamental straight lines which cross one another 
and form small squares. The ornaments of the two faces of 
the comb actually correspond with each other in such minute 
details as that the two upper crosses are inscribed in rect- 
linear, very weakly designed figures (perhaps lines to guide the 
drawing of the cross?) and that the two smaller ones in the lower 



468 



section are both placed on a sharply marked, continued basal 
line. 

The work as a whole has been carefully and artistically 
executed; a critical eye will, of course, easily perceive several 
inaccuracies and crookednesses in the outer lines of the comb 
as well as in the ornamentation. But, as I shall presently show, 
the Eskimo craftsman certainly set himself a most unusual task 
in this little work of art. 

For while the construction of the comb, the broad flat 
handle, and the thick bodkin-like teeth are found in combs from 
North West Greenland, the size and special form of the handle 
of this comb are quite unique, as far as I know, not merely 
among the combs which are found in the collections from 
Greenland, but among Eskimo combs as a whole. It is so 
much the more surprising, as no comb has previously been 
found in the north-east of Greenland. 

1 know from the collections a number of West Greenland 
combs, found in graves. The ordinary type is a flat, square 
handle of bone, expanding a little downwards, where the teeth 
are cut out of the same piece without much art, being as a 
rule comparatively short. In Pfaff's collection in the Riks- 
museum at Stockholm there are a few varying types, which 
have a faint resemblance to inv. Amd. 86. Two of these combs 
have a handle with a curving edge, at the top of which projects 
a circular blade, like a human head. Another has the simple 
square handle, but longer, cylindrical teeth — curiously enough 
originally 8 teeth, the two outermost of which on each side 
have been broken off, just exactly as in this specimen from 
North East Greenland. (With regard to one or two other combs 
from West Greenland, it is stated that they were presumably 
used in plaiting sinew cord, just like those Nelson describes 
from West Alaska M. 



1) Nelson no, PI. 48 a, figs. 1 to 6. 



469 





Fig. 56. Comb made of bone (front and back) Dunholm. "/12 



471 

The simple square handle and the tlat teeth are also found 
in the types which are described from Baffin Land, from the 
west coast of Hudson Bay '), all of which, however, in contra- 
distinction to those from West Greenland, are ornamented either 
with indentations along the edges, or with etched designs on 
the faces. The simple type occurs also in North Alaska, side 
by side with more elaborate forms, the one where the top of 
the handle is formed as a ring being apparently the most 
common. None of the combs figured in Murdoch^) are orna- 
mented. 

It turns out accordingly that this specimen from the en- 
trance of Scoresby Sound in North East Greenland is cut upon 
a bolder design than any other known Eskimo comb. The 
boldly curved outline, the division of the handle into two sec- 
tions, which is a development of the known type from West 
Greenland with a circular blade projecting from the top of the 
comb, are in themselves a new departure. The artisan had a 
further exercise for his originality and imagination in the orna- 
mentation of the frame. A study of the ornaments shows that 
he was familiar with Eskimo ornamentation, as he has employed 
one or two of its typical forms in the execution of his task. 

The ornamentation consists of incised figures. The motif 
of the border ornament is two parallel lines each of which is 
decorated with a regular and unilateral row of small transverse 
bars, in such a manner that the row of bars in each line 
faces that of the other line, each bar in the one line pointing 
towards a space between two bars on the other line. The 
ornament is thus a combination of two simpled ones, or rather 
a duplication of the single line, decorated with bars. 

Although ornaments on bone work from West Greenland 
are extremely rare, I have found both these forms of orna- 
mentation on bone implements from that region. The simple 



M Boae I. 559, fig. 513; II, 107, fig. 1.06 (cf. 7.5, fig. 103). 
^) Murdoch 1, 150. 



472 



form, a single line with unilateral transverse bars is found in 
a needle-case from Karsok (Ikamiut, Disco Bay?) in West Green- 
land, where two oppositely curved 
lines on the face along each lateral 
edge of the needle-case correspond 
to each other, just as the upper 
edge is followed by a line of this 
kind (see Appendix, fig. 96) ; the 
combined form is seen in the 
larger needle-case from Iginiarfik 
(Egedesminde district). Appendix 
fig. 97, and on a swivel, likewise 
from West Greenland, the upper 
part of which is bordered by the 
ornament; the narrow convex sides 
of this little implement are deco- 
rated with a second ornament 
running along them. These three 
ornamented bone implements, all 
of which belong to the Inv. Pfaff 
in the Riksmuseum at Stockholm, 
are the only ornaments carved in 
bone which I know from West 
Greenland. The type of this orna- 
ment, both isolated and combined, 
is very common in bone imple- 
ments from Alaska^) (in a skin- 
dresser, a grass-comb, a buckle, a 
pipe-stern, a seal drag, bag handles, 
a comb, mouthpieces, needle-cases, 
kantag handles, drill bows, belt fasteners, buckles etc.) and is 
designated as 'the fish trap or seal tooth pattern'^). 




Fig. 56. The. comb from Dun- 
holm (same as fig. 55). 

Ditlevsen delin. 



') Hoffman 805-806; PI. 18, 23, 32, 52; 20, 26, 31, 32, 35, 36, 37, 50, 

51, 52; Nelson PI. 38, 43, 44; Mason I, PI. 63. 
2) Hoffman 806. 



473 



H. Stolpe in "Studier öfver amerikansk Ornamentik", discusses 
these and other Eskimo ornaments at some length; he broaches a 
hypothesis that this zig-zag pattern, and another, consisting of hnes 
crossing one another, has arisen as an imitation (owing to 'expec- 
tancy') of the cross wrapping of whale-bone cord with which the 
stone blade in the original type of the ulo was fastened to the 
wooden handle, viz, by holes pierced in its upper part. Later on 
they found it sufficient to join the blade into a slit in the under 
side of the handle, but retained for some time the whalebone cord 
lashing on the upper back of the shaft merely as an ornament (cf. 
iin\ Amd. 45). The last stage was that this veritable wrapping 
was abandoned, but that the craftsman cannot help marking it in 
its old place, thus producing the incised ornament of lines crossing 
one another. — It is however hardly probable that the very widely 
diffused zig-zag pattern on bone implements should have this same 
special origin. 

[n each of the two fields of inv. Amd. 86 which are pro- 
duced by the connection of the inward curving ornamental 
lines at the point where they approach most closely to each 
other, the craftsman has incised a cross, thus four crosses 
in all. 

The cross ornament had, as we know, developed in Ame- 
rica even before the time of Colombus, and is found in the 
ornamentation of the Indians in various forms ^). On the other 
hand, 1 find no traces of its naturalization in the ornamentation 
of the Eskimo. In the illustrations on books I have only 
found it in a few cases: as far as Alaska is concerned, on 
a wooden spoon in Murdoch^), which is designated as new, 
in a couple of ivory ear pendants, and on a wooden box 
in Hoffman •''), who, however, expressly states with regard to 
the latter that the cross on it must be ascribed to Russian 



M .See, e. g. Handbook of American Indians, article cross (liur. Am. Ethnol. 

Bulletin 30, p 365—367); Wilson: The Swastika; Stolpe: Amerikansk 

Ornamentik; Hein: Mäander, Kreuze etc. in Amerika. 
-'. Murdoch I, 104, flg. 42, 
') HolTman 806, PI. 32 and 34. 



474 



influence. Three small crosses are seen on one of the combs 
from Baffin Land illustrated in Boas^). Finally two crosses 
are found incised in inv. Amd. 87 from the same place as the 
comb, but all these crosses are of the simplest possible form, 
viz. two short lines crossing each other at right angles. The 
cross in the comb, on the other hand, is of a form which is 
most striking in an Eskimo district. The type is known as 
genuine within the Indian districts in North America, as 'the 
cross formed by the ornamental arrangement of three tijpi 
figures' ^) ; but the discovery of a cross of this type in the 
ornamentation of the Eskimo is quite isolated and unexplained. 

There is no reason to doubt that inv. Amd. 86 is a 
product of Eskimo industry. The details of the border orna- 
mentation are of unmistakable Eskimo origin; the whole form 
of the comb can easily be explained as an independent variety 
of an Eskimo comb, with the stamp of individuality; but the 
cross ornament in its four fields tells another tale, or rather 
speaks a language which it is more difficult to conceive as pure 
Eskimo. 

But this old Eskimo implement is not the less interesting 
and valuable for having the riddle of the cross written on 

its face. 

I find in G. Mallery ("Picture Writing of the American 
Indians" ^) the following mention of the cross having been adopted 
as a symbol by some of the Eskimo in the south-western corner 
of Alaska. "Among the Kiatéxamut [= Kiatagmiut?], an Innuit- 
tribe, a cross placed on the head, as in Fig. 1231, signifies a 
shaman's evil spirit or demon. This is an imaginary being nnder 
control of the shaman to execute the wishes of the latter." The 
figure shows on a small scale a crudely drawn man, above whose 
head the Greek cross (an upright cross with Hmbs of equal length) 
is placed. Wilson ("The Swastika")'*^) cites this passage, but makes 



^) Boas I, figs. 513 a. 

'^] Handbook of American Indians p. 366 (W. Holmes). 

8) Mallery 728, fig. 1231. 

•') Wilson III, 939, fig. 328. 



475 



the error of writing: "Among the Kiatéxamut and Innuit tribes, 
a cross placed on the head signified a shaman's evil spirit or 
demon etc.", where the simple fact that the cross occurs in a 
single drawing in southern Alaska has been generalised to hold 
good of all Eskimo. As a matter of fact the drawing brought to 
light by Mallery, who does not inform us on what implement or 
object it was found, is a quite isolated product of an Eskimo's 
imagination and, of course, does not prove anything as to the 
cross having been known as a symbol or ornament among this 
people as a whole. 

The cross on the comb brought by Amdrup from East Green- 
land is of quite another type than the isolated ornamental crosses 
which, as has been mentioned above, are found here and there 
on Eskimo objects from different places. It is a pronounced Maltese 
cross, a type which in Europe is of mediæval origin ^): in North 
America it occurs now and then as an ornament. I have only found 
it in a medicine-case lid^), illustrated in Kroeber, from the Arapho 
Indians (Algonkin family), in a Siouan awl from Nebraska illustrated 
in Mac Guire-''), and on a 'mantle of invisibility', illustrated in Mal- 
lery^) made by Apache Indians (the most southerly group of the 
Athapascan family); on this mantle it occurs six times as an 
ornament. Finally, Mallery^) referring to Keam's manuscript informs 
us that this type of cross was used by the Moki Indians (^= Mo- 
quelumnan?) as an ornament. "The Maltese cross is the emblem 
of a virgin; still so recognized by the Moki. It is a conventional 
development of a more common emblem of maidenhood, the form 
in which the maidens wear their hair arranged as a disk of 3 or 
4 inches in diameter upon each side of the head. This discoidal 
arrangement of their hair is typical of the emblem of fructification 
worn by the virgin in the Muingwa festival". So among these 
Indians this peculiar form of cross has been developed as an 
imitation of the women's head-dress. 

Inv. Amd. 87 (Fig 56), from Dunholm, is a flattish tube 



') Wilson 111, 760 and 950 (Fig. 7) "The Maltese Cross was the symbol 
of the knichts of Malta, and has become, in later years, that of the 
Masonic fraternity. 

*) Handbook Amer Ind. I, p. 366. 

^ Mac Guire I, 67f3, fig. 60 

', Mallery PI. XXXIll. 
I Mallery 12Я—Т2<), fig. 1232. 



476 



of yellowish-brown ivory (narwhal tusk), length 8" I cm; greatest 
breadth 2'5 cm, narrowest in the middle, expanding towards 
both the mouths of the tube, but most upwards. On both sides 
of the narrowest part a flat wing has been carved out. 

A piece of the edge both of the upper and of the lower 
mouth has been broken off. 

The ornaments are: — a little incised cross on the front 
of each wing; a little circular aperture on the back of them; 
four similar apertures (thus not holes bored through) a 





E. Ditlevsen delt. 

Fig. 56. Needle case. Dunholm. */5. 

quarter turn from each other a little below under the upper 
edge of the tube; finally both on the front and on the back 
of the tube are carved two symmetrically curving pairs of lines, 
which follow the line where the wings join the sides of the 
tube. The surface of the implement is beautifully polished and 
carefully worked. The implement must be compared with im. 
Amd. 61, which I set down as a needle-case. Its form diverges 



a little from that of the latter, which was seen to be parti- 
cularly typical of the Greenland fashion of needle-case; but the 
divergence rather goes to lend support to the view, as this 
somewhat slenderer form, which in Greenland is only found 
in the north-east, and only in this one specimen, really con- 
stitutes a transition form which fills up the gap between the 
Greenland and the West Eskimo type of this implement. 

Inv. Amd. 88 and 89 (Fig. 57 a and b), from Cape Tobin, 
are two animals carved in wood, and attesting the usual skill 
of the Eskimo in characterisine: animals. 




Ъ 
Fig. 57. A bear and a swimming bird, carved in wood. Cape Tobin. 4i. 

(а) A polar bear standing in a watchful attitude, or as 
if ready to pounce on his prey. Though not very carefully 
worked (the snout and the mouth are not finished, nor are 
the claws or paws indicated, and there is only a faint indication 
of ears), it is nevertheless easy to recognize by the broad back, 
the thick thighs, the short stumpy tail, which lies closely along 
the flat rump, the low hanging belly, and last but not least, 
the stooping position of the head (cf. Appendix fig. lObl. 

(б) A large bird, swimming, either a goose or an eider- 
fowl; its breast and belly right up to the tail are covered with 
a greyish crust, probably the remains of a piece of bird's skin 
which has been drawn over it to render it more true to life; 

xxvui. 31 



478 



on the breast there are several long hairs adhering to the 
crest. This idea of covering the carved animal with feathers 
or hair in imitation of nature is a feature which I have not 
met with before or seen mentioned as to any Eskimo toy animal. 
Carved animals of wood have been previously found in 
Scoresby Sound: Ryder ^) found three figures representing seals, 
two of them lying on their backs, just as when they are 
dragged home from the ice by the Eskimo. Further to the 








Fig. 58. Animals carved in ivory. Cape Tobin. Mi. 



north, at Cape Weber, the Nathorst Expedition (Hammer)^) 
likewise found three figures of animals carved in wood, a polar 
bear, a seal, and a musk ox, several times larger than the figures 
found by Amdrup and Ryder; the bear, for instance, measures 
from snout to tail between 13 and 14 cm. The second German 
North Pole Expedition^) also found in these regions a few wood 
carvings of this kind: several of the expeditions, moreover, 
found carved human figures of wood. It is very significant 



1) Ryder 337, fig. 38. 

'■') Nathorst 348, figs, b, c, d ; Stolpe, PI. 5, fig. 18. 

■^) Koldewey 601, figs. 2 and 3. 



479 

that the Eskimo's representations of themselves, the only race 
of men they know, appear to us less characteristic than their 
animal figures. 

Inv. Amd. 90 — 95 (Fig. 58), from Cape Tobin. Six animals 
carved in ivory. All of them have a hole pierced in them 
either at one end or in the middle. They were used as 
hanging ornaments, perhaps attached to needle-cases. They are 
very small, very finely worked. 

The first figure represents a swimming bird (without trace 
of its legs). To the right is seen a blown-up bladder, a seal- 
skin float, for which, as we know, a whole sealskin is used, 
with the skin of the head, the swimmers, and the tail intact 
and well sewn together, so that the air which is blown in 
distends the whole skin, making it assume the form of a 
whole seal. 

In the middle row are seen a walrus and a whale. 

In the bottom row to the right (under the whale) we see 
a plump seal of the smallest variety, lying on its belly. The 
drawing (Fig. 59) gives a better impression of 
how this little work of art is to be conceived. 
The animal is evidently to be looked upon as 
lying on its back, in the position in which 
after killing it is dragged ashore over the ice 
by the hunter. 

As all the animals just mentioned are Fig. 59 (inv. Amd. 

rendered in a very lifelike manner in the ^^'- ^^^^ "^'""^^ '" 

ivory. 

carvings, there are no grounds for supposing 
that the sixth, inv. Amd. 95, should not also give a faithful 
representation of some animal or other. However, it is by no 
means easy to identify it. It can not be any kind of seal, as 
it has no swimmers, and the shape of the head with the small 
pointed ears is very unlike that of a seal. The imagination 
recoils from conceiving it as a land mammifer. And yet we 
have no other recourse, and we shall discover, to our surprise, 

31" 





480 



that the realistic sense of the Eskimo has not failed him this 

time either. The drawing fig. 60, shows how the figure is to 

be conceived; not with the head in front and 

the tail behind, but with the head erected: a 

polar bear walking on its hind legs. The pointed 

ears are then found to have a significance; the 

fore paws are pressed closely to the body and 

„. ^„,. , , are not visible; on the other hand, the hind 
Fig. 60 {inv. Amd. ' ' 

95). Bear carved legs are distinct enough. The upright position 
in ivory. jg peculiar to the polar bear when it is sur- 
rounded by the attacking hounds and stands at bay, ready 
to defend itself with its teeth and front paws. The little work 
of art is in its way quite unique ; the carver has endeavoured 
to represent an animal figure which departs from the common 
stereotyped forms of Eskimo art, like those of the watching 
bears or swimming seals. That is perhaps why the result has 
not been very satisfactory from an artistic point of view; but 
it bears evidence of a personal sense of humour and a live- 
liness of imagination. It is once again a Uttle manifestation 
of the same delight in striking out new lines which we have 
on several occasions observed in useful objects made by one 
of the most isolated tribes of human beings in the world, which 
none the less has evidently not lacked the impulse to carry 
the traditions of their fathers a step further in the new regions 
to which they have immigrated. 




Fig. 61. Bone split by borings. Ч2. 

Inv. Amd. 96 (Fig. 61), from Cape Tobin, is a bone 
15'5cm in length, which has been split by means of drilling 
from opposite sides. This has resulted in a flat side, where 
the remains of the spongy soft interior of the bone are clearly 



48J 



seen. A whet-stone or scraper seems to have been used over a 
small part of this surface, which otherwise is rough. The inten- 
tion has evidently been to use the piece for some implement 
or other. In the thick end there is a transverse hole. 

The previous expeditions M often found similiar half-finished 
bones, which show that drill-boring has been used instead of 
a saw to split off the blocks of bone 
which were to be used for bone imple- 
ments or utensils. The same procedure 
was in older times also adopted on the 
West coast, it must have demanded no 
little patience. 

Inv. Amd. 97 (Fig. 62), from Dun- 
holm, is a curiously formed flat piece of 
wood labout 12 cm long), which looks 
something like a weapon head. It is split 
(by the action of frost or as the result 
of pressure?) into two pieces. Its sides 
are slightly convex ; the edges are roun- 
ded, even at the extremity of the blunt 
end. The resemblance to a weapon-head 
is due to the two indentations which have 
been made obliquely opposite to each 
other. Close behind them is the com- 
mencement of a fracture which has per- 
haps carried off the lower part of the 
implement. 

It is difficult to decide to what kind of implement this 
fragment can have belonged. A weapon head of wood is other- 
wise quite an unknown thing, and I do not know any Eskimo 
implement of this kind, unless it be related to the kind of im- 
plement I am going to describe presently, inv. Amd. 99. 




Fig. 62. Fragment of a 

wooden implement. 

Dunholm. M2. 



M Ryder 324; Koldewey 601; Nathorst 2.08— 260. 



482 



Inv. Amd. 98 from Dunholm, is a piece of a whale's ver- 
tebra, a circular flat piece of spongy bone, circa 23 cm in 
diameter. In the centre is seen a square hole, which has been 
cut obliquely through from one side to the other. 

According to Ryder ^), the passage-ways in the settlement 
he found at Sydkap at the mouth of Nordvestfjord in Scoresby 
Sund were partially covered with the vertebrae of whales, the 
rib-bones of whales being likewise used there as rafters. 

1) Ryder 289. 



7. Einds from Cape Borlase Warren (74° 18' lat. I.) and 
Sabine Island (7445' lat. I.), Iforth East G-reenland. 



Between 4 and 5 degrees of latitude further towards the 
north, about fifty miles north of the mouth of Franz Joseph's 
fjord the Expedition landed at two points and made excavations 
with the object of searching for Eskimo remains. In both 
these places earlier expeditions had landed previously. 

Clavering discovered and gave the name to Cape Borlase 
Warren, which lies at the extreme point of a peninsula north 
of Clavering Island. Also in his time (1823) traces of the 
natives were found ; stone chambers built up of stones were 
found everywhere along the coast, containing blubber, and 
several old graves were opened. — The members of the second 
German North Pole Expedition ^) camped twice at this spot and 
likewise found numerous traces of the previous Eskimo popu- 
lation. Besides the graves opened by Clavering, they found 
further to the west an unopened grave, the interior of which 
was found to have been divided into two chambers by means 
of a little partition. Among the rocks here there was also 
found the half of a kaiak paddle. — In this spot Lieutenant 
Amdrup^) made quite a short landing, during which he was 
fortunate enough to find some few Eskimo objects; a number 
of these are connected with the Eskimo's dog-sledges. 

Only a few miles further to the north lay Sabine Island, 
where the Expedition made a similar landing after having made 



') Koldewey 607—608. 

*) Amdrup, Meddelelser om Grönland XXVII, 148. 



484 



their way through the belt of ice in July 1900^). Here Lieu- 
tenant Amdrup, together with Søren Nielsen, excavated an old 
Eskimo winter house and found a few extremely interesting im- 
plements, or fragments of them. The place, by the way, is 
one of the places which have been most visited by Europeans 
on this part of the coast. Clavering and Sabine had landed 
here in their time. One of the vessels of the German North 
Pole Expedition, Germania, wintered afterwards in a little bay 
off this island. In the report^) of this Ex- 
pedition we find a sketch of the Eskimo 
settlement, the ruins of which still exist 
here, and it is mentioned that on the south 
side of the island east of the ruins 10 
graves lie. Half of them at that time had 
not been tampered with, the stones of the 
others were scattered all about. "The fact 
that the graves had been opened and robbed 
of their contents seemed to us", so the 
report runs, "to indicate the former pre- 
sence of civilized men". The English Ex- 
pedition had presumably already made exca- 
vations here. However, the only traces of 
Europeans which were found was the half 
оГа wooden im- 0^ ^ porter bottle 3). — Thirty years later, 
plement. Sabine the Swedish Expedition under Nathorst 
^' landed on this island, the year before the 
Danish. It is thus evident that even in the places in East 
Greenland previously visited by the Expeditions, an archæolo- 
gical investigation would have some prospects of discovering 
still more Eskimo remains. 

Inv. Amd. 99 (Fig. 63), from Sabine Island, is a shaft- 




Fragment 



^) Amdrup, ibid. 146—147. 
2) Koldewey 589 and 590. 
") id. 597. 



485 

like fragment of a wooden implement, length 13 cm, greatest 
breadth 4-5 cm. At the broad end it is flat and thin, over 
the middle it attains its greatest thickness, at the narrow end 
it is circular in cross section. All the edges are rounded, and 
there is no ridge on any of the side surfaces. On the flat 
upper side is seen a conoid depression, deepening inwardly; 
its outer edge follows quite closely along the side edge of the 
shaft, while the opposite border, which is deeply cut and 
almost hollowed, is slightly curved and has a ridge between 
the depression and the neighbouring edge of the shaft. The 
bottom of the depression is flat, but slants evenly up at the 
bottom corner towards the base of the implement, where a 
broad ridge between the depression and the basal edge of the 
implement is likewise produced; this basal ridge forms a 
rounded angle, less than a right angle, with the lateral ridge 
just mentioned. This latter is bevelled and rounds off into 
the under side of the shaft. In the middle of the same edge 
of the shaft there is a shallow incision, which may be con- 
sidered to be a finger-rest. The under side of the implement, 
as far as can be seen in the rather damaged wood, must have 
been slightly convex, but in the part between the finger-rest 
and the basal edge its surface has a characteristic slant where- 
by this corner of the shaft is rendered thinner than the middle. 
In this fragment we recognize the same implement which 
Ryder ^) found further to the south, in Scoresby Sund, and of which 
he gives an illustration. It was only natural that he should inter- 
pret it to be the handle of a throwing-stick of the type which 
is employed for bird-darts, especially of the type which is 
■ nown from North Alaska, for there is really a resemblance 
between the fragment found by him and the corresponding 
part of a throwing-stick (though not the Greenland form of it) 
and no other Eskimo implement with a handle of this kind was 



M Ryder 318, ßg. 17 b. 



486 



known. Ryder has supplemented his drawing of the fragment 
with some imaginary dotted lines, which bring out the resem- 
blance to the Alaska form of a throwing-stick. 

However, this correspondence is a mere coincidence, as I 
am now going to prove. The proof, however, was not derived 
from the specimen found by Amdrup, which is broken at about 
the same place as that of Ryder's, although this stump, which 
is longer than Ryder's fragment, did not bear out his hypothesis. 
In the Museum für Völkerkunde in Berlin my attention was 
first drawn to an elongated wooden implement from North East 
Greenland, which I had not seen before from Eskimo districts, 
but the expanding shaft end of which was formed like the 
handle of a throwing-stick and like the object found by Am- 
drup. In the inventories of the museum it is designated as a 
"Dolch ohne Spitze" (inv. No. IV A 198), brought home by 
the German North Pole Expedition, but it is not figured among 
the illustrations of the report of the Expedition. It will be 
found illustrated here in the Appendix, fig. 103. 

As to the use to which it was applied, it must be admitted 
that as the type is not known from elsewhere, and as we cannot 
obtain any information from the people itself, which is extinct, 
we are thrown upon guess-work. The designation of the spe- 
cimen in the museum as a dagger can only be taken into 
consideration, if special grounds should be found to argue for 
it. The implement has a point, in so far as at the narrow 
end it is bevelled from two sides, and by means of two inden- 
tations two small lateral barbs not far from the end have been 
formed. It is just as long, or longer, than a throwing-stick, 
but it is not a throwing-stick. 

When I found in the ethnographical section of the Riks- 
museum at Stockholm among the objects brought home from 



') Stolpe PI. 5, fig. 17; cf. p. 104 "ein eigentümliches Gerät dessen Bedeut- 
ung noch nicht ermittelt ist". 



487 

North East Greenland by Nathorst, some wooden implements 
which must be referred to the same type, I realized at once that 
the form of this object was no mere accident. Here I came upon 
a fully intact specimen of exactly the same type as that found by 
the Germans, which I had seen at Berlin. It is 39 cm long, 
with an expanding shaft end of about the same form as the 
handle of a throwing-stick, and with a flat, pointed end, the 
head of which is marked by two lateral indentations (illustrated 
in the Appendix flg. 104). There are, besides, several fragments 
of the same kind of implement in the Nathorst collection. 

After this discovery I no longer entertained any doubts 
that the two similar handles found by Ryder and Amdrup at 
two different places along this coast, were parts of the same 
kind of implements as those with which I became acquainted 
in the museums. The next question then is only what it was 
used for. It will certainly not be easy to answer this question, 
as the implement, as far as I know, is not known from any 
other group of Eskimo than that in North East Greenland. I 
have never seen it in West Greenland, nor yet at Ammassalik. 

I do not know whether the question is brought nearer to 
its solution by the fact that in the Nathorst collection from 
North East Greenland there is a wooden implement with a 
handle of precisely the same form and size as the implements 
just described, but with a heavy club-shaped head at the other 
end instead of a point. This implement, too, is otherwise un- 
known, but it is at any rate possible to form an opinion 
as to its use (compare my comments on the illustrations of 
it. Appendix fig. 105). It may have been used as a blubber- 
beater, or in general as a mallet. The implement with the 
wooden point might be assigned a similar purpose in domestic 
life; we must suppose that it was an implement in which it 
was necessary to have a firm grip of the handle in order to 
force the flat, blunt wooden point at the other end into the 
substance or the space in which it is made to work in. It is 




worth noting that the implement seems to have been very 
liable to break just above the handle. 

Inv. Amd. 100 (Fig. 54), from Sabine Island, is a little 
cylindrical or conical pipe of bone (length 2*2 cm) with a cir- 
cular indentation at the top and a deep slit running all the 
way round at the bottom. 

It is a pipe-shaped nozzle, or mouth-piece for 
inflating the sealskin float, of a similar kind to that 
known from the southerly part of the east coast 
and from the west coast. They use it in this way. 

The lower part of the pipe is stuck through a hole 
Fig. 64. Nozzle 
of bone for in- '"^ ^^^ bladder, which consists of a seal-skin which 

flating the seal- has been flayed oö" entire, in which the necessary 

!"^ tT J лТ slits have been sewn up again, so that it can hold 
bine Island. 4i. ^ ^ ' 

the air when it is blown up. The place of the 
nozzle is in the snout of the seal (or in the genital opening)^). 
The edges of the hole are gathered up with a thin strap in the 
slit, so that the rest of the pipe sticks outside the bladder; 
the latter is blown up through the pipe, the mouth of which 
is stopped up with a plug of wood. 

The implement is found everywhere as an accessory of 
the Eskimo's sealskin floats^). The Alaska forms, however, 
seem to diverge a good deal from the Greenland ones. Inv, 
Amd. 100 was possibly meant to go along 
with the little bladder which is attached to 
the shaft of a spear. Fig ßs. ivory but- 

Inv. Amd. 101 (Fig. 65), from Cape Bor- ton Cape Borlase 
läse Warren, is a curved cylindrical piece of 
ivory (length from point to point 3'5 cm), a little thicker in 
the middle than at the ends, with a transverse hole in the 
same plane as that of the curve. It is ornamented with three 
pairs of annular slits. 



Murdoch I, 247. 

Boas I, 492—493; Nelson 142, PI. 56. 



489 



The implement is a toggle belonging to a buckle, or 
belonging in some other way to a garment. The toggle is 
perhaps best conceived on the front of a woman's frock (anoraq), 
■which is gathered up in front at the breast. Only a few details 
as to these toggles among the western Eskimo 
are given in the standard works on them^). 

Inv. Amd. 102 (Fig. 66), from Cape Borlase 
Warren, is the fragment of a kind of buckle of 
yellowish ivory (4*2 cm by 2'8cm); fairly thick, 
flat on both sides, with rounded edges; the lower 
edge double as thick as the upper. In both the 
broken off ends are seen the remains of several 




Fig. 66. Ivory 
button belong- 



holes; those at the broadest end are of the kind '"^ *^ ^ '^'^^' 

trace. С Bor- 
produced by sawing off the bone with drills, lase Warren. -/з. 

which indicates that an attempt has been made 
to modify the original form of the implement. The frag- 
ment of the hole at the thinner end, which is connected by 
shallow grooves on both side surfaces with the well-preserved 
central aperture, taken in conjunction with the whole form of 
the implement, shows that the object must be one of the bone 
holders [orsseq) which attach the ends of the 
dog-traces to the cross-line of the sledge. 

Inv. Amd. 103 (Fig. 67), from Cape Bor- 
lase Warren. A short ivory ring, or short 
broad bone pipe (of a hollow bone), 2 cm high; 
the diameter of tbe cross section is 1*5 cm to 
2 cm. Round the lower part has been made 
by means of borings a broad slit running all 
the way round (partially broken off). The upper edge of the 
pipe also bears traces of the borings whereby the bone has been 
sawn off. The slit below is produced by two converging rows 
of holes bored closely above and below each other, the boring 



Fig. 67. Ferrule of 

bone. С Borlase 

Warren. ^\\. 



M Perhaps a similar tocgle to that figured in Boas II, 20, fig. 16 h. 



490 



having been made obliquely towards the axis of the bone; the 
narrow walls which have been bored out might easily have 
been eut away. Only the surface of the narrow bottom edge^ 
which projects round the lower mouth of the pipe and runs 
all the way round forming the bottom side of the groove, is 
completely rounded. 

I conceive it to be a ferrule placed on the lower end of thfr 
handle of a whip. The lower part of this wooden handle must 
have been cut in the form of a tang to fit into the pipe; the 
shoulder of the tang must have rested up against one of the 
edge surfaces of the pipe (that which on the figure faces up- 
wards). At the other narrower mouth of the pipe was inserted 
a loose pike {tooq) of bone, which may perhaps have been 
wedged in a hole at the end of the wooden shaft. In order ta 
strengthen the point of junction the ferrule {qaateq) was prob- 
ably also wrapped round with a thong in the said slit^). 

The people of Ammassalik still constantly use a bone 
pike fastened to the bottom end of a whip handle^), which 
is often of great use in cutting away the corner of a hum- 
mock which bars the way, or for knocking hard frozen 
snow from the sledge runners, or to dig hard into the snow 
in sledging on land, as a kind of brake in coasting down steep 
slopes. 

Inv. Amd. 104 and 105 (Fig. 68 a and b), from Cape Bor- 
lase Warren). Two small roughly worked bones, 4*5 and 6*5 cm 
long respectively, cylindrical at the top, but throughout the 
greater part of their length bevelled from four sides, with 
two sides more oblique than the other two, so that they are 
flattish at the bottom; thus the whole of the lower part is 
formed like a tang. In the upper circular end surface is seen 



') In a similar manner the ivory head (qatirn) at the end of the shaft of 
the large harpoon is stuck so closely on to it, that it sticks without 
being either riveted or tied together. (Boas I, 490.) 

-) Holm PI. 15. 



491 



the mouth of a hole, 2 cm deep. In the lower of the large 
piece (b) there is a semicircular indentation. The bevelled 
surfaces (on the sides) bear traces of the cutting tool, just as 
there are marks of borings in the upper edge of one of the 
specimens. 

I imagine that these specimens are toy miniatures of the 
same implement as inv. Amd. 73, 74 and 75, thus representing 
foreshafts of harpoons. It must be observed that the tang 
here has been cut from opposite sides and is without any 





Fig. 68. Miniature foreshafts of harpoons. Cape Borlase Warren. 4i. 

bored holes; it may have been intended to be wedged into the 
end of the Avooden shaft. Perhaps these specimens have never 
been inserted in any shaft, but are unfinished fragments. — 

They should thus correspond in function to the ivory head 
from Baffin Land described by Boas ^), which, however, is attached 
to the shaft in a different manner from these toy objects. 

Ryder-) discovered a similar specimen in Scoresby Sund, 
which he pronounced to belong to a walrus harpoon. 



•) Boas I, 489, flg. 419—420. 
*i Ryder 336. fig. 36 b. 



492 

Inv. Amd. 106 (Fig. 69), from Gape ßorlase Warren), is a 
sewing-needle of ivory, with a cross section of varying shape, 
being flat and lancet-shaped at the broad end, just like the 
single exception [42] in the group of bodkins mentioned under 
the heading of inv. Amd. 33 to Ü, and circular in cross section 
at the pointed end. The point itself is rather blunt, in which 
respect the piece resembles the good-sized plump type of bod- 
kins (or needles) described above. 

The eye is placed laterally at the extremity of the broader 
end. 

Although this is the only specimen of this type 
which is known to me from Greenland, I am never- 
theless inclined to see in it the normal type of a needle, 
the ordinary bone nail before the time when, with the 
introduction of iron, modern nails came into use. It 
corresponds well with the old bone nails from Alaska, 
described by Murdoch^), which were kept in a quill 
case. Two of these are described as round-pointed, 
Fig! 69. 1*8 to 1*9 inches long, one of them is more slender, 

Ivory flattened and expanded at the butt. (The third is 2'4 

needle 
„ g ■ inches long and has 'a four-sided point like a glover's 

läse War- needle', cf. inv. Amd. 44.^ fragment.) 

ren. '/2. jjjig gjjjj Qf Amdrup's, like so many of his other 

finds, goes to attest the primitiveness of the culture of the North 

East Greenland Eskimo and its close affinity with the original 

Eskimo culture between Point Barrow and Greenland. 

Inv. Amd. 107, 108 and 109 (Fig. 70), from Sabine Island, 
are three flat pieces of ivory carved in the form of marine 
animals (a seal, two whales) each with two holes bored in the 
median of the piece. 

These pieces correspond exactly to those which the Am- 
massalik Eskimo use (or used till recently) for the ornamenta- 



*) Murdoch I, 318, figs. 325 and 326. 



493 



tion of their wooden implements, as for instance, throwing- 
sticks and eye-shades^). 

The discovery of these objects of the same type of orna- 
mental art as at Ammassalik so far to the north on the East 
coast of Greenland, is extremely interesting as a fresh attestation 
to the continuity in the material and ideal culture of this coast. 
At any rate it can be said that as regards this settlement, and 
thus as regards one or more families who have lived so high up 
in the north, we find a continuity with the Ammassalik Eskimo. 




b,c 




Ф 



Fig. 70. a, b, с Bone ornaments for attachment. — d, e, f. Ornamental 
tooth and beads. Sabine Island, '/i. 



For ornaments for attachment of this kind are otherwise not 
known in Greenland; not from the west coast, and certainly 
not from any Eskimo district outside Greenland either'^). 

Inv. Amd. 110 (Fig. 70), from Sabine Island, is the tooth 
of a mammiferous animal, pierced at the root, analogous to 
those which belonged to the belt or necklace described under 
the heading of inv. Amd. 57. 

Inv. Amd. Ill and 112 (Fig. 70 e, f), from Sabine Island, 
are two round, somewhat flattened beads of white bone, nearly 



») G. Holm 150—153; PI. XXX to XXXV. 

*) There is no reference to this form of ornamental art in Hoffman's work 
on the graphic art of the Eskimo. 

TTwm O- 



494 



cylinrirical in form, which without doubt belonged to a chain-like 
ornament. They are both pierced through. The smaller one 
particularly is very accurately worked. The mouths of the hole 
lie somewhat sunk into the concave end surfaces of the bodies, 
which in form resemble short cylinders, in the larger blade 
the hole is elliptical in cross section ; that of the smaller one 
is circular. 

Ryder ^) found a number of similar beads, the forms of 
which were all through more distinctly cylindrical. 

Inv. Amd. 113 (Fig. 71), from Sabine Island, is a buzz of 
the ordinary Greenland type, consisting of an elongated flat 
piece of wood (length 12 cm), flattest in the middle, with slightly 
convex sides. The edges curve inwardly towards the centre, 




Fig. 71. Buzz made of -wood. Cabine Island. ^U. 

where they are rounded off, whereas those at both ends of 
the buzz are sharp. The workmanship is rather rough and 
hasty, without any attempt at polishing. 

In the middle of the object, in the median line, there are 
two transverse holes, very fine, so that it can be gathered that 
they were made with a very thin awl. Through these holes a 
piece of sinew cord must have been drawn in a loop; its two 
loose ends were then tied together. A sudden tautening of 
this double line, which causes the piece of wood to hang ver- 
tically between the lifted hands, sets the implement moving with 
a short rotatory motion, whereby the lines are made to make 
a whole or a half turn round themselves, especially if the 
tautening is immediately slackened off; an immediately repeated 

M Ryder 338. 



495 



tautening of the line sends the buzz swinging back in the 
opposite direction at an increased speed, and the lines are 
made to perform one whole turn or two turns round each 
other, as the tautening is slackened. By a deft 
continuous movement of the hands, alternately taut- 
ening and slackening the lines, the whirling to-and- 
fro motion of the buzz is rapidly increased, whereby, 
when it revolves at its greatest speed, a buzzing 
sound is produced. — At Ammassalik the children 
to this day still play with buzzes of quite the same 
type M. 

This toy has often been found in North East 
Greenland. The second German North Pole Expedi- 
tion brought home two buzzes of this kind^); Ryder 
likewise found two of them. There is quite a similar 
one ^1, made of ivory, from Cape York at the extreme 
north of West Greenland; it is illustrated in Culin^), 
who has collected a series of tops and buzzes from 
the Avestern regions''). These latter, however, differ 
from the Greenland type, having a square or circular 
form. Throughout Greenland, from Cape York to 
Ammassalik, an independent and marked type of this 
toy is found. 

Inv. Amd. 114 (Fig. 72), from Cape Borlase ^'S ^-• 

Piece of 
Warren, is a fragment (length 19 cm) of a small bonemoun- 

bone mounting, with fine holes for the nails. The ting, с 

holes are placed reciprocally to each other as they ' 

are generally placed in sledge shoes (in pairs, 

obliquely to each other in zig-zag fashion , but with one 



') Holm, PI. 27. 

') These two buzzes are in the Museum fur Völkerkunde in Berlin, regi- 
stered IV, A, 192. 
^1 Free .Museum of Science and Art, University of Pennsylvania (Cat.no. 18391). 
*) Culin 752, fig. 1013. 
*) Nelson 378: Boas II, 53 and 112. 

32* 



496 



or two breaches in this regularity (cf. inv. Amd. 67 — 68). Can 
it be the keel of a miniature sledge for a child (in that case 
a fairly large toy)? Or may it possibly have been the bone 
mounting on the edge of a kaiak paddle, or on the edge of a 
throwing-stick? 

Inv. Amd. 115 (Fig. 73), Gape Borlase Warren, seems to 
be the fragment of a thick ivory mounting, rather finely worked. 
In its well-preserved, smoothly polished surface a few oblique 
scratches are visible. A transverse hole for a nail, 8 mm in 
diameter, shows like an indentation at the edge of the broken 
piece. 

Inv. Amd. 116 and 117 (Figs. 74 and 75), from Cape Bor- 
lase Warren, are fragments of sledge shoes with the usual 
holes bored for nails. Most of the wooden pegs are still stick- 
ing in the holes in the larger piece. The holes are, as usual, 
bored obliquely to each other; the distance between the mouths 
of each pair of holes is about 3 cm on the under side of the 
shoe, of the same holes on the upper side (that which faces 
towards the under surface of the sledge runner) 2 to 2*5 cm. 

The larger fragment is highly decayed, and only a small 
part of the smooth bottom surface has been left undamaged. 
The ends of the two tree-nails which are stuck in it have 
been worn smooth, the rest being frayed, as if the bone had 
been broken with violence. The under side of the smaller 
fragment is well-preserved, quite smooth, with some slight 
scratches along it. 

Cf. Amd. 67 and 68. 

Inv. Amd. 118 and 119 (Figs. 76 and 77), from Cape Bor- 
lase Warren, are two hollow bones, split by drill-boring, which 
it was probably intended to use for some implement or other. 

One of the bones (of narwhal tusk) shows traces , not 
very marked, of the boring, and the bored holes lies from ^/a 
to 1 cm apart from each other. The boring of this bone must 
have required more force than that of the other (fig. 76), where 



497 





Fig. 73. 



Fig. 74. 




Fig. 75. 




- тШ 




m 



ША 



i 







w 



Fig. 76. Fig. 77. 

Figs. 73 to 77. Fragments of worked bone. Cape Borlase Warren. '/2. 



I 



499 



the bored holes are quite close to each other. With regard 
to this latter piece, it should be observed that the boring must 
have been performed with two drills of different size, as 
the diameters of the holes are different. Can it be a mere 
coincidence that it is the thinnest drill point which has 
been used for the splitting of the thickest wall of the bone? 
The longest of these fine drill holes is I'l cm in length. The 
side surfaces produced by the splitting are, of course, more 
regular where the thin drill-point was used, than where the 
thick one penetrated. 

Cf. inv. Amd. 96 (and 77—78). 



Appendix. 

Fig. 78. Bone head of a harpoon, of unusual type, un- 
finished. The height of the body greater than its breadth. The 
back half very thin with flat sides terininating in an undivided 
tang-like basal barb; no lateral barbs. The point without any 
slit for blade. The front half oval in cross section, divided 
from the back half by two steeply inclined shoulders. Probably 
an unfinished head of an ice-harpoon for sealing on the ice. 

North West Greenland. 

Inv. Pfaff. Stockholm Riksmuseum, Ethnographical Section. 

Figs. 79 and 80. Two toggle-harpoons without barbs, flex- 
ible round a horizontal axis, which lies in a transverse hole 
through the centre of their bodies. The axis is attached to the 
end of a loose bone shaft. The body of the heads, which are 
formed like a conic section with the lower part bevelled, has 
in the middle of the under side a deep slit, which lies in the 
longitudinal plane, and the innermost bottom of which opens 
out on the opposite side of the head. Into this slit the end 
of the shaft fits, while the head moves round the axis on which 
it rides. The holes in the lower part of the shafts (three trans- 
verse holes through the middle of one, one hole immediately 
above the base of the other) are intended for the line which 
connected these bone shafts with the longer wooden shaft of 
the harpoon. 

Intended for sealing or salmon-spearing on the ice. 

North West Greenland. 

Inv. Pfaff. Stockholm Riksmuseum, Ethnographical Section. 



501 




Fig. 79. 



Fig. 80. 



Fig. 81. 



Fig. 78—81. Bone toggles from West Greenland, ^le. 



Rikimuseam, Stockholm. 



503 



Kig 82 a. 

Fig. 82. Head piece of un arrow or bird-dart. 
K. k. Ilofmnsenm, Vfenoa. 



Fig. 82 b. 

West Greenland. •'^I? 



1л^ 



505 



ab ab 

Fig. 83. Fig. 84. 

Two pairs of lateral points of bird-darts. West Greenland. "Is 

Riksmuseum, .Stockholm. 



507 

Fig. 81. A little bone-toggle of a similar type to the two 
previous ones, fixed on a short bone shaft with a key-hole- 
shaped expansion at the bottom. It can hardly have been used 
as a harpoon, but must have been employed for holding a 
seal-skin float in the kaiak. The float (bladder) has at one end 
a nozzle of bone ; in the latter there is a loop, just large 
enough to allow the toggle (fig. 80), which is attached itself to 
the kaiak by means of strap, to be passed through it, when 
turned lengthwise; but, when it is drawn back in the opposite 
direction it turns crosswise and catches, and in this manner 
holds the bladder in position. 

West Greenland. 

Inv. Pfaff. Stockholm Riksmuseum, Ethnographic Section. 

Fig. 82. Weapon head of bone, shaped like the head of 
an arrow or a bird-dart, with expanded head, in which there 
is a slit for the insertion of a blade. A single lateral barb at 
right angles to the blade. Cf. inv. Amd. 17. 

West(?) Greenland. 

From a little collection of Greenland stone and bone implements which 
in 1876 was presented to the ethnographical museum at Vienna by the late 
Steinhauer, Superintendent of the ethnographical museum at Copenhagen ^). 

K. k. naturhistorisches Hofmuseum, ethnographische Abteilung. (Inv. 
No. 4905.) Vienna. 

Fig. 83 and 84. Two pairs of lateral bone points for 
placing on the wooden shafts of bird-darts. They are of the 
ordinary Greenland type, slightly curved, with unilateral barbs 
on the inner side, and one or two transverse holes for lashing, 
and a notch in the outer edge right at the bottom for a basal 
lashing. — On each bird-dart shaft are fixed three bone heads 
of this kind, with their bases resting against the shaft, so that 
the projecting heads form an equilateral triangle. 

The sixteen specimens of this implement which are found 
in Inv. PfalT (Stockholm) from West Greenland all have unilateral 

M F. Heger 17. 



508 



barbs; none of them have the little barb on the outer edge 
towards the middle which is characteristic of the North East 
Greenland type. Three of them have two holes quite close to 
one another in the middle where the body expands; most of 
them have only one hole here. In one of them the hole lies 
near the base. Cf. inv. Amd. 20, 

North West Greenland. 

Inv. Pfaff. Stockholm Riksmuseum. 

Fig. 85. Sledge from North East Greenland, consisting of 
two very heavy, crudely worked runners, which are connected 
with six cross-pieces. It is uncertain in which order these 
pieces lay on the runners, to which they have only temporarily 
been fastened with nails. It is likewise uncertain whether the 
two poles which are erected at the rear of the sledge as up- 
rights are really to be considered as such. 

Along the upper part of each runner there are II large 
square holes for the rawhide lashings with which the cross-pieces 
were secured to them. In one of the holes in the cross-pieces 
a bit of a hide thong is still sticking. The broadest of the 
cross-pieces has a hole bored in it in the middle close to one 
of its side edges; this piece then probably was fixed a Uttle 
behind the middle of the sledge, or right in the rear, as the 
said hole was intended to receive one end of the line or lines 
with which the baggage of the sledge is generally lashed. At 
the end of each cross-piece there are one or two pairs of 
holes, connected in pairs with grooves for the lashing. In the 
side of each runner^ towards the front, and a little below the 
row of square holes, there is a large round hole for fastening 
the strong common cross-line of raw-hide to which the single 
traces for each dog are fixed. 

Under the right runner there still adheres a little fragment 
of a bone shoe, riveted to the under side of the runner with 
tree-nails. 

The length of the sledge is 2 m 8 cm. The height of the 



509 




о в 



Ч> 



а s 

£ s 



XXVUl. 




33 



511 



runner 15cm, the breadth of the numeral 
the under surface 5 to 7 cm. The distance 
between the runners is about 93 cm. 

The uprights!?) are 49cm in length. 

Found in the North East Green- 
land by the second German jNortli Pole 
Expedition (Germania) in 1870, near 
Cape Broer Ruys, on the north side 
of the mouth of Kaiser Franz Joseph's 
Fjord. Cf. inv. Amd. 27. 

Museum für Völkerkunde (inv. 4 a 229), 
Berlin. 

Fi(/. 86. Sledge runner and two 
cross-pieces from INorth East Green- 
land. The length of the runner 1 m 
67 cm. Breadth 6 cm. 

The length of the cross-pieces 
about 95 cm. 

Found in North East Greenland 
by the Swedish Expedition under Nat- 
horst in 1899. 

Stockholm Riksmuseum. 

Fig. 87 and 88. Sledge and minia- 
ture sledge (toy) from Smith Sound. 

The runners, the cross-pieces, the 
uprights are of wood, the keel of bone. 

All joints are made by the aid of 
hide thongs. 

The length of the large sledge (Fig. 
88) 2 m 37 cm. 

The height of the runners 18"5cm. 
The distance between the runners 54 cm. 

The length of the uprights 69 cm. 

Museum fur Völkerkunde (inv. IV a 7362), 
Berlin. 



С 

Fig. 8G. Fragments of a 

sledge from N'oith Fast 

Greenland. ''1-гь. 

Stockholm Riksmuseum. 

33* 



512 

The length of the sledge model (Fig. 87) 42"5 cm. 
The breadth (in front) 12-5 cm; (at the back) 12'8cm. The 
length of the uprights 1 5 cm. 

Museum fur Völkerkunde (inv. IV a 7363), Berlin. 

Fig. 89. Miniature sledge from Ammassalik, typical of the 
present sledges of the Ammassalik Eskimo, except for the tips 
of the runners, which as a rule are not bent up as in this toy 
sledge. The runners diverge from each other downwardly. 
Both their upper and their lower edges are bevelled, to allow 
of their lying flat against the cross-pieces of the seat and 
flat on the ground. The distance between them at their 
bottom is 6*2 cm in front, 7"7 cm at the back. The cross- 
pieces are lashed with hide thongs passing through a double 
row of holes; each cross-tree has at each end four holes. 
Along the upper part of each runner transverse holes have 
been bored to receive the lashing of the cross-pieces, two 
holes for each cross-piece. The corners of the cross-pieces are 
cut off concavely, so that the narrower end parts with which 
they rest on the runners are separated from each other by 
semi- circular notches, which form a bed for the lashings. Like 
the runners, the uprights also diverge from each other up- 
wards, the distance between them being 7 cm below and 8 cm 
above. Their characteristic form is peculiar to the Ammassalik 
sledges. Each of them is lashed firmly to the runner through 
two holes. The left one has on the outer side three loops, 
attached to three pairs of holes in which various hunting 
weapons are stuck while sledging. In front there is a similar 
loop in the foremost cross-piece to the left side of the sledge, 
into which the other end of the long weapons (harpoon and 
lances) are inserted. — The cross stick between the uprights which 
supports them above has ornamental notches on the under side. 

Length of the runners 29*2 cm. Height of the runner 
behind 3*9 cm (a little lower in front). Distance between the 
runners 6"2 cm in front, 7*7 cm behind. Breadth of the cross- 



513 



ï 



i 




s в 

о 

1- ш 



-^ о 



— 2 



^ 4 ^ 




ta 



517 



5 



5 'S 



» 1 


В 


.. 


p 


.-*^ ■ '' 


--= 




S) 


' 


■a 








— 


•t . 


СЯ 



1 



519 



pieces 3"5 to 4'5 cm. Breadth of the uprights at the foot 7 cm, 
at the top, at the broadest part of the grip, 2*2 cm (at the 
bottom of the curvature l'8cm). 

The Royal Greenland Trading Department's collection from Ammassalik. 

Fig. 90. Sledge from King William Land. 

The front ends of the runners curve very slightly up; 
behind they are cut obliquely downwards. The holes through 
which the cross-pieces are lashed are square (2x2 cm). 
Only the two holes for the raw-hide cross-shaft in the front 
of the runners are circular. Most of the cross-pieces are of 
bone (reindeer?). The foremost cross-piece is of wood, cut in 
the same fashion as in the Greenland sledges. The lashing is 
made everywhere with the aid of leather thongs. Only the 
bone shoes under the runners are riveted with bone nails ^). 

Length of the sledge 3'8 m. Height of the runners 22 to 
23 cm, thickness of the runners 5*5 to 6 cm. Distance be- 
tween the runners (in front) 45 cm. They diverge downwards. 

The Ethnographical Museum at Christiania. The Gjoa collection 
(Amundsen). 

Fig. 91. A little chest (for keeping tools, clothes etc.) 

from North East Greenland, found at Ostkap in Jackson Island 

by the second German North Pole Expedition 1870^). On the 

') The sledges which have been discovered farthest to the North on the 
arctic Archipelago west of Greenland, are mentioned by Feilden in 
Nares: Narrative of a voyage to the Polar Sea (pag. 188). They found, 
near Cape Sabine on Ellesmere Island, 'remains of several ancient 
Eskimo encampments, as well as an old sledge made of walrus bone, 
with cross-bars of narwhal horn, completely lichen-covered and of such 
antiquity that the bones were friable, and also fragments of a stone 
lamp . . .'; furthermore (pag. 1П0): "Close to Cape Beechy, and about 
six or seven miles from the 82 parallel of latitude, we came across the 
most northern traces of man that have yet been found; these consisted 
of the framework of a large wooden sledge, a stone lamp in good pre- 
servation, and a very perfect snow-scraper made out of walrus tusk". 

2) Koldewey 649. "The removal of the stones led to the discovery of 
several small boards with many fine holes at the edge; near them was 
found a well-preserved human skull, as well as several human arm and 
leg bones. Small leather straps (for keeping the lid closed), doing duty 
for a lock, were still in existence." 



520 



left of the illustration is seen a part of the lid (the rest is 
missing), by it one of the longer sides of the chest, next to it 
the bottom piece (fragment, fig. 91c), and at the extreme right 
the highly weathered other side. We observe the nail-holes 
along the bottom edge of the side piece (b), which match exactly 
with corresponding holes in the edge of the bottom piece. The 
movable part of the lid (a) has also two single holes near the 
edge, which correspond to two isolated holes in the upper 
edge of the side; through these holes must have passed hide 
thongs for fastening down the lid. The end walls of the chest 
are missing. Wooden nails have been used for the joints. 




Fig. 91. Part of a wooden chest. North East Greenland. ^/47 

Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin. 

This beautifully worked chest is interesting in the first 
place as an evidence of the skill with which the Eskimo 
knew how to work the drift timber washed in from the coast; 
in the second place as a testimony that these northerly inhab- 
itants of the coast used chests in their houses such as are 
to this very day in use at Ammassalik, under the name of 
tumarqat^). Finally it is worth while to observe the little 
remnant of a hide thong sticking in a hole in the lid; it has 



') Holm PI. 24. 



521 



Fig. 92. Fig. 93. 

Two bodkins of bone. West Greenland, ^/s. 




Л 



Flg. 94. bone handle of a woman's knife. West Greenland, 'la 

Kiksmuseum, Stockholm. 



623 




I 




Fig. 05. Wooden dish (pcrtaq). West Greenland, ^/ю 

Musenm für Völkerkunde, Berlin. 



I 



52i 



been prevented from slipping through the hole by a knot at 
one end; this knot is made in the true Eskimo fashion by a 
slit having been cut at the end of the line and the end then 
doubled back through the slitM- 

Length of the bottom piece 23-5 cm. Its breadth 7.1 to 
7.4 cm (fragment). Height of the side lOcm^). 

Museum für Völkerkunde. Berlin. 

Figs. 92 and 93. Two bodkins, or pins for the "ring and 
pin" game, made of bone. Both have a human face carved 
out in the thick head. A little further down there are four 
or five annular cuttings. Cf. inv. Amd. 33 — 44. 

Length about 14-5 cm. North West Greenland. 

Inv. Pfafif. Stockholm Riksmuseum. 

Fig 94. Bone haft of a woman's knife, made of a block 
of bone, all in one piece. At the bottom of the thin legs 
holes have been bored to receive the lashing for the stone 
blade (missing). Cf. inv. Amd. 45. 

Length of the handle (horizontal measurement) 7 cm ; 
length of the legs 8*5 cm. North West Greenland. 

Inv. Pfaff. Stockholm Riksmuseum. 

Fig. 95. Wooden dish of the same type as the ordinary 
whalebone dishes [pertaq)^ consisting of an elliptical bottom 
bordered with a flange, and a thin strip of wood bent in a 
corresponding form. The two overlapping ends of the strip 
have been connected with the aid of two double rows of wooden 
nails. The bottom has no holes perforated in it, but in the 
shoulder above the elliptical flange on which the strip which 
forms the sides of the dish reposes, there are nine holes for the 
nails which secured the strip to the bottom piece. Cf. inv. Amd. 53. 

The size of the bottom: 14-4 cm to 184 cm. The height 
of the side: 4 to 45 cm. 



') Cf. description in Mason III, 206. 

^) The measurements given in Koldewey p. 648 are based on a miscon- 
ception of the way in which the parts found fitted together, 
xxviu. 34 



)26 



Found in a grave in the island of Umanaitsiaq in the 

Umanak (Oommannaq) fjord. North West Greenland. 

Inv.E. v.Drygalsky. Museum für Völkerkunde (regist. IV. A. 7069a). Berlin. 

Figs. 96 and 97. Two needle-cases of bone, particularly 
remarkable for their ornamentation, a border of incised lines 
running along the curved edges on both sides. In the larger 
specimen the small cross-lines are placed in the interval be- 
tween two parallel lines and disposed in two rows vis-à-vis 
each other, each standing on its own line so that the intervals 
between them produce a raised zigzag line; in the smaller 
specimen they are arranged unilaterally on a single line. Cf. 
inv. Amd. 61 and 87. 

Size: length 6*5 cm (fig. 96), 104 cm (fig. 97). 

Fig. 96 from Karsok, Ek. (= Ikamiut?) V North West 

Fig. 97 from Iginiarfik south of Egedesminde / Greenland. 
Inv. Pfair. Stockholm Riksmuseum. 

Figs. 98 and 99. Two swivels of bone for preventing the 
strings or the tether from getting out of order or tangled. 
Fig. 98, which is a double-swivel, is particularly interesting on 
account of its ornamentation. 

Size: 6 cm (fig. 98) and 3-5 cm (fig. 99). North West 
Greenland. 

Inv. PfafF. Stockholm Riksmuseum. 

Figs. 100, 101 and 102. Three bone heads of adzes from 
West Greenland representing three types, with slits at the 
bottom ends for stone blades and with different arrangements 
for fastening onto the wooden hafts. Cf. i?iv. Amd. 76. 

Size: 14-5 cm (fig. 100), 14 cm (fig. 101) and 15 cm (fig. 102} 
in length respectively. 

North West Greenland. 

Inv. Pfaff. Stockholm Riksmuseum. 

Fig. 103. Curious implement of wood from North East 
Greenland, with a head at one end like the head of an arrow 
and a handle like that of a throwing-stick at the other end 
(a finger-rest at the edge). 



527 





Fig. 96. Fig. 97. 

Two ornamented needle cases. North West Greenland. *i.5. 





a. b. 

Fig. 98. 



Fig. 99. 



Fig. 98. Ornamented swivel. — Fig. 99. Ordinary swivel. 
North West Greenland, ^k. 

Riksmuscum, Stockholm. 



34* 



529 





Fig. 100. 



Fig. 101. 



Fig. 102. 



Three head-pieces of adzes made of bone. North West Greenland. ^/5 

Itiksmuseum, Stockholm. 



!):';;It;');.'i;. 



531 



Flg. 103. 
Maieam für Völkerkunde, Berlin. 




Fig. 104. Fig. 105. 

Rikemuseum, Stockholm. 



Wooden implements of an unknown type. North East Greenland. 



533 

Found by the second German North Pole Expedition (Ger- 
mania) in 1870. 

Museum für Völkerkunde (regist IV. A. 198). Berlin. 

Fig. 104 is the same kind of implement as the foregoing, 
likewise from North East Greenland. The use to which these 
implements were put is unkown. Cf. inv. Anid 99. 

Length 39 cm. 

Inv. Nathorst (Hammar). Stockholm Riksmuseum. 

Fig. 105 is an implement of wood, from the same district, 
which has a similar handle to the two others, while the other 
end is formed like a mallet. The natural bend or knee of 
the branch has been turned to account in carving this imple- 
ment, which is quite unique. The hammering surface of the 
mallet has deep scars, as if it had been used against some- 
thing sharp. The handle is narrowest in the middle; in cross 
section it is circular in front (nearest the head), triangular in 
the middle, while at the back it flattens out and assumes the 
form of the handle of a throwing-stick. 

Mallets or mauls of bone or wood are spoken of as com- 
mon among the western Eskimo^), being used in the prepara- 
tion of food, or as implements for hammering in wooden nails 
etc. In the Gjøa collection at Christiania there are several 
implements of this kind (of horn or bone) which have been 
used to beat train-oil out of (frozen?) blubber. One of them 
has a handle with three finger-rests. The West Greenland 
designation for an instrument of this kind is kauarsit (< kau- 
arpaa 'beats frozen blubber, to get train-oil from it, when it 
thaws'l. Cf. inv. Amd. 99 and 72. 

Length, 30 cm. North East Greenland. 

Inv. Nathorst (Hammar). Stockholm Riksmuseum. 

Fig. 106. There belong to the Amdrup collection some 
few fragments of bone and wood implements which were dis- 
covered in some of the places mentioned in the foregoing 



*) Nelson 79; Murdoch 98 (Figs. 31, 32 etc.); Bogoras If 



534 




pages, north of 68° lat. N., but which were not immediately 
docketed with the name of the place where they were found. 
None of them are of any ethnological importance (fragments 
of sledge keels, split reindeer horns, or other bones, sticks or 
nondescript parts of wooden implements). 

The polar bear figured here, which is carved in wood and 
is 15 cm in length, is interesting for a trait which is yet an- 
other testimony to the continuity between North East Green- 
land and the Ammassalik di- 
strict. This trait is the man- 
ner in which the legs of the 
bear are made; the upper 
parts of the fore legs are 
carved so as to form two 
square projections; in the 
centre of the flatly cut un- 
der side there is an aperture 
in which a thin cylindrical 
tree-nail has been inserted 
to a considerable depth, so that a part of it projects thus for- 
ming the lower thin part of the animals leg. Similar tree-nails 
have been stuck in the thigh portions of the hind legs. The 
body of the bear must thus have rested on four cylindrical pegs, 
of which, however, only the stumps are seen in the holes. It thus 
comes to resemble the so-called angakok bear from Ammassalik 
described byG. Holm^), a toy which has hitherto been found only 
in one single specimen. The resemblance, however, is not 
great enough to warrant us in definitely pronouncing this 
object to be an angakok bear; but the similar manner in which, 
— at two different places in East Greenland, and doubtless 
also at different times (Amdrup's bear is highly weathered) — 
artificial legs have been inserted in a polar bear in order to 
adapt it better for use as a toy by children, can hardly have 
been a more coincidence. 
1) Holm, PI. XXVI. 



Fig. 106. Inv. Amd. 121. Polar bear 

carved in wood. 

North East Greenland. 4s. 



Åutborities quoted. 



Amdrup^ G. С: 1. Garlsbergfondets Expedition til Østgrønland 1898 
— 1900. Første Del. — Meddelelser om Grøn- 
land. Vol. 27. København 1902. 

1. Beretning om Expeditionen til Grønlands Øst- 
kyst 1898—99. 

2. Beretning om Skibsexpeditionen til Grønlands 
Østkyst. For Tidsrummet fra 14. Juni til 18. 
Juli og 12. September til 4. Oktober 1900. 

3. Beretning om Kystexpeditionen langs Grøn- 
lands Østkyst 1900. 

II. The former Eskimo settlements on the East coast 
of Greenland between Scoresby Sund and the 
Angmagsalik District. — Meddelelser om Grøn- 
land Vol.28 (pp. 285-328). København 1909. 
Amerikanisten-Kongress, XIV. internationaler. See Stolpe. 
Amerikanisten- Kongr ess, XVI. inte?'nationaler. Festschrift, see Heger. 
BaJmson, Kristian: Etnografien. (Vol. 1, pp. 223—262). Køben- 
havn 1900. 
Boas, Franz: I. The Central Eskimo. — 6th annual report of the 
Bureau of Ethnology (Smithsonian Institution) 
1884—85. Washington 1888. 
II. The Eskimo of Baffin Land and Hudson Bay. — 
Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 
Vol. 15, part 1. New York 1901. 
Bogoras, W.: The Ghukchee. I. Material Culture. — The Jesup 
North Pacific Expedition. Memoir of the Amer. Museum of 
Natural History Vol. 7. Leiden and New York 1904. 
Clavering, D. C: Journal of a voyage to Spitzbergen and the east 
coast of Greenland in H. M. S. Griper. — Edinburgh Philo- 
sophical Journal. 1830. 



536 

Cranz, D.: Historie von Grönland. Drittes Buch: Von der Grön- 
ländischen Nation. I. Abschnitt §§6—12 = 1. Bd. pp. 193—207. 
— 2nd edition. Barby 1770. 
Culin, S. : Games of the North American Indians. 24th annual 
report of the Bureau of American Ethnology (Smithson. Inst.) 
1902—03. Washington 1907. 
Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt in den Jahren 1869 und 1870 
unter Führung des Kapitän Karl Koldewey, herausgegeben von 
dem Verein für die Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt in Bremen. Erster 
Band. Leipzig 1874. 
Fabricius, Otho: l. Nøjagtig Beskrivelse over alle Gronlændernes 
Fange-Redskaber ved Sælhunde-Fangsten. — 
Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Skrivter 
Vol. 5, 1807—1808. Kiöbenhavn 1810. 
II. Nøjagtig Beskrivelse over Gronlændernes Landdyr- 
Fugle- og Fiskefangst med dertil hörende Red- 
skaber. — Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs 
Skrivter Vol. 6, 1809—1812. Kiöbenhavn 1818. 
Hartz, N.: Beretning om Skibsexpeditionen til Grønlands Østkyst. 
For Tidsrummet fra 18. Juli til 12. September 1900. — Garls- 
bergfondets Expedition til Øst-Grønland 1898—1900. Med- 
delelser om Grønland Vol. 27. København 1902. 
Heger, Franz: Die archäologischen und ethnographischen Samm- 
lungen aus Amerika im к. к. naturhistorischen Hofmuseum 
in V^ien. — Festschrift herausgegeben anläszlich der Tagung 
des XVI. Internationalen Amerikanistenkongresses in Wien 1908, 
vom Organisations-Komitee. Wien 1908. 
Hein, A. R. : Mäander, Kreuze, Hakenkreuze und urmotivische Wir- 
belornamente in Amerika. Wien 1891. 
Hoffman, W. J.\ The graphic art of the Eskimos. — Report U. S. 

National Museum 1895. Washington 1897. 
Holm, G.: Ethnologisk Skizze af Angmagsalikerne. Den østgrøn- 
landske Expedition 1883 — 85. Anden Del = Meddelelser om 
Grønland Vol. X. 1888 (v\rith 42 Plates). 
Hough, W. : 1. Fire-making apparatus in the U. S. National Museum. 
— Rep. U. S. Nat. Mus. (Smithsonian Inst.) 1887—88. 
Washington 1890. 



*) An English translation of Holm's book together Avith a new illustration 
of the ethnologic material collected at Angmagsalik is in preparation. 



537 



II. The methods of fire-making. Rep. U. S. Nat. Mus. 

(Smithson. Inst.) 1890. Washington 1892. 
III. The lamp of the Eskimo. Report of U. S. National 
Museum. Washington 1896. 
Koch, J. P. : Bemærkninger vedrørende de paa Skibsexpeditionen til 
Grønlands Østkyst 1900 opmaalte Kyststrækninger mellem 
69° 20' N. Br. og 72° 20' N. Br. — Garlsbergfondets Expedition 
til Øst-Grønland 1898—1900. Første Del. — Meddelelser om 
Grønland Vol. 27. København 1902. 
Koldewey, K., see Die zweite Deutsche Nordpolar fahrt. 
Krause, L. : Sling contrivances for projectile weapons. — Ann. Rep. 

Smithsonian Inst. 1904. Washington 1905. 
Kxtmlien, L. : Contributions to the natural history of Arctic America 
made in connection with the Howgate Expedition 1877 — 78. — 
Bulletin of the U. S. National Museum, 15. Washington 1879. 
Mallery, Garrick: Picture Writing of the American Indians. — 
10th Ann. Rep. of the Bur. Ethnology. 1888—89. Washington 
1893 [1894]. 
Mason, Otis: I. The Ulo, or woman's knife, of the Eskimo. — 
Report of the National Museum (Smithsonian In- 
stitution) 1890. Washington. 
II. North American bows, arrows, and quivers. Smith- 
sonian Report. Washington 1893. 

III. Aboriginal American Harpoons, a study in ethnic 
distribution and invention. Report of U. S. National 
Museum 1900. Washington. 

IV. Throwing-sticks in the U. S. National Museum. — 
Report of Nat. Mus. 1890. Washington. 

V. The man's knife among the North American Indians, 
study in the collections of the U. S. National 
Mus., 1897. Washington. 

VI. Aboriginal Skin Dressing. — Rep. of the National 

Museum 1888 — 89. Washington. 

VII. Pointed bark canoes of the Kutenai and Amur. — 

Report of the National Museum, 1899. Washington. 

(c Guire, J. D.\ LA study of the primitive methods of drilling. 

— Rep. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1894. Washington 

1896. 

II. Pipes and 'smoking customs of the American 

aborigines, based on material in the U. S. 



i38 



National Museum, — Report of the National 
Mus., 1897. Washington. 
Murdoch, John: I. The Point Barrow Eskimo. Ethnological results 
of the Point Barrow expedition. — 9th annual 
report of the Bureau of Ethnology (Smithsonian 
Institution) 1887—88. Washington 1892. 
II. A study of the Eskimo bows in the U. S. National 
Museum. — Report of the National Mus. (Smith- 
sonian Institution) 1890. Washington. 
Nansen, Fridtjof-, Eskimoliv. Kristiania 1891. 
Nar es, G. S.: Narrative of a voyage to the Polar Sea during 
1875— 6. — Vol. II. Appendix: Feilden, H. W.: Ethnology.— 
London 1878. 
Nathorst, A. G.: Två somrar i Norra Ishafvet (etc.), spanande efter 

Andrée i nordöstra Grönland. Vol. II. — Stockholm 1900. 
Nelson, E. W.: The Eskimo about Bering Strait. — 18th annual 
report of the Bureau of American Ethnology (Smithsonian In- 
stitution) 1896—97. Washington 1899. 
ШЫаск, A. : The Coast Indians of southern Alaska and northern 
British Columbia. — Rep. Nat. Mus. 1887—88. Washington 
1890. 
Nielsen, Yngvar: Universitetets ethnografiske Samlinger 1857 — 1907. 
En historisk Oversigt. — Meddelelser fra det ethnografiske 
Museum Nr. 1. Christiania 1907. 
Ryder, G.: Om den tidligere eskimoiske Bebyggelse af Scoresby 
Sund. Den østgrønlandske Expedition 1891 — 92. — Meddelelser 
om Grønland Vol. 17. Kjøbenhavn 1895. 
Scoresby, W. : Journal of a voyage to the northern Whale-Fishery : 
including researches and discoveries on the Eastern coast of 
West-Greenland, made in the summer of 1822. Edinburgh 1823. 
Solberg, 0. : Beiträge zur Vorgeschichte der Ost-Eskimo. Mit 1 2 
Lichtdrucktafeln etc. — Videnskabs- Selskabets Skrifter. П. Hist.- 
Filos. Klasse 1907. No. 2. — Christiania 1907. 
Steensby, H. PI: Om Eskimokulturens Oprindelse. Eu etnografisk 

og antropogeografisk Studie. København 1905. 
Steenstrup, K. I. V. : Beretning om Undersøgelsesrejserne i Nord- 
Grønland i Aarene 1878 — 80. — Meddelelser om Grønland 
Vol. 5 [pp. 21-26]. 
Stolpe, H. : I. Studier öfver Amerikansk Ornamentik. Ett Bidrag till 
Ornamentens Biologi. Stockholm 1896. 



539 

II. Über die Forschungsergebnisse der schwedischen 
Grönland-Expedition vom Jahre 1899 (mit 6 Tafeln). 
— XIV. internationaler Amerikanisten-Kongress. Stutt- 
gart 1904, Vol. I (pp. 101 — 105). Stuttgart 1906. 
Stcenander, G.: Harpun-, kastpil- og lansspetsar från Väst-Grönland. 
Med 5 taflor etc. — Kgl. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens 
Handlingar. Ny följd, 40 Bd. 1906, Nr. 3. Uppsala & Stock- 
holm 1906. 
Turner, L. M. : Ethnology of the üngava District, Hudson Bay 
Territory (The Hudson Bay Eskimo). — 11th annual report of 
the Bureau of American Ethnology (Smithsonian Institution) 
1889—90. Washington 1894. 
Wilson, Thomas: I. Arrowpoints, spearheads, and knives of pre- 
historic times. — Report of National Museum. 
Washington 1899. 
II. Prehistoric art. — Rep. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1896. 

Washington 1898. 
III. The Swastika. The earliest known symbo., 
and its migrations etc. — Ann. Rep. U. S. 
Nat. Mus. (Smithsonian Institution) for 1894. 
Washington 1896. 



I wish to thank the following men of science who by so ob- 
ligingly placing their expert knowledge at my disposal aided me to 
determine the material of several of the objects found : Dr. phil. K. 
I. V. Steenstnqj, at the Mineralogical and Geological Museum (the 
stone implements), Prof.^ Dr. phil. 0. G. Petersen, at the Kongelige 
Landbohøjskole (several of the wooden implements) and the inspector 
of the Zoological Museum H. Winge (several of the bone implements). 

Finally, I desire to express my thanks to the directors of the 
ethnological museums in which I have studied the ethnology of the 
Eskimo, for the ready complaisance I have everywhere met with, 
and for the special facilities which have been accorded to me, to 
obtain access to the objects I desired to study. 

I have mentioned the museums 1 visited, in the Preface 
(pag. 335). 



8. List of tbe olDJects in the Amdrup collection discovered 
north of the district of Ammassalik. 



Objects from Skærgaardshalvø (68° 07' lat. N., 31° 34' long. W.) 

Inv. Nog. Pag. 

å Harpoon head of bone, all in one piece (Fig. 3 and 

PI. XV, 4) 348 

5 Harpoon head of bone (Fig. 4 and PL XV, 5) 349 

6 Harpoon head with inserted point of bone (Fig. 5 and 

PI. XV, 6) 351 

7 Harpoon head with inserted (lost) point (Fig. 6 and 

PI. XV, 7) 352 

8 Detached bone point of a harpoon head (PI. XV, 8) . . 352 

9 Fragment of a harpoon head (PI. XV, 9) 353 

10 Harpoon head for sealing on the ice (Fig. 7 and PI. 

XV, 10) 353 

11 Loose bone shaft (foreshaft) of a [harpoon (PI. XVI, 11) 361 

21 Stone blade of a knife (Fig. 11) 377 

22 Stone blade of a woman's knife (Fig. 12) 378 

23 Stone blade of a woman's knife (Fig. 13) 378 

27 Wooden toy sledge (Fig. 17) 388 

28—30 Drill caps (head-pieces), 3, of bone (Figs. 47 a-b-c) . . 396 

31 Bodkin, or marline-spike, of bone (Fig. 19) 396 

32 Boot-sole creaser of bone (Fig. 20) 397 

33—44 Bodkins and needles, 13, of bone (Fig. 18) : . . 397 

45 Bone haft of a woman's knife (Fig. 21) 401 

46—48 Thimble-guards, 3, of bone (Fig. 22) 405 

49 One-pronged fork of bone (Fig. 23) 406 

50 Two-pronged blubber-hook, of wood (Fig. 24) 406 

51 One-pronged blubber-hook, of wood (Fig. 24) 406 

52 Fragments, 9, of a miniature urine-tub (Figs. 25 and 27) 407 

53 Whalebone-dish with wooden bottom (Fig. 26) 408 



541 



luv. Nos. Pag. 

54 Toggle biUton of bone (Fig. 30) 412 

55—56 Drum handles, 2, of bone (Fig. 29 a and b) 412 

57 Ornamental teeth, 53, belonging to a belt (Fig. 34). . 417 

58 Bear's tooth (Fig. 32) 419 

59—60 Ornaments, 2, made of interlinked bone beads (Figs. 

31 a and b) 420 

61 Needle-case of bone (Fig. 35) 421 

62 Wooden handle (Fig. 36) 424 

63 — 64 Fragments of bone implements, 2 (Figs. 37 a and b) . 425 

Objects from Dunholm (69° 54' lat. N., 22° 38' long. W.) 

Idv. Nos. Pag. 

12 Loose bone shaft of a lance (PI. XVI, 12) 362 

13 Bone head of a lance or an arrow (PI. XVI, 13) ... 363 
14 — 16 Bone-heads, 3, of arrows (PI. XVI, 14 and 15) 364 

17 Bone head of a spear or arrow (Fig. 8 and PI. XVI, 1 7) 366 

24 Stone implement (Fig. 14) 380 

25 Stone implement or toy (Fig. 15) 380 

67—^8 Sledge-keels, 2, of bone (Fig. 40 a and b) 435 

69 Fragment of an ice-scraper of bone (Fig. 41) 438 

71 Wooden bottom? (Fig. 43) 440 

72 Wooden hammer -like implement (blubber -beater?) 

(Fig. 44) 441 

73 — 75 Bone foreshafts, 3, of walrus or whaling harpoons 

(Fig. 45) 443 

76 Bone head of an adze (Fig. 46) 446 

80 Wooden handle of a skin-scraper (Fig. 49) 459 

81 Bodkin (Fig. 52) 461 

82 Part of a kindling-set, with drill-hole (Fig. 50) 462 

86 Comb (Fig. 55) 466 

87 Needle-case (Fig. 56) 475 

97 Fragment of a wooden implement (Fig. 62) 481 

98 Pierced vertebra of a whale 482 

Objects from Cape Tobin (70° 24' lat. N., 21° 59' long. W.) 

Inv. No,4. Pag. 

1—2 Harpoon heads, 2, of bone (Fig. 1 and PI. XV, 1 

and 2) 345 

3 Harpoon head of bone with iron point (Fig. 2 and 

PI. XV, 3) 347 

xxvni. 



542 

Inv; Nos. Pag. 

18 — 19 Bone fore-pieces, 2, of whaling harpoons (Fig. 9^'^). . 370 

20 'Lateral point of a bird-dart (Fig. 16) 372 

65—66 Sealing stools, 2, made of wood (Figs. 38 and 39).. 427 

70 Ice scraper of bone (Fig. 42). . 438 

77. Drill stick of wood with iron point (Fig. 47, d) 452 

78 Drill bow of bone (Fig. 47, e) 453 

79 Crooked knife with iron blade (Fig. 48) 454 

83 Wooden vessel, or tray, for meat (Fig. 51) 462 

84 Blubber, fork of bone (Fig. 53) 463 

85 Buckle of bone (Fig. 54) 464 

88 Bear carved in wood (Fig. 57 a) 477 

89 Bird carved in wood (Fig. 57 b) 477 

90 — 95 Different animals, 6, carved in bone (Fig. 58) 478 

96 Bone split by means of drill-boring (Fig. 61) 480 

Objects from Gape Borlase Warren (74° 18' lat. N.) 

Inv. Nos. l*ag. 

101 . Toggle button of bone (Fig. 65) 488 

102. Button belonging to a sledge trace (Fig. 66) 489 

103 Ferrule of bone (Fig. 67) 489 

104—105 Miniature foreshafts of harpoons, 2 (Fig. 68 a and b) 491 

106 Needle of bone (Fig. 69) 492 

114 Piece of bone . mounting (Fig. 72) 495 

115 Piece of bone mounting (Fig. 73) 496 

116— 117 Fragments of sledge keels, 2 (Figs. 74 and 75). . . 496 

118—119 Bones split by means of drill-boring (Figs. 76 and 77) 496 

120 Bear'ç tooth. 



Objects from Sabine Island (74° 45' lat. N.) 

Inv. Nos. Pag. 

26 Stone blade of a knife. Fragment (Fig. 16) 380 

99 Shaft-like fragment of a wooden implement (Fig. 63) 484 

100 Bone nozzle for inflating the skin float (Fig. 64) . . 488 

107—109 Bone ornaments for attachment (Figs. 70 a-b-c) ... 492 

110 _ Pierced tooth for ornament (Fig. 70 d) 493 

111—112 Beads, 2, of bone (Figs. 70 e and f) 493 

113 Toy buzz made of wood (Fig. 71) 494 



W. Bidray til Vest-Grøiilaiuls Flora oy Vegetatiou af N. Hartz og L. Kolderiip 
Kosenriiige. Mosser fra Ost-Groiilaml af €. Jensen. Diatoméer af E. Ostrup. 
Forekomst af Cohenit i tellurisk Jern ved Jakobshavn af Dr. E. Cohen. 
Med 2 Tavler. 1898. Kr. 8. 

XVI. Uiidersogelser i Julianebaabs Distrikt 1893 og 1894. Skjærgaardsop- 
raaaling, Undersögelse af Indlandsis og Bræer, Misvisning m. m. ved 
V. Garde, C. floltke og A. Jessen. Arkæologisko Undersogelsor af D. Itriimi; 
F. Petersen og V. Boye. Med 20 Tavler. 189G. Kr. 10. 

XVII — XIX. Den ostgronlandske Expedition i Aarene 1891 — 92 (Scoresby- 
Sund) ved C. Kvder, II. Yedel^ У. Hartz, E. Kay, II. Deicliniann, C. Christ lansen^ 
Millaume-Jantzen, Rerdam, S. Hausen, Itorgesen, Rostrup, Deiehmauu Itranth, 
Ostrup, Posselt, Lundheck, U. Hansen, Wesenberg-Lund og Lundgren. Med 
40 Tavler. 1895—96. Kr. 25. 

XX. Grönlands Alger, Flora og Vegetation af L. Kolderup Roseuviuge. Om 
Steenstrupin af Joh. Chr. Moberg. Grønlands gamle Topografi af Finnur 
Jonsson. Brade Ransons Forde af Frode Petersen. Med 3 Tavler. 1899. Kr. 6. 

XXI. Isfe Afdeling: Grønlands Fugle af Herluf Winge. 1899. Kr. 4,50. 
2den Afdeling: Grønlands Pattedyr af Herluf Winge. 1902. Kr. 3. 

XXII. under Udarbejdelse. 

XXIII. 1ste Afdeling: Grønlands Brachiopoder og Bløddyr af Пепг. J. Posselt 
udgivet efter Forfatterens Død ved Ad. S. Jensen. Med 2 Tavler. 1899. 
Kr. 4,50. 

XXIV. Undersøgelser af Mineraler fra Julianehaab af G. Flink, N. B. Uoggild 
og Chr. Winther med indledende Bemærkninger af \ V. üssiug. Untersuch- 
ungen an den eisenführenden Gesteine der Insel Disko von Dr. Th. Mcolau. 
Beretning om en Undersøgelsesrejse til Øen Disko 1898 af K. J. Y. ^teen- 
strup. Med 20 Tavler og et særskilt heftet Farvetryk. 1901. Kr. 6,50. 

XXV. Om Bestemmelse af Lysstyrke og Lysmængde af R. J. V. Steenstrup. 
Fra en Vaccinationsrejsc til Kap Farvel af G. Meldorf. On Ilvaite from 
Siorarsuit by 0. R. Bøggild. Skildring af Vegetationen paa Disko af M. 
Pedersen Porsild. Med 6 Tavler. 1902. Kr. 6. 

XXVI. Undersøgelser og Opmaalinger ved Jakobshavns Isfjord af M. C. Engell 
og H. Schjerring. Oli some Minerals from the Nephelite-Syenite at Juliane- 
liaab by 0. B. Roggild. Planktonprøver fra Nord-Atlanterhavet (c. 58° — 
60° N.Br.) af C. H. Ostenfeld og Ove Paulsen. Tuberkulosens Udbredelse 
i Grønland af Gustav .TIeldorf. Eskimoernes Indvandring i Grønland af 
Schulti-Lorentzen. On the Tension of Carbonic Acid in Natural AVaters; 
the abnormal C'02-Percentaye in the Air in Greenland, etc., by August 
Krogh. Descriptions de quelques espèces nouvelles de Bryacées de l'île de 
Disko par I. Hagen et .Vorten P. Porsild. Notes on some rare or dubious 
Danish Greenland plants by Herman G. Simmons. Med 15 Tavler. 1904. Kr. 8. 

XXVII. Carlsbergfondfts Expedition til (Jst-f!rønland i Aarene 1898—1900, 
vod G. Amdrup, \ Hartz, J.P.Koch, Willaume-Jantzen og П. Ravn. Med 
8 Tavler. 1902. Kr. 10. 

XXVIII. 1ste Afdeling: Notes on some specimens of rocks collected by C. 
Krause od the East coast Of Greenland between lat. 65° 35' and 67° 22' N. 
bv Dr. Otto Nordenskjold. Samplos of the sea-floor along the coast of East 
GVoonland74>/-. — 7M N. L. by 0. B. Boggild. Mod 9 Tavler. 1904. Kr. 2.50. 
:<ldfti Afdeling: The minerals from the Basalt of East-Greenland by 0. B. 
Roggild. Contributions to the Anthropology and Nosology of the East- 
Greenlanders by Knud Poulsen. On the Geology and Physical Geography 



of East-Greenland by Otto Nordenskjold. The former Eskimo settlements 
on the East coast of Greenland between Scoresby Sund and the Angmagsalik 
District by G. Amdrup. Ethnological description of the Amdrup collection 
from East-Greenland comprising objects found in Eskimo house-ruins and 
graves north of Angmagsalik between 68° and 75° lat. N. by W. Thalbitzer. 
Med 7 Tavler og 1 Kort. 1909. Kr. 7.25. 

XXIX. Iste Afdeling: Mammals observed on Amdrup's journeys to East- 
Greenland 1898 — 1900 by Søren Jensen. Echinoderms from East-Green- 
land by Th. IHortensen. The Tertiary Fauna at Кар Dalton in East- 
Greenland by J. V. J. Ravn. Birds of East-Greenland by H. Deicbinann. 
On Jurassic Fossils from East-Greenland by Victor Madsen. The Fishes 
of East-Greenland by Ad. S. Jensen. Weitere Beiträge zur Fauna des Jura 
von Nordost-Groenland von Prof. Dr. E. Vraas in Stuttgart. Med 13 
Tavler og 1 Kort. 1904. Kr. 5.50. 

2den Afdeling: On the Mollusca of East-Greenland: Lamellibranchiata 
by Adolf Severin Jensen. The Insects of East-Greenland by J. C^ IN'ielsen ; 
Appendix: Beschreibung von neuen Dipteren aus Ost-Grönland von Th. 
Becker. Note on the Crustacea by H. J.' Hansen. The Porifera of East- 
Greenland by William Lundbeck. Med 1 Tavle. 1909. Kr. 4.50. 

XXX. Iste Afdeling: Botanical exploration of the East-Coast of Greenland 
between 65° 35'— 74° 30' lat. N. By Cbr. Kruuse. The Marine Algæ of 
East-Greenland. By Helgi Jonsson. The Freshwater Algæ of East-Green- 
land. By E. Larsen. Fungi Groenlandiæ orientalis in expeditionibus G. 
Amdrup 1898 — 1902. Determ. E. Rostrup. Lichenes expeditionis G. Amdrup 
(1898 — 1902). Euumeravit Edv. A. Wainio. List of the phanerogams 
and vascular cryptogams found on the coast 75° — 66° 20' lat. N. of East- 
Greenland. By Chr. Kruuse. List of Phanerogams and Vascular Crypto- 
gams found in the Angmagsalik-District on the East-coast of Greenland 
between 65° 30' and 66° 20' lat. N. By Chr. Kruuse. Species nova Marsu- 
pellae, muscorum generis. Auctore C. Jensen. List of the Hepaticae 
and Sphagnales found in East-Greenland between 75° and 65° 35' lat. N. 
in the years 1898—1902. By С Jensen. 1907. Kr. 4. 

XXXÏ. A phonetical study of the Eskimo Language based on observations 
made on a journey in North-Greenland 1900 — 1901 by William Thalbitzer. 
Med 4 Tavler. 1904. Kr. 8. 

XXXII. Mineralogia Groenlandica af 0. В. Bøggild. Med 1 Kort. 1905. Kr. 10. 

XXXIII. Kan Tagranden benyttes til Bestemmelse af Forandringer i Vand- 
standen? Af K. J. V. Steenstrup. Contributions to the Study of the Eskimo 
language in Greenland. By Poul Vibæk. A List of Flowerings Plants from 
Cape York and Melville-Bay (NW.-Greenland), collected by the Rev. Knud 
Balle and Mr. L. Mylius -Erichs en in 1903—05, determined by 
C. П. Ostenfeld. Do i Grønland brugte Fuglenavne og deres Betydning. 
Af A. Bertelsen. On some minei-als from Narsarsuk at Julianehaah, Green- 
land. By 0. B. Bøggild. Om Grønlands Areal. Beregninger, udførte paa 
det af Kommissionen i 1906 udgivne Kaart i Maalestokken 1:2000000. 
Af H. Prytz. Epidemiske Sygdomme i Grønland : Influenza og epidemiske 
katarrhalske Affektioner af Luftvejs-Slimhinderne. Ved Gustav Meldorf. 
Ferskvandsalger fra Vest-Grønland. Af E.Larsen. Med 8 Tavler. 1907. Kr. 8. 



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Plate XT. 

Harpoon Heads from North East Greenland. 

{Inv. Amd. 1 to 10, see pp. 345—360). 



Place where discovered : 
Nos. 1—3. Gape Tobin. 
„ 4 — 10. Skærgaardshalvo. 

Materials : 
Nos. 1, 2, 4 and 5 entirely bone. 
No. 3 bone with inserted iron blade. 

, 6 bone with inserted bone blade. 
Nos. 7 and 10 bone with groove for the insertion of a blade (lost). 
No. 8 a detached bone-blade. 

„ 9 fragment of a harpoon head of bone. 





Length : 




No. 


1 9-6 


cm, 




я 


2 8-7 


я 




я 


3 7-2 


я 


(the body 5*8 cm) 


, 


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я 


5 10-4 


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я 


6 9-9 


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7 7-8 


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8 4-2 


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я 
я 


9 5-2 
10 7-3 


я 





.MEDDELELSER O.W C.RONLAN'D. XXVIII 



TAVLE XV 




Dansk Repr. Anstali (or 



Plate XYI. 

Longer Weapon Heads from North East Greenland. 

{Inv. Amd. 11 to 17, see pp. 359—376). 



Place where discovered: 
No. 11 Skærgaardshalvo. 
Nos. 12, 13, 14 and 15 Dunholm. 

Material : bone. 

Length : 
No. 11 33-5 cm. 

, 12 31 , 

я 13 oo „ 
Nos. 14 and 15 15 to 16 cm. 
No. 17 21-5 cm. 



A\EDDEl.ELSER O.W GKONLAND. XXVIII 



TAVLE XVI 



* 



W 



17 14-15 



13 



12 



11 



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